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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 1

Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 1

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 1

1. The praises of a man are that he did not follow the counsel of the wicked, neither did he stand in the way of sinners nor sit in the company of scorners.   א. אַשְׁרֵי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב:
The praises of a man: This book was composed with ten expressions of song: 1) with conducting, 2) with melody, 3) with musical accompaniment, 4) with song, 5) with praise, 6) with prayer, 7) with blessing, 8) with thanksgiving, 9) with praises, and 10) with “Praise God.” These correspond to the ten men who composed them: 1) Adam, 2) Malchizedek, 3) Abraham, 4) Moses, 5) David, 6) Solomon, 7) Asaph, and 8-10) the three sons of Korah. Concerning Jeduthun, there is a dispute. Some say that Jeduthun was a man, as is written in Chronicles. Others maintain that Jeduthun mentioned in this Book means nothing else but the ordinances (דתות) and laws of the decrees that were passed over him and over Israel.  
The praises of a man: Heb. אשרי les felicements(?) in Old French. The praises of a man, and these are the praises of a man: that he did not follow, because since he did not follow, he did not stand, and since he did not stand, he did not sit.  
scorners: (Old French, gabors.)  
2. But his desire is in the law of the Lord, and in His law he meditates day and night.   ב. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהֹוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה:
But his desire is in the law of the Lord: Hence you learn that the company of scorners brings one to neglect the study of Torah.  
and in his law he meditates: In the beginning, it is called the law of the Lord, and after he has toiled to master it, it is called his own Torah.  
he meditates: Heb. יהגה. Every expression of הגה refers to the heart, as you say (below 19: 15): “and the meditation (והגיון) of my heart” ; (Isa. 33:18), “Your heart shall meditate (יהגה) in fear” ; (Prov. 24:2), “For their heart thinks (יהגה) of plunder.”  
3. He shall be as a tree planted beside rivulets of water, which brings forth its fruit in its season, and its leaves do not wilt; and whatever he does prosper.   ג. וְהָיָה כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל פַּלְגֵי מָיִם אֲשֶׁר פִּרְיוֹ | יִתֵּן בְּעִתּוֹ וְעָלֵהוּ לֹא יִבּוֹל וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה יַצְלִיחַ:
planted: Heb. שתול, plonte in Old French (plante).  
rivulets: ruyseys in Old French, (ruisseaux), brooks (as in Ezek. 32:6).  
and its leaves do not wilt: Even the inferior part of it serves a purpose. The conversation of Torah scholars is essential and requires study.  
do not wilt: Heb. יבול, an expression of wilting, fleistre in Old French.  
4. Not so the wicked, but [they are] like chaff that the wind drives away.   ד. לֹא כֵן הָרְשָׁעִים כִּי אִם כַּמֹּץ אֲשֶׁר תִּדְּפֶנּוּ רוּחַ:
like chaff: An expression of straw, come bale in Old French (comme paille), like straw.  
5. Therefore, the wicked shall not stand up in judgment, nor shall the sinners in the congregation of the righteous.   ה. עַל כֵּן | לֹא יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים:
Therefore, etc.: This refers to the verse following it.  
6. For the Lord knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked shall perish.   ו. כִּי יוֹדֵעַ יְהֹוָה דֶּרֶךְ צַדִּיקִים וְדֶרֶךְ רְשָׁעִים תֹּאבֵד:
For the Lord knows the way, etc.: Because He knows the way of the righteous, and it is before Him to recognize it constantly; the way of the wicked is hateful to Him, and He removes it from before Him. Therefore, the foot of the wicked will not stand up on the day of judgment, neither shall the sinners be written in the congregation of the righteous.  
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