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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Michah - Micah - Chapter 4

Michah - Micah - Chapter 4

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 4

1. And it shall be at the end of the days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be firmly established at the top of the mountains, and it shall be raised above the hills, and peoples shall stream upon it.   א. וְהָיָה | בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית יְהֹוָה נָכוֹן בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא הוּא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ עָלָיו עַמִּים:
shall stream: Heb. וְנָהֲרוּ. And they shall gather there together like rivers flowing into the sea.  
2. And many nations shall go, and they shall say, "Come, let us go up to the Lord's mount and to the house of the God of Jacob, and let Him teach us of His ways, and we will go in His paths," for out of Zion shall the Torah come forth, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.   ב. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ | וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל הַר יְהֹוָה וְאֶל בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר יְהֹוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם:
3. And he shall judge between many peoples and reprove mighty nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nations shall not lift the sword against nation; neither shall they learn war anymore.   ג. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה:
And he shall judge: This judgment is an expression of reproof, derajjnement in O.F. [Isa 2:4]  
4. And they shall dwell each man under his vine and under his fig tree, and no one shall make them move, for the mouth of the Lord of Hosts has spoken.   ד. וְיָשְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחַת גַּפְנוֹ וְתַחַת תְּאֵנָתוֹ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד כִּי פִי יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת דִּבֵּר:
for the mouth of the Lord of Hosts has spoken: Now where has He spoken? (Lev. 26:6) “And I will place peace in the land, etc.” [from Mechilta to Exodus 12:25]  
5. For all peoples shall go, each one in the name of his god, but we will go in the name of the Lord, our God, forever and ever.   ה. כִּי כָּל הָעַמִּים יֵלְכוּ אִישׁ בְּשֵׁם אֱלֹהָיו וַאֲנַחְנוּ נֵלֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:
For all peoples shall go, each one in the name of his god: Shall go to destruction because they worshipped idols. So did Jonathan render it.  
6. On that day, says the Lord: I will heal the limping one, and the lost one I will gather, and those whom I harmed.   ו. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהֹוָה אֹסְפָה הַצֹּלֵעָה וְהַנִּדָּחָה אֲקַבֵּצָה וַאֲשֶׁר הֲרֵעֹתִי:
I will heal the limping one: Heb. אֹסְפָה. I will gather in the exiles. So did Jonathan render. To me, however, it appears as an expression of healing, as in (II Kings 5:6) “And you shall cure him (וְאֲסַפְתּוֹ) of his zaraath.”  
and those whom I harmed: And those whom I harmed because of their iniquity.  
7. And I will make the limping one into a remnant, and the scattered one into a mighty nation, and the Lord shall reign over them on Mount Zion from now and forever.   ז. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֶת הַצֹּלֵעָה לִשְׁאֵרִית וְהַנַּהֲלָאָה לְגוֹי עָצוּם וּמָלַךְ יְהֹוָה עֲלֵיהֶם בְּהַר צִיּוֹן מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם:
8. And you-tower of the flock, the tower of the daughter of Zion-to you it shall come; yea, the former kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem.   ח. וְאַתָּה מִגְדַּל עֵדֶר עֹפֶל בַּת צִיּוֹן עָדֶיךָ תֵאתֶה וּבָאָה הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה הָרִאשֹׁנָה מַמְלֶכֶת לְבַת יְרוּשָׁלִָם:
And you, tower of the flock: Heb. מִגְדַּל עֵדֶר. Jonathan renders: And you, anointed one of Israel, who is hidden because of the sins of the people of Zion. His explanation is: מִגְדַּל is an expression of a stronghold, and he renders עֵדֶר as the people of Israel. He renders עֹפֶל as an expression of אֹפֶל, darkness. [I.e., מִגְדַּל עֵדֶר is the stronghold of Israel, identified as the Messiah. He is hidden because of the sins of the people of Zion. The word “hidden” is derived from אֹפֶל, darkness.] But it is possible to interpret מִגְדַּל עֵדֶר as the Temple, and עֹפֶל as an expression of a mighty tower. Likewise there is (Isa. 32:14) “Rampart (עֹפֶל) and tower.”  
