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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 4

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 4

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 4

1. To the conductor with melodies, a song of David.   א. לַמְנַצֵּחַ בִּנְגִינוֹת מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד:
To the conductor with melodies: David established this psalm so that the Levites who conduct the melodies when singing on the platform should recite it. The expression of נצוח denotes those who apply themselves to the service, as the matter is stated (Ezra 3: 8): “and appointed the Levites from twenty years old and upwards to conduct the work of the house of the Lord.”  
2. When I call, answer me, O God of my righteousness; in my distress You have relieved me, be gracious to me and hearken to my prayer.   ב. בְּקָרְאִי עֲנֵנִי | אֱלֹהֵי צִדְקִי בַּצָּר הִרְחַבְתָּ לִּי חָנֵּנִי וּשְׁמַע תְּפִלָּתִי:
in my distress You have relieved me: in the days that have passed over me. From now on, be gracious to me and hearken to my prayer.  
3. Sons of man, how long will my honor be disgraced? [How long] will you love futility? [How long] will you constantly seek lies?   ג. בְּנֵי אִישׁ עַד מֶה כְבוֹדִי לִכְלִמָּה תֶּאֱהָבוּן רִיק תְּבַקְשׁוּ כָזָב סֶלָה:
Sons of man: The sons of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who are called man. About Abraham it is stated (in Gen. 20:7): “Restore the man’s wife.” About Isaac it is stated (ibid. 24:65): “Who is that man…?” About Jacob, it is stated (ibid. 25:27): “and Jacob was a plain man.”  
how long will my honor be disgraced: How long will you disgrace me? (I Sam. 20:30): “that you choose the son of Jesse” ; (ibid. 22:8), “when my son made a covenant with the son of Jesse” ; (ibid. verse 9), “I saw the son of Jesse” ; (ibid. 25:10), “Who is David, and who is the son of Jesse?” I have no name.  
will you constantly seek lies: Will you chase to find lies, e.g., the Ziphites, who inform on me, yet show me friendliness, and other informers like them who were in Saul’s time (I Sam. 23:19): “Is David not hiding… in the hill of Hachilah?” And so, many.  
4. You shall know that the Lord has set apart the pious man for Himself; the Lord shall hear when I call out to Him.   ד. וּדְעוּ כִּי הִפְלָה יְהֹוָה חָסִיד לוֹ יְהֹוָה יִשְׁמַע בְּקָרְאִי אֵלָיו:
has set apart: Heb. הפלה, has separated.  
5. Quake and do not sin; say [this] in your heart on your bed and be forever silent.   ה. רִגְזוּ וְאַל תֶּחֱטָאוּ אִמְרוּ בִלְבַבְכֶם עַל מִשְׁכַּבְכֶם וְדֹמּוּ סֶלָה:
Quake: Tremble before the Holy One, blessed be He, and do not sin.  
say [this] in your heart on your bed and be forever silent: Bring back to your heart [the thought] that the Holy One, blessed be He, admonished [you] concerning that.  
6. Offer up sacrifices of righteousness and trust in the Lord.   ו. זִבְחוּ זִבְחֵי צֶדֶק וּבִטְחוּ אֶל יְהֹוָה:
Offer up sacrifices of righteousness: Perform righteous deeds, and it will be as if you are offering up sacrifices.  
and trust in the Lord: to lavish upon you goodness, and do not sin against Him for money, in the hope that you will be rewarded by Saul.  
7. Many say, "Who will show us goodness?" Raise up over us the light of Your countenance, O Lord.   ז. רַבִּים אֹמְרִים מִי יַרְאֵנוּ טוֹב נְסָה עָלֵינוּ אוֹר פָּנֶיךָ יְהֹוָה:
Many say, “Who will show us goodness?”: There are many Jews who see the nations of the world in wealth and tranquility, and say, “Who will show us goodness,” to be wealthy and achieve desires like these people?  
Raise up over us: Heb. נסה Raise up over us for a banner the light of Your countenance, an expression of (Isa. 62: 10): “lift up a banner (נס) ” ;(ibid. 49:22), “I will raise My standard (נסי).” Another interpretation: נסה is reflordir(?) (resplendir) in Old French, gleam, as (Zech. 9:16), “crown stones gleam (מתנוססות).” But I do not envy them, for joy has been given into my heart from the time that the corn and the wine of the nations have increased. I am confident that if those who anger Him [have] such [tranquility], how much more will those who perform His will have it in the future, which is the day of the reception of their reward!  
8. You gave joy into my heart from the time that their corn and their wine increased.   ח. נָתַתָּה שִׂמְחָה בְלִבִּי מֵעֵת דְּגָנָם וְתִירוֹשָׁם רָבּוּ:
9. In peace together, I would lie down and sleep, for You, O Lord, would make me dwell alone in safety.   ט. בְּשָׁלוֹם יַחְדָּו אֶשְׁכְּבָה וְאִישָׁן כִּי אַתָּה יְהֹוָה לְבָדָד לָבֶטַח תּוֹשִׁיבֵנִי:
In peace together, I would lie down and sleep: If Israel were in peace together with me, I would lie down and sleep in confidence, and I would not fear any adversary or enemy.  
alone in safety: As (in Deut. 33:28): “secure and alone, the fountain of Jacob.” It is an expression of safety and tranquility, that he need not station troops with him.  
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