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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 31

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 31

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 31

1. To the conductor, a song of David.   א. לַמְנַצֵּחַ מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד:
2. I took refuge in You, O Lord; let me not be shamed forever; rescue me with Your righteousness.   ב. בְּךָ יְהֹוָה חָסִיתִי אַל אֵבוֹשָׁה לְעוֹלָם בְּצִדְקָתְךָ פַלְּטֵנִי:
3. Incline Your ear to me, quickly rescue me; be a rock of strength to me, a stronghold to save me.   ג. הַטֵּה אֵלַי | אָזְנְךָ מְהֵרָה הַצִּילֵנִי הֱיֵה לִי | לְצוּר מָעוֹז לְבֵית מְצוּדוֹת לְהוֹשִׁיעֵנִי:
a stronghold: Pleysiz in Old French, a fortress.  
4. For You are my Rock and my Stronghold, and for Your name's sake, You shall lead me and guide me.   ד. כִּי סַלְעִי וּמְצוּדָתִי אָתָּה וּלְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ תַּנְחֵנִי וּתְנַהֲלֵנִי:
You shall lead me: Heb. תנחני, mene moi in French, lead me, as (in Exod. 32: 34): “go lead (נחה) the people.”  
5. You shall free me from this net which they have hidden for me, for You are my stronghold.   ה. תּוֹצִיאֵנִי מֵרֶשֶׁת זוּ טָמְנוּ לִי כִּי אַתָּה מָעֻזִּי:
6. In Your hand I entrust my spirit; You have redeemed me, O Lord, God of truth.   ו. בְּיָדְךָ אַפְקִיד רוּחִי פָּדִיתָה אוֹתִי יְהֹוָה אֵל אֱמֶת:
I entrust: Heb. אפקיד, komondere in Old French, I will entrust. I always entrust my spirit because You redeemed me from trouble.  
7. I hated those who await worthless vanities, but I hoped for the Lord.   ז. שָׂנֵאתִי הַשֹּׁמְרִים הַבְלֵי שָׁוְא וַאֲנִי אֶל יְהֹוָה בָּטָחְתִּי:
those who await worthless vanities: Who await the salvation of pagan deities.  
8. I will exult and rejoice in Your kindness, for You have seen my affliction; You have known the troubles of my soul.   ח. אָגִילָה וְאֶשְׂמְחָה בְּחַסְדֶּךָ אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ אֶת עָנְיִי יָדַעְתָּ בְּצָרוֹת נַפְשִׁי:
9. And you did not deliver me into the hands of an enemy; You have placed my feet in a broad place.   ט. וְלֹא הִסְגַּרְתַּנִי בְּיַד אוֹיֵב הֶעֱמַדְתָּ בַמֶּרְחָב רַגְלָי:
deliver me: Heb. הסגרתני, livras moi in French, but Menachem (p. 125) associated it as an expression of closing, and likewise every expression of סגר.  
10. Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am in distress; my eye is dimmed from anger, my soul and my belly.   י. חָנֵּנִי יְהֹוָה כִּי צַר לִי עָשְׁשָׁה בְכַעַס עֵינִי נַפְשִׁי וּבִטְנִי:
is dimmed: Heb. עששה, an expression of a lantern, עששית. If a person puts glass in front of his eyes to see something on the other side of the glass, the appearance (of that thing) is unclear.  
11. For my life is spent in grief and my years in sighing; my strength has failed because of my iniquity, and my bones have decayed.   יא. כִּי כָלוּ בְיָגוֹן חַיַּי וּשְׁנוֹתַי בַּאֲנָחָה כָּשַׁל בַּעֲו‍ֹנִי כֹחִי וַעֲצָמַי עָשֵׁשׁוּ:
and my bones have decayed: Heb. עששו, an expression of decay, as though a moth (עש) had eaten them.  
12. From all my tormentors I have become a reproach-and very much so to my neighbors-and fright to my acquaintances; those who see me outside avoid me.   יב. מִכָּל צֹרְרַי הָיִיתִי חֶרְפָּה וְלִשְׁכֵנַי | מְאֹד וּפַחַד לִמְיֻדָּעָי רֹאַי בַּחוּץ נָדְדוּ מִמֶּנִּי:
From all my tormentors: From all my tormentors [not because of my tormentors].  
I have become a reproach: Heb. חרפה, a reproach.  
to my neighbors: I am very much a reproach.  
and fright to my acquaintances: A mes connaissances in French, to my acquaintances. They are frightened by what happens to me.  
13. I was forgotten like a dead person, out of mind; I was like a lost utensil.   יג. נִשְׁכַּחְתִּי כְּמֵת מִלֵּב הָיִיתִי כִּכְלִי אֹבֵד:
like a lost utensil: Which is in the process of becoming lost. Any expression of אבדה, loss, does not refer to the owner of the lost article, saying that he lost it, but that the lost article is lost from him, as is stated (in Deut. 22:3): “which will be lost from him” ; (in Ezek. 34:4), “the lost one you did not seek.”  
14. For I heard the gossip of many, terror from all sides when they take counsel together against me; they plotted to take my soul.   יד. כִּי שָׁמַעְתִּי | דִּבַּת רַבִּים מָגוֹר מִסָּבִיב בְּהִוָּסְדָם יַחַד עָלַי לָקַחַת נַפְשִׁי זָמָמוּ:
the gossip of many: Heb. דבת, the counsel of many. דבת is an expression of (Song 7:10): “making the lips of the sleeping speak (דבב).” Likewise, every דבת in Scripture, parledic in Old French, gossip (so Gen. 37:2, Num. 14:36, Ezek. 36:3).  
terror from all sides: that they scare and frighten me.  
when they take counsel: Heb. בהוסדם, when they take counsel.  
