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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Amos - Chapter 8

Amos - Chapter 8

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 8

1. Thus the Lord God showed me, and behold a basket of late figs.   א. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְהִנֵּה כְּלוּב קָיִץ:
a basket of late figs: Heb. כְּלוּב. A basket full of late figs, which are not good  
2. And He said: What do you see, Amos? And I said, "A basket of late figs." And the Lord said to me: The end has come to My people Israel. I will no longer pardon them.   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה עָמוֹס וָאֹמַר כְּלוּב קָיִץ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי בָּא הַקֵּץ אֶל עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אוֹסִיף עוֹד עֲבוֹר לוֹ:
3. And the songs of the temple shall be wailings in that day, says the Lord God: corpses shall increase; everywhere "Cast away, remove!"   ג. וְהֵילִילוּ שִׁירוֹת הֵיכָל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה רַב הַפֶּגֶר בְּכָל מָקוֹם הִשְׁלִיךְ הָס:
And the songs of the temple: which they sing within their temples at their banquets.  
corpses shall increase: The corpses of the slain shall increase. [from Jonathan]  
everywhere “Cast away, remove!”: Everywhere one will say, “Cast away, remove!” Cast away from here, remove these corpses from here. [from Jonathan]  
4. Hearken to this, you who swallow up the needy, and to cut off the poor of the land.   ד. שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַשֹּׁאֲפִים אֶבְיוֹן וְלַשְׁבִּית עֲנִיֵּי אָרֶץ:
you who swallow up: Heb. הַשֹׁאֲפִים, who swallow up the needy.  
and to cut off: Heb. וְלַשְׁבִּית, like וּלְהַשְׁבִּית. And examples [of this are found in Isaiah 23:11:] “ To destroy (לַשְׁמִד) its strongholds.” (II Kings 9:15) “To go and tell (לַגִיד) in Jezreel.”  
5. Saying, "When will the month be delayed, so that we will sell grain, and the Sabbatical Year, so that we will open [our stores of] grain, to make the ephah smaller and to make the shekel larger, and to pervert deceitful scales.   ה. לֵאמֹר מָתַי יַעֲבֹר הַחֹדֶשׁ וְנַשְׁבִּירָה שֶּׁבֶר וְהַשַּׁבָּת וְנִפְתְּחָה בָּר לְהַקְטִין אֵיפָה וּלְהַגְדִּיל שֶׁקֶל וּלְעַוֵּת מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה:
Saying, “When will the month be delayed”: This is the swallowing up. They anticipate the time that the grain will be expensive and will be sold to the poor with interest, and they will take their fields.  
the month be delayed: Heb. יַעֲבֹר. Jonathan renders: When will the year be interpolated and [when] will the month of interpolation come? This is an expression of delay, like (Jer. 46:17) “Has allowed the appointed time to pass by (הֶעֱבִיר).” And because they delay the offering up of the Omer, and the year is extended, and the old grain becomes expensive.  
and the Sabbatical Year, so that we will open grain: When will the Sabbatical Year come, and the grain will become expensive, and we will open our storehouses of grain.  
to make the ephah smaller: To sell for a smaller measure, and our money we will receive with a large shekel.  
6. To purchase the poor with money, and the needy in order to inherit them, and the refuse of the grain we will sell."   ו. לִקְנוֹת בַּכֶּסֶף דַּלִּים וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם וּמַפַּל בַּר נַשְׁבִּיר:
in order to inherit them: Heb. בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם. [from Jonathan]  
and the refuse of the corn we will sell: [Jonathan renders:] And the sweepings of the grains we will sell. The refuse that fell from the wheat into the sieve, to sell at high prices to the poor.  
7. The Lord swore by the pride of Jacob: I will never forget any of their deeds.   ז. נִשְׁבַּע יְהֹוָה בִּגְאוֹן יַעֲקֹב אִם אֶשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח כָּל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם:
8. Shall the land not quake for this, and shall all its inhabitants [not] be destroyed? Yea, it shall rise up wholly like the rain cloud, and it shall cast up and sink like the river of Egypt.   ח. הַעַל זֹאת לֹא תִרְגַּז הָאָרֶץ וְאָבַל כָּל יוֹשֵׁב בָּהּ וְעָלְתָה כָאֹר כֻּלָּהּ וְנִגְרְשָׁה וְנִשְׁקְעָה כִּיאוֹר מִצְרָיִם:
Shall the land not quake for this: Is this iniquity not serious enough that the land be destroyed because of it?  
