Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
Contact Us
Visit us on Facebook
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 22

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 22

E-mail
Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 22

1. For the conductor, on the ayeleth hashachar, a song of David.   א. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל אַיֶּלֶת הַשַּׁחַר מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד:
ayeleth hashachar: The name of a musical instrument. Another explanation: Concerning the nation of Israel, which is a beloved hind (אילת אהבים), who looks forth like the dawn (שחר) (Song 6: 10). Our Sages, however, interpreted it as referring to Esther (Mid. Ps. 22:1, Meg. 15b). Menachem (p. 22) interprets אילת as an expression of strength, as (verse 20): “My strength (אילותי), hasten to my assistance.” השחר is an expression of dawn, but Menachem (p. 172) interprets it as an expression of seeking, as (in Prov. 11: 27): “He who desires (שֹׁחֵר) good etc.” and as (ibid. 7:15) “to look (לשחר) for you.”  
2. My God, my God, why have You forsaken me? [You are] far from my salvation [and] from the words of my moaning.   ב. אֵלִי אֵלִי לָמָה עֲזַבְתָּנִי רָחוֹק מִישׁוּעָתִי דִּבְרֵי שַׁאֲגָתִי:
why have You forsaken me?: They are destined to go into exile, and David recited this prayer for the future.  
far from my salvation: and from the words of my moaning.  
3. My God, I call out by day and You do not reply, and at night I do not keep silent.   ג. אֱלֹהַי אֶקְרָא יוֹמָם וְלֹא תַעֲנֶה וְלַיְלָה וְלֹא דוּמִיָּה לִי:
I call out by day: I call out to You every day, and You do not answer.  
4. But You are holy; You await the praises of Israel.   ד. וְאַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ יוֹשֵׁב תְּהִלּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל:
But You are holy: and You wait to hear the praises of Israel from time immemorial.  
5. Our ancestors trusted in You; they trusted and You rescued them.   ה. בְּךָ בָּטְחוּ אֲבֹתֵינוּ בָּטְחוּ וַתְּפַלְּטֵמוֹ:
6. They cried out to You and they escaped; they trusted in You and they were not shamed.   ו. אֵלֶיךָ זָעֲקוּ וְנִמְלָטוּ בְּךָ בָטְחוּ וְלֹא בוֹשׁוּ:
7. But I am a worm and not a man; a reproach of man, despised by peoples.   ז. וְאָנֹכִי תוֹלַעַת וְלֹא אִישׁ חֶרְפַּת אָדָם וּבְזוּי עָם:
But I am a worm: He refers to all Israel as one man.  
8. All who see me will mock me; they will open their lips, they will shake their head.   ח. כָּל רֹאַי יַלְעִגוּ לִי יַפְטִירוּ בְשָׂפָה יָנִיעוּ רֹאשׁ:
they will open: Heb. יפטירו, they open, as (in Exod. 13:12, 13): “all that open (פטר) the womb,… and firstling (ופטר) of a donkey.” [Also] (in Prov. 17: 14): “like letting out (פוטר) water.”  
9. One should cast his trust upon the Lord, and He will rescue him; He will save him because He delights in him.   ט. גֹּל אֶל יְהֹוָה יְפַלְּטֵהוּ יַצִּילֵהוּ כִּי חָפֵץ בּוֹ:
One should cast his trust upon the Lord: Heb. גֹּל like לגל, lit. to roll. A person should roll his burden and his load upon His Creator so that He rescue him.  
10. For You drew me from the womb; You made me secure on my mother's breasts.   י. כִּי אַתָּה גֹחִי מִבָּטֶן מַבְטִיחִי עַל שְׁדֵי אִמִּי:
drew me: Heb. גחי, who took me out and drew me out, as (in Job 40:23): “he will draw (יגיח) the Jordan into his mouth.”  
You made me secure on my mother’s breast: You prepared breasts for a person, upon which to rely for sustenance.  
11. Upon You, I was cast from birth; from my mother's womb You are my God.   יא. עָלֶיךָ הָשְׁלַכְתִּי מֵרָחֶם מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי אֵלִי אָתָּה:
Upon You, I was cast from birth: I was cast from birth since You took me out of the womb, as Scripture states (in Isa. 46:3): “who are carried from birth.” From the time the tribes were born, He carried them and led them.  
