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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Zechariah - Chapter 14

Zechariah - Chapter 14

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 14

1. Behold! A day of the Lord is coming, and your plunder shall be shared within you.   א. הִנֵּה יוֹם בָּא לַיהֹוָה וְחֻלַּק שְׁלָלֵךְ בְּקִרְבֵּךְ:
Behold! A day of the Lord is coming: A day dear to the Lord.  
and your plunder shall be shared within you: Those dwelling within you shall share the plunder that you shall plunder [from] the enemies. And so does Jonathan render: And the house of Israel shall share the wealth of the peoples in your midst, O Jerusalem.  
2. And I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem to wage war; and the city shall be captured, and the houses shall be plundered, and the women shall be ravished, and half the city shall go forth into exile-and the rest of the people shall not be cut off from the city.   ב. וְאָסַפְתִּי אֶת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם | אֶל יְרוּשָׁלִַם לַמִּלְחָמָה וְנִלְכְּדָה הָעִיר וְנָשַׁסּוּ הַבָּתִּים וְהַנָּשִׁים תִּשָּׁכַבְנָה וְיָצָא חֲצִי הָעִיר בַּגּוֹלָה וְיֶתֶר הָעָם לֹא יִכָּרֵת מִן הָעִיר:
and the rest of the people: Not all of them will be exiled. Now, why will He permit them [i.e., the gentile nations] to exile half of them and to plunder the houses? So that they should not have an excuse, saying, “We have not come for war, but we have come to prostrate ourselves.”  
3. And the Lord shall go forth and wage war with those nations, like the day he waged war on the day of the battle.   ג. וְיָצָא יְהֹוָה וְנִלְחַם בַּגּוֹיִם הָהֵם כְּיוֹם הִלָּחֲמוֹ בְּיוֹם קְרָב:
like the day he waged war on the day of battle: Like the day He waged war on the Red Sea.  
4. And on that day His feet shall stand on the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem from the east. And the Mount of Olives shall split in the midst thereof-toward the east and toward the west-a very great valley. And half the mountain shall move to the north, and half of it to the south.   ד. וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא עַל הַר הַזֵּיתִים אֲשֶׁר עַל פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִקֶּדֶם וְנִבְקַע הַר הַזֵּיתִים מֵחֶצְיוֹ מִזְרָחָה וָיָמָּה גֵּיא גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד וּמָשׁ חֲצִי הָהָר צָפוֹנָה וְחֶצְיוֹ נֶגְבָּה:
in the midst thereof: lit., from its half  
toward the east and toward the west: From east to west, as he goes on and concludes.  
and half the mountain shall move to the north, etc.: The northern half shall move from its place and draw toward the north, and so…  
and half of it to the south: Toward the south; and the valley between them will have its beginning to the east and its end to the west.  
5. And you shall flee to the valley of the mountains, for the valley of the mountains shall reach Azal. And you shall flee as you fled because of the earthquake, in the days of Uzziah the King of Judah. And the Lord,my God, shall come; all holy ones with you.   ה. וְנַסְתֶּם גֵּיא הָרַי כִּי יַגִּיעַ גֵּי הָרִים אֶל אָצַל וְנַסְתֶּם כַּאֲשֶׁר נַסְתֶּם מִפְּנֵי הָרַעַשׁ בִּימֵי עֻזִּיָּה מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וּבָא יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהַי כָּל קְדֹשִׁים עִמָּךְ:
And you shall flee to the valley of the mountains: Jonathan renders. And the valley of the mountains shall be stopped up. Since Jerusalem is surrounded by mountains, and there is a valley between the mountains in the north and the Mount of Olives, and [this is also] so in the south, when half of the Mount of Olives draws toward the mountain in the north, the valley between them will be stopped up. [This will also be] so in the south.  
shall reach: The height of the valley that will be between the mountains.  
to Azal: To the height of the mountaintops that are from either side. So did Menahem classify this (Machbereth p. 32), with (Isa. 41:9) “and from its nobles I called you.” Its meaning is an expression of height.  
and you shall flee: when you see this great wonder.  
as you fled because of the earthquake: [Isa. 6:4] “And the doorposts quaked” on the day that Uzziah was stricken with zaraath.  
all holy ones: Angels.  
