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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Yonah - Jonah - Chapter 3

Yonah - Jonah - Chapter 3

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Rashi's Commentary:
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Chapter 3

1And the word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time, saying:   אוַיְהִי דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֶל יוֹנָה שֵׁנִית לֵאמֹר:
2Arise, go to Nineveh the great city, and proclaim upon it the proclamation that I speak to you.   בקוּם לֵךְ אֶל נִינְוֵה הָעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה וּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ אֶת הַקְּרִיאָה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר אֵלֶיךָ:
3And Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a walk of three days.   גוַיָּקָם יוֹנָה וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל נִינְוֵה כִּדְבַר יְהֹוָה וְנִינְוֵה הָיְתָה עִיר גְּדוֹלָה לֵאלֹהִים מַהֲלַךְ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים:
4And Jonah commenced to come into the city, one day's walk, and he proclaimed and said, "In another forty days Nineveh shall be overturned!"   דוַיָּחֶל יוֹנָה לָבוֹא בָעִיר מַהֲלַךְ יוֹם אֶחָד וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר עוֹד אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְנִינְוֵה נֶהְפָּכֶת:
overturned: Destroyed. [He did not say, “Destroyed,” because “overturned” has two meanings, bad and good. If they do not repent, it will be destroyed; if they repent, then “overturned” refers to the people of Nineveh, that they will be changed from bad to good, and they will repent. Gloss of Rabbi Akiva(?)]  
5And the people of Nineveh believed in God, and they proclaimed a fast and donned sackcloth, from their greatest to their smallest.   הוַיַּאֲמִינוּ אַנְשֵׁי נִינְוֵה בֵּאלֹהִים וַיִּקְרְאוּ צוֹם וַיִּלְבְּשׁוּ שַׂקִּים מִגְּדוֹלָם וְעַד קְטַנָּם:
6And the word reached the king of Nineveh, whereupon he rose from his throne, took off his royal robe, covered himself with sackcloth, and sat on the ashes.   ווַיִּגַּע הַדָּבָר אֶל מֶלֶךְ נִינְוֵה וַיָּקָם מִכִּסְאוֹ וַיַּעֲבֵר אַדַּרְתּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וַיְכַס שַׂק וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל הָאֵפֶר:
his royal robe: Heb. אדרתו the cloak of his honor.  
7And he caused it to be proclaimed and published throughout Nineveh: By the counsel of the king and his nobles, saying: Neither man nor beast, neither cattle nor sheep shall taste anything; they shall not graze, neither shall they drink water.   זוַיַּזְעֵק וַיֹּאמֶר בְּנִינְוֵה מִטַּעַם הַמֶּלֶךְ וּגְדֹלָיו לֵאמֹר הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה הַבָּקָר וְהַצֹּאן אַל יִטְעֲמוּ מְאוּמָה אַל יִרְעוּ וּמַיִם אַל יִשְׁתּוּ:
And he caused it to be proclaimed : Heb. ויזעק, he commanded to proclaim  
By the counsel of the king and his nobles: By the counsel of the king and his nobles, they commanded to announce.  
8And they shall cover themselves with sackcloth, both man and beast, and they shall call mightily to God, and everyone shall repent of his evil way and of the dishonest gain which is in their hands.   חוְיִתְכַּסּוּ שַׂקִּים הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל אֱלֹהִים בְּחָזְקָה וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמִן הֶחָמָס אֲשֶׁר בְּכַפֵּיהֶם:
and they shall call mightily to God: They bound the dams alone and the young alone. They said to Him, “Lord of the world! If You have no pity on us, we will not have pity on these.” [See Taanith 16a]  
9Whoever knows shall repent, and God will relent, and He will return from His burning wrath, and we will not perish.   טמִי יוֹדֵעַ יָשׁוּב וְנִחַם הָאֱלֹהִים וְשָׁב מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְלֹא נֹאבֵד:
Whoever knows: the sins he has committed, shall repent.  
and God will relent: He will think about the evil to repent of it.  
10And God saw their deeds, that they had repented of their evil way, and the Lord relented concerning the evil that He had spoken to do to them, and He did not do it.   יוַיַּרְא הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כִּי שָׁבוּ מִדַּרְכָּם הָרָעָה וַיִּנָּחֶם הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶם וְלֹא עָשָׂה:
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