12. Do not distance Yourself from me, for distress is near; for there is none to help.   יב. אַל תִּרְחַק מִמֶּנִּי כִּי צָרָה קְרוֹבָה כִּי אֵין עוֹזֵר:
13. Great bulls have surrounded me; the mighty ones of Bashan encompassed me.   יג. סְבָבוּנִי פָּרִים רַבִּים אַבִּירֵי בָשָׁן כִּתְּרוּנִי:
Great bulls: Mighty kingdoms.  
the mighty ones of Bashan: That too is an expression of the bulls of Bashan, which are fat.  
encompassed me: Heb. כתרוני. They encompassed me like a crown (כתר), which encompasses the head.  
14. They opened their mouth against me [like] a tearing, roaring lion.   יד. פָּצוּ עָלַי פִּיהֶם אַרְיֵה טֹרֵף וְשֹׁאֵג:
a tearing lion: Nebuchadnezzar.  
15. I was spilled like water, and all my bones were separated; my heart was like wax, melting within my innards.   טו. כַּמַּיִם נִשְׁפַּכְתִּי וְהִתְפָּרְדוּ כָּל עַצְמוֹתָי הָיָה לִבִּי כַּדּוֹנָג נָמֵס בְּתוֹךְ מֵעָי:
like wax: Wax, which melts from the heat of the fire.  
16. My strength became dried out like a potsherd, and my tongue cleaves to my palate; and You set me down in the dust of death.   טז. יָבֵשׁ כַּחֶרֶשׂ | כֹּחִי וּלְשׁוֹנִי מֻדְבָּק מַלְקוֹחָי וְלַעֲפַר מָוֶת תִּשְׁפְּתֵנִי:
my palate: Heb. מלקוחי. This is the palate which is called palayc (palais) in Old French, gaumen in German. When a person is distressed, he has no saliva in his mouth. Menachem, however, interprets מלקוחי as etenayles in Old French (tongs), like (Isa. 6:6): “with tongs (במלקחים) he had taken it.” And the מלקוח is the teeth, which resemble a smith’s tongs. (The quotation from Menachem appears only in the Salonika edition of Rashi printed in 1515.)  
and in the dust of death: To the crushing of death.  
You set me down: Heb. תשפתני You set me down, an expression of setting a pot, as (in Ezek. 24:3, II Kings 4:38): “set on (שפת) the pot.” Menachem (p. 179) interprets every expression of שפיתה as an expression of placing.  
17. For dogs have surrounded me; a band of evildoers has encompassed me, like a lion, my hands and feet.   יז. כִּי סְבָבוּנִי כְּלָבִים עֲדַת מְרֵעִים הִקִּיפוּנִי כָּאֲרִי יָדַי וְרַגְלָי:
like a lion, my hands and feet: As though they are crushed in a lion’s mouth, and so did Hezekiah say (in Isa. 38: 13): “like a lion, so it would break all my bones.”  
18. I tell about all my bones. They look and gloat over me.   יח. אֲסַפֵּר כָּל עַצְמוֹתָי הֵמָּה יַבִּיטוּ יִרְאוּ בִי:
I tell about all my bones: The pain of my bones.  
They look: They rejoice at my misfortune.  
19. They share my garments among themselves and cast lots for my raiment.   יט. יְחַלְּקוּ בְגָדַי לָהֶם וְעַל לְבוּשִׁי יַפִּילוּ גוֹרָל:
and cast lots for my raiment: They plunder our property.  
20. But You, O Lord, do not distance Yourself; my strength, hasten to my assistance.   כ. וְאַתָּה יְהֹוָה אַל תִּרְחָק אֱיָלוּתִי לְעֶזְרָתִי חוּשָׁה:
my strength: Heb. אילותי, my strength, as (below 88: 5): “I was as a man without strength (איל) ,” and as (Gen. 31: 29): “It is within the power (לאל) of my hand.”  
21. Save my soul from the sword, my only one from the grip of the dog.   כא. הַצִּילָה מֵחֶרֶב נַפְשִׁי מִיַּד כֶּלֶב יְחִידָתִי:
22. Save me from the lion's mouth, as from the horns of the wild oxen You answered me.   כב. הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי מִפִּי אַרְיֵה וּמִקַּרְנֵי רֵמִים עֲנִיתָנִי:
Save me from the lion’s mouth: as You answered me from the horns of the wild oxen. This is the Amorite, “whose height is as the height of the cedar trees” (Amos 2:9); the thirty-one kings.  
23. I will tell Your name to my brothers; in the midst of the congregation I will praise You.   כג. אֲסַפְּרָה שִׁמְךָ לְאֶחָי בְּתוֹךְ קָהָל אֲהַלְלֶךָּ:
I will tell Your name to my brothers: when any of my assemblies gathers, and so I will say to them, “You who fear the Lord, praise Him.” This refers to the proselytes, and “all the seed of Jacob.”  