6. And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall be no light, only disappearing light and thick darkness.   ו. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא יִהְיֶה אוֹר יְקָרוֹת וְקִפָּאוֹן:
there shall be no light, only disappearing light and thick darkness: Jonathan renders. There shall not be light, only light that passes away, and thickness, i.e., there shall not be splendrous light, only יְקָרוֹת and קִפָּאוֹן shall [there] be. יְקָרוֹת An expression similar to (Ps. 37: 20), “like the disappearing light over the plains.” Like a sort of light that appears in the morning over the mountains and disappears little by little. וְקִפָּאוֹן Congealed and dark and thick, like ice that is congealed and frozen, as in (Job 10:10), “And like cheese You curdled me.”  
7. And it shall be one day that shall be known to the Lord, neither day nor night; and it shall come to pass that at eventide it shall be light.   ז. וְהָיָה יוֹם אֶחָד הוּא יִוָּדַע לַיהֹוָה לֹא יוֹם וְלֹא לָיְלָה וְהָיָה לְעֵת עֶרֶב יִהְיֶה אוֹר:
And it shall be one day: And this thing shall be one day of the day of the Holy One, blessed be He. That day shall be known, that it is for the preparation of the salvation by the Holy One, blessed be He.  
neither day: Neither [will it be] a light of splendor, like the light of the world to come, as it is stated (Isa. 30: 26): “The light of the sun shall be sevenfold as the light of the seven days. ”  
nor night: Nor a time of trouble, like the trouble of the preceding subjugation by the kingdoms, shall [these days] be, for they will be the days of the Messiah, and there shall be no subjugation during these days.  
and it shall come to pass that at eventide: Before the thousand years are up there shall be a splendrous light, and all the good promised to Israel [will come]. And so did Jonathan translate: Not like the light of day and not like the darkness of night.  
8. And it shall come to pass on that day that spring water shall come forth from Jerusalem; half of it to the eastern sea, and half of it to the western sea; in summer and in winter it shall be.   ח. וְהָיָה | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבַחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה:
And it shall come to pass on that day: when the Mount of Olives will split from east to west.  
spring water shall come forth from Jerusalem: and flow to the east by way of the crevice to…  
the eastern sea: which is to the east of the world; and half of it will turn to the west, to the western sea. This is the spring concerning which Joel (4:18) prophesied: “And a spring shall emanate from the house of the Lord.” That is the spring concerning which Ezekiel (47:3) prophesied: “And he measured a thousand cubits and he made me pass through the water.”  
9. And the Lord shall become King over all the earth; on that day shall the Lord be one, and His name one.   ט. וְהָיָה יְהֹוָה לְמֶלֶךְ עַל כָּל הָאָרֶץ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה יְהֹוָה אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד:
shall the Lord be one: For all the nations shall abandon their vanities and acknowledge Him, that He is one, and [that] no strange deity is with Him.  
and His name one: That His name shall be mentioned by everyone.  
10. The whole earth shall be changed to be like a plain, from the hill of Rimmon in the south of Jerusalem; but it [Jerusalem] will be elevated high and remain in its old place; from the gate of Benjamin to the place of the first gate, until the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananel until the king's wine-cellars.   י. יִסּוֹב כָּל הָאָרֶץ כָּעֲרָבָה מִגֶּבַע לְרִמּוֹן נֶגֶב יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְרָאֲמָה וְיָשְׁבָה תַחְתֶּיהָ לְמִשַּׁעַר בִּנְיָמִן עַד מְקוֹם שַׁעַר הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד שַׁעַר הַפִּנִּים וּמִגְדַּל חֲנַנְאֵל עַד יִקְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
The whole earth shall be changed: The whole earth shall be changed to be like a plain. The mountains will be lowered, and the whole world will be a plain; and Jerusalem will be a mountain, so that it should appear higher than everything [else in the world].  