Yea, it shall rise up wholly like the rain cloud: Heb. כָּאֹר. And in another place (9:5), Scripture says: “And it shall come up wholly like the river (כַיְאֹר),” and Jonathan renders them both identically: And a king shall rise upon it with his camp as numerous as the waters of the river, and cover it completely. To me, it seems difficult to define כָאֹר like כַיְאֹר. It can, however be explained like: (Job 36: 32) “On the clouds, the rain (אוֹר) is covered. (Job 37:11)” He scatters his rain cloud (אוֹרוֹ)." And it shall go up wholly like a rain cloud, pitch darkness.  
and it shall overflow and sink like the river of Egypt: The Nile overflows once in forty years and waters the land, and when it overflows, it brings up mud and dirt on its banks, and when it returns from watering, it returns over its banks and its water sinks. And that is called sinking, for the dirt that makes the water murky, settles.  
and it shall cast up: Heb. וְנִגְרְשָׁה, Like (Isa. 57:20) “And its waters cast up (ו ַיּגְרְשׁוּ) mud and dirt.” Also the land will spew out the wicked in its midst, and afterwards it will rest.  
9. And it shall come to pass on that day, says the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to set at midday, and I will darken the land on a sunny day.   ט. וְהָיָה | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְהֵבֵאתִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּצָּהֳרָיִם וְהַחֲשַׁכְתִּי לָאָרֶץ בְּיוֹם אוֹר:
I will cause the sun to set at midday: When there will be exceeding tranquility, a sudden downfall will come and our Rabbis said: This refers to the day of Josiah who died by the “peaceful sword” as our Rabbis said: There was no more peaceful sword than Pharaoh-Neco who said to Josiah, (II Chron. 35:21) “What do I have to do with you, O king of Judah; not upon you yourself today.” Not upon you do I come today, but to pass through your land “to the house against which I wage war etc.” [from Mo’ed Katan , Ta’anith 22a]  
the sun: The kingdom of the house of David is compared to the sun, as it is said: (Psalms 89:37) “And his throne is like the sun opposite Me.”  
10. And I will turn your festivals into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation, and I bring up sackcloth on all loins, and baldness on every head, and I will make it like the mourning for an only son, and its end is like a bitter day.   י. וְהָפַכְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם לְאֵבֶל וְכָל שִׁירֵיכֶם לְקִינָה וְהַעֲלֵיתִי עַל כָּל מָתְנַיִם שָׂק וְעַל כָּל רֹאשׁ קָרְחָה וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ כְּאֵבֶל יָחִיד וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר:
And I will turn your festivals into mourning: as the matter is stated: (II Chron 35: 24) “And all Judah and Jerusalem mourned for Josiah.”  
and all your songs into lamentation: as the matter is stated: (ibid. verse 25) “And all the singing men and singing women spoke in their lamentations.”  
like the mourning for an only son: Like a father who mourns over an only son.  
11. Behold, days are coming, says the Lord God, and I will send famine into the land, not a famine for bread nor a thirst for water, but to hear the word of the Lord.   יא. הִנֵּה | יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ לֹא רָעָב לַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא צָמָא לַמַּיִם כִּי אִם לִשְׁמֹעַ אֵת דִּבְרֵי יְהֹוָה:
but to hear: for the holy spirit shall terminate from them.  
12. And they shall wander from sea to sea and from the north to the east; they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, but they shall not find it.   יב. וְנָעוּ מִיָּם עַד יָם וּמִצָּפוֹן וְעַד מִזְרָח יְשׁוֹטְטוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת דְּבַר יְהֹוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ:
13. On that day, the beautiful virgins and the young men shall faint of thirst.   יג. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא תִּתְעַלַּפְנָה הַבְּתוּלוֹת הַיָּפוֹת וְהַבַּחוּרִים בַּצָּמָא:
shall faint: Heb. תִּתְעַלַּפְנָה. Their spirit shall fly out. Cf. (Jonah 4:8) “And he fainted (וַיִּתְעַלָּף).” And so, (Ezekiel 31:15) “The trees of the field fainted (עֻלְפֶּה) for him.” And so in the language of the Mishnah (Chullin 3b): “He may faint (נִתְעַלְּפָה),” pasmer, (pamer) in French. [from Dunash p. 84]  
14. Those who swear by the sin of Samaria, and say, "As your god lives, O Dan," and "As the road to Beersheba exists," shall fall and no longer rise.   יד. הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּאַשְׁמַת שֹׁמְרוֹן וְאָמְרוּ חֵי אֱלֹהֶיךָ דָּן וְחֵי דֶּרֶךְ בְּאֵר שָׁבַע וְנָפְלוּ וְלֹא יָקוּמוּ עוֹד:
“As your god lives, O Dan,”: One of the calves that Jeroboam erected in Dan.  
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