they plotted: Heb. זממו, an expression of thought.  
15. But I trusted in You, O Lord; I said, "You are my God."   טו. וַאֲנִי | עָלֶיךָ בָטַחְתִּי יְהֹוָה אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהַי אָתָּה:
16. My times are in Your hands; rescue me from the hands of my enemies and from my pursuers.   טז. בְּיָדְךָ עִתֹּתָי הַצִּילֵנִי מִיַּד אוֹיְבַי וּמֵרֹדְפָי:
My times are in Your hands: The times that pass over me are through Your orders and by Your decrees.  
17. Cause Your countenance to shine upon Your servant; save me with Your kindness.   יז. הָאִירָה פָנֶיךָ עַל עַבְדֶּךָ הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי בְחַסְדֶּךָ:
18. O Lord, let me not be shamed because I called out to You; let the wicked be shamed, let them be silenced to the grave.   יח. יְהֹוָה אַל אֵבוֹשָׁה כִּי קְרָאתִיךָ יֵבֹשׁוּ רְשָׁעִים יִדְּמוּ לִשְׁאוֹל:
let me not be shamed because I called out to You: Since I called You, it is not fitting that I should be shamed.  
let them be silenced to the grave: Heb. ידמו, let them be silenced and made dumb to die.  
19. Let lying lips become mute, those that speak against a righteous man falsely, with haughtiness and disdain.   יט. תֵּאָלַמְנָה שִׂפְתֵי שָׁקֶר הַדֹּבְרוֹת עַל צַדִּיק עָתָק בְּגַאֲוָה וָבוּז:
that speak against a righteous man falsely: That say to Saul concerning me, “David seeks to harm you.”  
falsely: Heb. עתק, untruth, something unfounded, as (Gen. 12:8): “And he moved (ויעתק) from there” [i.e., something removed from the truth]. Dunash (pp. 17f.) however, interpreted it as an expression of a great and strong thing, as (in Job 21:7): “grow strong (עתקו) and powerfully rich” ; (Prov. 8:18), “powerful (עתק) wealth” ; (Isa. 23: 18), “and for stately (עתקו) clothing.”  
20. How great is Your goodness that You have laid away for those who fear You, that You have worked for those who take refuge in You, in the presence of the sons of men!   כ. מָה רַב טוּבְךָ אֲשֶׁר צָפַנְתָּ לִּירֵאֶיךָ פָּעַלְתָּ לַחוֹסִים בָּךְ נֶגֶד בְּנֵי אָדָם:
How great is Your goodness: I knew that those who fear You have good reward in the world to come, nevertheless, in this world, because the wicked surround them, I pray for them that You hide them in the secrecy of Your countenance.  
21. You shall hide them in the secrecy of Your countenance, from bands of men; protect them in a shelter from the strife of tongues.   כא. תַּסְתִּירֵם בְּסֵתֶר פָּנֶיךָ מֵרֻכְסֵי אִישׁ תִּצְפְּנֵם בְּסֻכָּה מֵרִיב לְשֹׁנוֹת:
from bands of men: Heb. מרכסי, from the groups of wicked men who group together to harm them.  
22. Blessed is the Lord for He has been wondrously kind to me in a besieged city.   כב. בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה כִּי הִפְלִיא חַסְדּוֹ לִי בְּעִיר מָצוֹר:
for He has been wondrously kind to me in a beseiged city: In Keilah, when Saul said concerning me (I Sam. 23:7): “for he has been shut in by coming into a city with doors and bars.”  
23. But I said in my haste, "I have been cut off from before Your eyes," but You heard the voice of my supplications when I cried out to You.   כג. וַאֲנִי | אָמַרְתִּי בְחָפְזִי נִגְרַזְתִּי מִנֶּגֶד עֵינֶיךָ אָכֵן שָׁמַעְתָּ קוֹל תַּחֲנוּנַי בְּשַׁוְּעִי אֵלֶיךָ:
But I said in my haste: When I left Keilah and came to the desert of Maon, I was hastening to leave because Saul and his men were surrounding me and my men, to seize us.  
I said: in my heart.  
I have been cut off: Heb. נגרזתי, I have been cut off, an expression of an ax (גרזן) which cuts the tree. Because of its cutting (גרזתו), it is called גרזן, an ax. This is how Dunash explained it (p. 57). (Menachem, however, defined it like נגרשתי, I have driven out, but it has no parallel in the Torah. (p. 59).  
24. Love the Lord, all His pious ones. The Lord guards those who believe [in Him] and He pays with a bowstring him who works with haughtiness.   כד. אֶהֱבוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה כָּל חֲסִידָיו אֱמוּנִים נֹצֵר יְהֹוָה וּמְשַׁלֵּם עַל יֶתֶר עֹשֵׂה גַאֲוָה:
The Lord guards those who believe: in His salvation and rely on Him.  
with a bowstring: Heb. יתר (with measure for measure and with exactitude, like an arrow on a bowstring. Not in all editions.) Or, יתר can be interpreted as a rope for a rope, a line for a line. Another interpretation: יתר is an expression of haughtiness, as (in Isa. 15:7): “Because of the haughtiness (יתרה) with which they acted.”  
25. Strengthen yourselves, and He will give your heart courage, all who hope to the Lord.   כה. חִזְקוּ וְיַאֲמֵץ לְבַבְכֶם כָּל הַמְיַחֲלִים לַיהֹוָה:
Strengthen yourselves, and He will give your heart courage: as you see that He did for me, to save me because I hoped for Him.  
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