from the hill of Rimmon: We learned in Tosefta of Sotah (11:14): South of Jerusalem is a plain, and the hill of Rimmon is rocks and clods. Rather, so is [the] interpretation [of this phrase]: From the hill of Rimmon, which is a mountainous place from there [the mountains of the world] will begin to be changed, to [be] a plain; and they will be like the south of Jerusalem, which is a plain.  
but it will be elevated high: Since its entire environs are a plain, it will appear high.  
and remain in its old place: in its place  
until the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananel: which will also be in its place; and from there shall extend the length of the city.  
until the king’s wine-cellars: Jonathan renders: the pits off the king, fosec in Old French. [This is] like [a word in] Baba Kamma 50b, “trenches and caves.” And so, all wine cellars in Scripture are expressions of trenches, referring to the pit that is before the wine press, into which the wine flows. And the Midrash Aggadah (Pesikta d’Rav Kahana p. 143a; Song Rabbah 7: 4, cf. Mattenoth Kehunnah, Radal) [identifies] the pits of the king with the ocean: that Jerusalem will reach the end of the whole world, the pits dug out by the supreme King of kings.  
11. And they shall dwell therein, and there shall be no more destruction; but Jerusalem shall dwell in safety.   יא. וְיָשְׁבוּ בָהּ וְחֵרֶם לֹא יִהְיֶה עוֹד וְיָשְׁבָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם לָבֶטַח:
and there shall be no more destruction: The city shall no longer be in ruins.  
12. And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the nations who besieged Jerusalem; his flesh will waste away while he still stands on his feet; his eyes will waste away in their sockets, and his tongue shall waste away in his mouth.   יב. וְזֹאת | תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהֹוָה אֶת כָּל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ עַל יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָמֵק | בְּשָׂרוֹ וְהוּא עֹמֵד עַל רַגְלָיו וְעֵינָיו תִּמַּקְנָה בְחֹרֵיהֶן וּלְשׁוֹנוֹ תִּמַּק בְּפִיהֶם:
his flesh will waste away while he still stands: This denotes the falling off of the limbs.  
13. And it will come to pass on that day that there will be great consternation, sent by the Lord upon them; each one shall seize the hand of the other, and his hand shall rise up against the hand of the other.   יג. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא תִּהְיֶה מְהוּמַת יְהֹוָה רַבָּה בָּהֶם וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ אִישׁ יַד רֵעֵהוּ וְעָלְתָה יָדוֹ עַל יַד רֵעֵהוּ:
there will be great consternation, sent by the Lord upon them: to confuse their wisdom, to bring them about to madness.  
each one will seize the hand of the other: He will seize him to slay him.  
and his hand shall rise up: Whoever is stronger is victorious.  
14. Yea, even Judah will fight against Jerusalem! And the wealth of all the nations round about-gold and silver and apparel-will be gathered in very great abundance.   יד. וְגַם יְהוּדָה תִּלָּחֵם בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וְאֻסַּף חֵיל כָּל הַגּוֹיִם סָבִיב זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּבְגָדִים לָרֹב מְאֹד:
Yea, even Judah: against their will shall fight against Jerusalem.  
15. And so will be the plague of the horses, the mules, the camels, the donkeys, and all the animals that are in those camps, similar to this plague.   טו. וְכֵן תִּהְיֶה מַגֵּפַת הַסּוּס הַפֶּרֶד הַגָּמָל וְהַחֲמוֹר וְכָל הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּמַּחֲנוֹת הָהֵמָּה כַּמַּגֵּפָה הַזֹּאת:
similar to this plague: which is delineated above, that his flesh shall waste away.  
