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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Amos - Chapter 2

Amos - Chapter 2

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 2

1. So said the Lord: For three transgressions of Moab, yea for four, I will not return them; for he burnt the bones of the king of Edom to lime.   א. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי מוֹאָב וְעַל אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל שָׂרְפוֹ עַצְמוֹת מֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם לַשִּׂיד:
For he burnt the bones etc.: Once the king of Edom fell into the hands of the king of Moab, and they burned his bones and plastered them on the walls of the house, and the Holy One, blessed be He, requited the injustice inflicted upon the king, for they treated him with disgrace.  
2. And I will send fire into Moab, and it shall consume the palaces of Kerioth, and Moab shall die amidst the tumult, with shouting, with the sound of the shophar.   ב. וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי אֵשׁ בְּמוֹאָב וְאָכְלָה אַרְמְנוֹת הַקְּרִיּוֹת וּמֵת בְּשָׁאוֹן מוֹאָב בִּתְרוּעָה בְּקוֹל שׁוֹפָר:
Kerioth: A place name, as it is stated: (Jer. 48: 24) “And to Kerioth and to Bozrah.”  
amidst the tumult: The sound of the stirring of battle.  
3. And I will cut off a judge from within it, and all its princes I will slay with him, says the Lord.   ג. וְהִכְרַתִּי שׁוֹפֵט מִקִּרְבָּהּ וְכָל שָׂרֶיהָ אֶהֱרוֹג עִמּוֹ אָמַר יְהֹוָה:
4. So said the Lord: For three transgressions of Judah, yea for four, I will not return them; for they rejected the Law of the Lord, and they did not keep His statutes, and their lies mislead them, which their forefathers followed.   ד. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יְהוּדָה וְעַל אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל מָאֳסָם אֶת תּוֹרַת יְהֹוָה וְחֻקָּיו לֹא שָׁמָרוּ וַיַּתְעוּם כִּזְבֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אֲבוֹתָם אַחֲרֵיהֶם:
5. And I will send a fire into Judah, and it shall consume the palaces of Jerusalem.   ה. וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי אֵשׁ בִּיהוּדָה וְאָכְלָה אַרְמְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם:
6. So said the Lord: For three transgressions of Israel, yea for four, I will not return them; For selling an innocent man for money, and a poor man in order to lock [the fields].   ו. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל מִכְרָם בַּכֶּסֶף צַדִּיק וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם:
for selling an innocent man for money: The judges would sell the one who was innocent according to the law, with money; i.e, with the bribes they would receive from his opponent.  
and a poor man in order to lock [the fields]: Heb. נַעֲלָיִם. Jonathan renders in two places [here and below 8:6]: in order to inherit. And I say that this is its explanation. They pervert the judgment of the poor man so that he will be compelled to sell his field that he had between the fields of the judges, and this one seeks an opportunity and takes it for a cheap price in order to fence in and lock all his fields together, and it should not intervene between them.  
7. Who aspire on the dust of the earth concerning the head of the poor, and they pervert the way of the humble, and a man and his father go to the maid, in order to profane My Holy Name.   ז. הַשֹּׁאֲפִים עַל עֲפַר אֶרֶץ בְּרֹאשׁ דַּלִּים וְדֶרֶךְ עֲנָוִים יַטּוּ וְאִישׁ וְאָבִיו יֵלְכוּ אֶל הַנַּעֲרָה לְמַעַן חַלֵּל אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי:
Who aspire on the dust of the earth: On the dust of the earth, when they walk on it, all their aspiration and all their thoughts are concerning the head of the poor, how they will rob them and take their property. שׁ ְאִיפָה is goloser in O.F., aspiring.  
and they pervert the way of the humble etc.: The weak turn away from their way and go on a tortuous way because of fear of them, as Scripture says: (Job 24:4) “They turn the poor from the way.”  
to the maid: I.e, a betrothed maid.  