to you it shall come: The remnant of the limping ones and the scattered ones shall gather to you.  
and the former kingdom shall come: The complete kingdom, in its entirety, shall come to the house of David in Jerusalem as it was originally, before it was divided. Now what was the former kingdom? The kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem.  
9. Now, why do you seek friends? Is the King not among you? Has your Counsellor perished, that pangs have seized you like a woman in confinement?   ט. עַתָּה לָמָּה תָרִיעִי רֵעַ הֲמֶלֶךְ אֵין בָּךְ אִם יוֹעֲצֵךְ אָבָד כִּי הֶחֱזִיקֵךְ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה:
Now: that you rebel against Me.  
why do you seek friends?: Heb. תָרִיעִי רֵעַ, lit. befriend a friend. Put to your heart: why do you need to seek friends and beloved ones, the kings of Egypt and the kings of Assyria, for aid?  
10. Be in pain and kneel, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in confinement, for now you shall go forth from the city; and you shall dwell in the field, and you shall come up to Babylon; there you shall be saved; there the Lord shall redeem you from the hand of your enemies.   י. חוּלִי וָגֹחִי בַּת צִיּוֹן כַּיּוֹלֵדָה כִּי עַתָּה תֵצְאִי מִקִּרְיָה וְשָׁכַנְתְּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וּבָאת עַד בָּבֶל שָׁם תִּנָּצֵלִי שָׁם יִגְאָלֵךְ יְהֹוָה מִכַּף אֹיְבָיִךְ:
Be in pain: Heb. חוּלִי, an expression of pain, as in (verse 9) “that pangs (חִיל) have seized you.” This expression is appropriate for a woman in confinement.  
and kneel: Heb. וָגֹחִי, kneel and bend down on your belly (גָחוֹן). So it is in the language of the Mishnah (Moed Katan 7a): “A wall that bends over (הַגוֹחֶה) into a public domain.”  
you shall go forth from the city: From Jerusalem, to go into exile.  
and you shall dwell in the field: Your dwelling shall be plowed up like a field.  
11. And now, many nations shall gather upon you who say, "Let her be guilty, and our eyes shall gaze on Zion."   יא. וְעַתָּה נֶאֶסְפוּ עָלַיִךְ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים הָאֹמְרִים תֶּחֱנָף וְתַחַז בְּצִיּוֹן עֵינֵינוּ:
who say, “Let her be guilty”: Let Zion be guilty of her sins, and let her iniquity be visited upon her.  
and our eyes shall gaze on Zion: And our eyes will see in her what we hoped to see her.  
12. But they did not know the thoughts of the Lord; neither did they understand His counsel, for He gathered them as sheaves to a threshing floor.   יב. וְהֵמָּה לֹא יָדְעוּ מַחְשְׁבוֹת יְהֹוָה וְלֹא הֵבִינוּ עֲצָתוֹ כִּי קִבְּצָם כֶּעָמִיר גֹּרְנָה:
for He gathered them as sheaves to a threshing floor: And eventually, He will gather them to the Valley of Jehoshaphat and around Jerusalem to war, as they gather a sheaf in order to thresh it there. The heathens, too, will be gathered there for their detriment, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will say to the people of Israel: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion.”  
13. Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hooves copper; and you shall crush many nations, and you shall devote their plunder to the Lord, and their wealth to the Lord of all the earth.   יג. קוּמִי וָדוֹשִׁי בַת צִיּוֹן כִּי קַרְנֵךְ אָשִׂים בַּרְזֶל וּפַרְסֹתַיִךְ אָשִׂים נְחוּשָׁה וַהֲדִקּוֹת עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהַחֲרַמְתִּי לַיהֹוָה בִּצְעָם וְחֵילָם לַאֲדוֹן כָּל הָאָרֶץ:
and I will devote: Heb. וְהַחֲרַמְתִּי, an expression of hallowing.  
their plunder: What they gathered from robbery and violence.  
and their wealth: Their possessions.  
14. Now you shall gather yourself in troops, O daughter of troops; he has laid seige to us. With a rod they strike the judges of Israel on the cheek.   יד. עַתָּה תִּתְגֹּדְדִי בַת גְּדוּד מָצוֹר שָׂם עָלֵינוּ בַּשֵּׁבֶט יַכּוּ עַל הַלְּחִי אֵת שֹׁפֵט יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Now you shall gather yourself in troops, O daughter of troops: Now, at the time of its [Israel’s] evil decree concerning the iniquity, which has increased, you shall gather yourself in troops, O daughter of troops; O daughter of the Chaldeans, gather troops, for now you shall succeed with the troop that laid siege upon us.  
With a rod, they strike… on the cheek: Who caused them (Babylon) to succeed? The Israelites deride their prophets and their judges and strike them on the cheek. So were they wont to do, and so we find in Pesikta (d’Rav Kahana , p. 125b), and so does Isaiah say, (Isa. 50:6) “I gave my back to smiters.”  
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