16. And it will come to pass that everyone left of the nations who came up against Jerusalem will go up from year to year to prostrate himself to the King, the Lord of Hosts, and to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles.   טז. וְהָיָה כָּל הַנּוֹתָר מִכָּל הַגּוֹיִם הַבָּאִים עַל יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְעָלוּ מִדֵּי שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲו‍ֹת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלָחֹג אֶת חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת:
the festival of Tabernacle: As our Sages explained in tractate Avodah Zarah (3a): I have an easy commandment named Sukkah, as is stated in the first halachic discussion.  
17. And it shall be that whoever of all the families of the earth does not go up to Jerusalem to prostrate himself to the King, the Lord of Hosts-upon them there shall be no rain.   יז. וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲלֶה מֵאֵת מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֶל יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲו‍ֹת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם יִהְיֶה הַגָּשֶׁם:
rain: Actual rain to cause the produce of their land to grow. Now, what reason did He have for decreeing upon them the withholding of rain? That the commandments of the festival are based on the rains: the four species of the lulav and the water libation are to appease God for water. Since the festival of Tabernacles is the time of the rains of the year, no rain will fall on those who entertain doubts concerning the festival of Tabernacles. This is learned in the Tosefta of Sukkah (4:7).  
18. And if the family of Egypt does not go up and does not come, it shall not [rain] upon them. The plague [on Egypt] will be [the same as] that with which the Lord will plague the nations who do not go up to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles.   יח. וְאִם מִשְׁפַּחַת מִצְרַיִם לֹא תַעֲלֶה וְלֹא בָאָה וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהֹוָה אֶת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲלוּ לָחֹג אֶת חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת:
And if the family of Egypt does not go up: and they do not require rain, for the Nile comes up and waters it [i.e., the land of Egypt].  
it shall not [rain] upon them: Their rain shall not be upon them; i.e., the Nile will not water them, and so did Jonathan render: The Nile shall not ascend upon them.  
the plague will be: The plague of famine.  
with which the Lord will plague: This will be the punishment of Egypt and the punishment of all the nations, as He states. “upon them there shall be no rain.”  
19. Such will be the punishment of Egypt and the punishment of all the nations who do not go up to celebrate the festival of Tabernacles.   יט. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה חַטַּאת מִצְרָיִם וְחַטַּאת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲלוּ לָחֹג אֶת חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת:
20. On that day there will be upon the bells of the horses, "holy to the Lord"; and the pots in the House of the Lord will be like the sprinkling bowls before the altar.   כ. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה עַל מְצִלּוֹת הַסּוּס קֹדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה וְהָיָה הַסִּירוֹת בְּבֵית יְהֹוָה כַּמִּזְרָקִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
there will be upon the bells of the horses: On the bells that are hung on the horse for beauty between its eyes (Pesachim 50a). Those, too, will be consecrated to make service vessels: sprinkling basins for the blood and pots to cook the flesh of the many sacrifices.  
Yea, every pot… will be: All those that are used to remove the ashes, they too will be of gold and of silver, like the sprinkling basins that are before the altar.  
the bells of the horses: tentinonc in Old French.  
21. Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah will be holy to the Lord of Hosts, and all who sacrifice will come and take of them and cook in them; and there will no longer be a trafficker in the House of the Lord of Hosts on that day.   כא. וְהָיָה כָּל סִיר בִּירוּשָׁלִַם וּבִיהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ לַיהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת וּבָאוּ כָּל הַזֹּבְחִים וְלָקְחוּ מֵהֶם וּבִשְּׁלוּ בָהֶם וְלֹא יִהְיֶה כְנַעֲנִי עוֹד בְּבֵית יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא:
and there will no longer be a trafficker: They will not require trafficking, as in (Isa. 23: 8): “whose traffickers were the honored of the earth.” Another explanation: There is no poor man here.  
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