8. And they recline on pledged garments beside every altar, and the wine of the fined ones they drink in the house of their gods.   ח. וְעַל בְּגָדִים חֲבֻלִים יַטּוּ אֵצֶל כָּל מִזְבֵּחַ וְיֵין עֲנוּשִׁים יִשְׁתּוּ בֵּית אֱלֹהֵיהֶם:
And they recline on pledged garments: Jonathan renders: On couches of a pledge they dine. They settle [the charge as] a loan upon the poor. and they take a pledge from them, and make their garments into couches and recline on them at the time of their meal.  
they recline: An expression of dining, for all their meals were eaten while leaning, for he would lean on his left side.  
and the wine of the fined ones: from whom they would exact money for fines and drink wine with it.  
in the house of their god: In the house of the idol that they had beside the altar.  
9. And I destroyed the Amorites from before them, whose height is as the height of the cedar trees, and they are as strong as oaks, and I destroyed his fruit from above and his roots from below.   ט. וְאָנֹכִי הִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת הָאֱמֹרִי מִפְּנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר כְּגֹבַהּ אֲרָזִים גָּבְהוֹ וְחָסֹן הוּא כָּאַלּוֹנִים וָאַשְׁמִיד פִּרְיוֹ מִמַּעַל וְשָׁרָשָׁיו מִתָּחַת:
as oaks: Heb. אַלוֹנִים, kesnes (chenes) in French.  
his fruit from above: I.e, the celestial princes. [from Midrash Tanchuma, Devarim 4; Tanchuma Buber, Addendum to Devarim 8]  
and his roots from below: I.e, the earthly princes. Another explanation: the wasp would blind their eyes from above and castrate them from below. [from Sotah 36a]  
10. And I brought you up from the land of Egypt, and I led you in the desert for forty years, to inherit the land of the Amorites.   י. וְאָנֹכִי הֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת אֶרֶץ הָאֱמֹרִי:
11. And I raised up some of your sons as prophets and some of your young men as Nazirites; is this not so, O children of Israel? says the Lord.   יא. וָאָקִים מִבְּנֵיכֶם לִנְבִיאִים וּמִבַּחוּרֵיכֶם לִנְזִרִים הַאַף אֵין זֹאת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם יְהֹוָה:
as Nazirites: Jonathan renders: as teachers. For they were separated from the ways of the people of the land and were engaged in the Torah. The expression נְזִירָה is everywhere only an expression of separation.  
Is this not so?: This is a rhetorical question. I.e, can you deny this?  
12. And you gave the Nazirites to drink wine, and you commanded the prophets saying, "Do not prophesy."   יב. וַתַּשְׁקוּ אֶת הַנְּזִרִים יָיִן וְעַל הַנְּבִיאִים צִוִּיתֶם לֵאמֹר לֹא תִּנָּבְאוּ:
And you gave the Nazirites to drink wine: lest they instruct you, for a drunken man is forbidden to instruct.  
And you gave the Nazirites to drink wine: Jonathan renders: And you misled your teachers with wine.  
“Do not prophesy.”: Amaziah the priest of Bethel commanded Amos in this manner: (Amos 7:12) “Seer, go, flee to the land of Judah.”  
13. Behold, I will oppress your dwelling place, as a wagon full of sheaves is oppressed.   יג. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מֵעִיק תַּחְתֵּיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר תָּעִיק הָעֲגָלָה הַמְלֵאָה לָהּ עָמִיר:
Behold I will oppress: Heb. מֵעִיק, the Aramaic translation of מֵצִיק,  
your dwelling place: Heb. תַּחְתֵּיכֶם. Your camping place  
as a wagon… is oppressed: from the weight of the burden that is upon it.  
14. And escape shall be lost to the swift, and the strong shall not gain strength, nor shall the mighty man deliver himself.   יד. וְאָבַד מָנוֹס מִקָּל וְחָזָק לֹא יְאַמֵּץ כֹּחוֹ וְגִבּוֹר לֹא יְמַלֵּט נַפְשׁוֹ:
15. And he who holds the bow shall not stand, and the fleetfooted shall not deliver, and the rider of the horse shall not deliver himself.   טו. וְתֹפֵשׂ הַקֶּשֶׁת לֹא יַעֲמֹד וְקַל בְּרַגְלָיו לֹא יְמַלֵּט וְרֹכֵב הַסּוּס לֹא יְמַלֵּט נַפְשׁוֹ:
and the fleet-footed shall not deliver: himself.  
16. And the stout-hearted among the mighty shall flee naked on that day, says the Lord.   טז. וְאַמִּיץ לִבּוֹ בַּגִּבּוֹרִים עָרוֹם יָנוּס בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהֹוָה:
shall flee naked: Naked without weapons.  
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