24. You who fear the Lord, praise Him; all the seed of Jacob, honor Him, and fear Him, all the seed of Israel.   כד. יִרְאֵי יְהֹוָה | הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל זֶרַע יַעֲקֹב כַּבְּדוּהוּ וְגוּרוּ מִמֶּנוּ כָּל זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל:
and fear: Heb. וגורו, an expression of fear.  
25. For He has neither despised nor abhorred the cry of the poor, neither has He hidden His countenance from him; and when he cried out to Him, He hearkened.   כה. כִּי לֹא בָזָה וְלֹא שִׁקַּץ עֱנוּת עָנִי וְלֹא הִסְתִּיר פָּנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ וּבְשַׁוְּעוֹ אֵלָיו שָׁמֵעַ:
the cry of the poor: Every [expression of] עניה in Scripture is an expression of a cry. ענות can also be interpreted as an expression of humility, as (in Exod. 10: 3): “to humble yourself (לענת),” because he (the poor man) humbles himself and prays before You.  
26. Because of You is my praise in the great congregation; I pay my vows in the presence of those who fear Him.   כו. מֵאִתְּךָ תְהִלָּתִי בְּקָהָל רָב נְדָרַי אֲשַׁלֵּם נֶגֶד יְרֵאָיו:
27. The humble shall eat and be sated; they shall praise the Lord, those who seek him; your hearts shall live forever.   כז. יֹאכְלוּ עֲנָוִים | וְיִשְׂבָּעוּ יְהַלְלוּ יְהֹוָה דֹּרְשָׁיו יְחִי לְבַבְכֶם לָעַד:
The humble shall eat: at the time of our redemption in the days of our Messiah.  
your hearts shall live forever: I will say all this before them.  
28. All the ends of the earth shall remember and return to the Lord, and all the families of the nations shall prostrate themselves before You.   כח. יִזְכְּרוּ | וְיָשֻׁבוּ אֶל יְהֹוָה כָּל אַפְסֵי אָרֶץ וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְפָנֶיךָ כָּל מִשְׁפְּחוֹת גּוֹיִם:
shall remember and return to the Lord: The nations shall remember the evil that befell us when they see the good and return to the Lord.  
29. For the kingship is the Lord's, and He rules over the nations.   כט. כִּי לַיהֹוָה הַמְּלוּכָה וּמוֹשֵׁל בַּגּוֹיִם:
For the kingship is the Lord’s: For they will see that the kingship and the rule has returned to You.  
30. They shall eat all the best of the earth and prostrate themselves; before Him shall all those who descend to the dust kneel, and He will not quicken his soul.   ל. אָכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ | כָּל דִּשְׁנֵי אֶרֶץ לְפָנָיו יִכְרְעוּ כָּל יוֹרְדֵי עָפָר וְנַפְשׁוֹ לֹא חִיָּה:
They shall eat all the best of the earth and prostrate themselves: Lit. they shall eat and prostrate themselves all the best of the earth. This is a transposed verse. The humble shall eat all the best of the earth and prostrate themselves to the Lord with praise and thanksgiving for the good. דשני means the good, the fat of the earth. [People at] all the ends of the earth will see all this and return to the Lord.  
before Him shall… kneel: Then all the dead of nations [will kneel] from Gehinnom but He will not have mercy upon them to revive their souls from Gehinnom.  
his soul: [The soul] of each one.  
He will not quicken: Lit. He did not quicken. Our Sages (Mid. Ps. 22:32) derived from this verse that the dead, before their death, at the time their soul is taken, see the countenance of the Shechinah.  
31. The seed that worships Him; it shall be told to the generation concerning the Lord.   לא. זֶרַע יַעַבְדֶנּוּ יְסֻפַּר לַאדֹנָי לַדּוֹר:
The seed that worships Him: The seed of Israel, who constantly worship Him.  
it shall be told to the generation concerning the Lord: Transpose the verse and explain it thus: It shall be told to the last generation in the name of the Lord and in His praise what He did for that seed.  
32. They shall come and tell His righteousness to the newborn people, that which He has done.   לב. יָבֹאוּ וְיַגִּידוּ צִדְקָתוֹ לְעַם נוֹלָד כִּי עָשָׂה:
They shall come: The first ones shall come and tell His righteousness to the newborn people, for He performed righteous deeds for them.  
E-mail
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG