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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Yoel - Joel - Chapter 1

Yoel - Joel - Chapter 1

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Rashi's Commentary:
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Chapter 1

1The word of the Lord, which came to Joel son of Pethuel.   א דְּבַר יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר הָיָה אֶל יוֹאֵל בֶּן פְּתוּאֵל:
to Joel son of Pethuel: The son of Samuel the prophet who persuaded God with his prayer (פִתָּה לְאֵל). Some say that this prophecy was said in those seven years in which Elisha said: “For the Lord has decreed a famine etc.” and they took place during the days of Jehoram son of Ahab.  
2Hear this, you elders, and hearken, all you inhabitants of the land. Did this come about in your days or in the days of your forefathers?   בשִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַזְּקֵנִים וְהַאֲזִינוּ כֹּל יוֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ הֶהָיְתָה זֹּאת בִּימֵיכֶם וְאִם בִּימֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם:
Did this come about: I.e., what is mentioned below.  
3Tell your children about it, and your children to their children, and their children to another generation.   געָלֶיהָ לִבְנֵיכֶם סַפֵּרוּ וּבְנֵיכֶם לִבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם לְדוֹר אַחֵר:
4What the shearing locust left over, the increasing locust devoured, and what the increasing locust left over the nibbling locust devoured, and what the nibbling locust left over the finishing locust devoured.   דיֶתֶר הַגָּזָם אָכַל הָאַרְבֶּה וְיֶתֶר הָאַרְבֶּה אָכַל הַיָּלֶק וְיֶתֶר הַיֶּלֶק אָכַל הֶחָסִיל:
What the shearing locust left over: Gazam, arbeh, yelek, hasil are species of locusts and he prophesied concerning them that they would come in those days and destroy all the fruit of the trees and the herbs of the field.  
5Awaken, you drunkards, and weep; and wail, all you wine drinkers, concerning the strong wine, which has been cut off from your mouth.   ההָקִיצוּ שִׁכּוֹרִים וּבְכוּ וְהֵילִילוּ כָּל שֹׁתֵי יָיִן עַל עָסִיס כִּי נִכְרַת מִפִּיכֶם:
the strong wine: Heb. עָסִיס, good wine.  
6For a nation has ascended upon my land, mighty and innumerable; its teeth are like the teeth of an old lion, and its molars are like those of a young lion.   וכִּי גוֹי עָלָה עַל אַרְצִי עָצוּם וְאֵין מִסְפָּר שִׁנָּיו שִׁנֵּי אַרְיֵה וּמְתַלְּעוֹת לָבִיא לוֹ:
For a nation has ascended upon my land: He named these locusts as a host of nations.  
and its molars are like those of a young lion: These are the thick teeth with which he chews.  
7He has laid my vine waste, and my fig tree into a disappointment; he has peeled it and cast it off, its branches have become white.   זשָׂם גַּפְנִי לְשַׁמָּה וּתְאֵנָתִי לִקְצָפָה חָשׂף חֲשָׂפָהּ וְהִשְׁלִיךְ הִלְבִּינוּ שָׂרִיגֶיהָ:
into a disappointment -Heb.: לִקְצָפָה, into a disappointment.  
he has peeled it and cast it off: He has peeled off the bark of the tree and cast it off until the branches of the vine have become white.  
8Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth.   חאֱלִי כִּבְתוּלָה חֲגֻרַת שַׂק עַל בַּעַל נְעוּרֶיהָ:
Lament: Heb. אֱלִי. Lamentations (קִינָה) is translated into Aramic as א ִילְיָא.  
9Meal offering and libation have been cut off from the house of the Lord; the priests, the ministers of the Lord, mourn.   טהָכְרַת מִנְחָה וָנֶסֶךְ מִבֵּית יְהֹוָה אָבְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְשָׁרְתֵי יְהֹוָה:
have been cut off: Heb. הָכְרַת, like נִכְרַת. The “hey” vowelized with a short “kamatz” takes the place of a “nun.” Comp. (Job 5:23), “And the beast of the field made peace (הָשְׁלְמָה) with you.”  
10The field has been plundered, the soil destroyed, for corn has been plundered, must has dried up, oil has been cut off.   ישֻׁדַּד שָׂדֶה אָבְלָה אֲדָמָה כִּי שֻׁדַּד דָּגָן הוֹבִישׁ תִּירוֹשׁ אֻמְלַל יִצְהָר:
11Be ashamed, you plowmen; wail, you vinedressers, for wheat and for barley, for the harvest of the field is lost.   יאהֹבִישׁוּ אִכָּרִים הֵילִילוּ כֹּרְמִים עַל חִטָּה וְעַל שְׂעוֹרָה כִּי אָבַד קְצִיר שָׂדֶה:
Be ashamed: Heb. הֹבִישוּ  
plowmen: Heb. אִכָּרִים. Those who guide the plowshare.  
for wheat and for barley: This refers back to the plowmen, and concerning the vine dressers, he says…  
12The vines have dried up, and the fig trees have been cut off; the pomegranates, also the date palms and the apples, all the trees of the field have dried up, for joy has dried up from the sons of man.   יבהַגֶּפֶן הוֹבִישָׁה וְהַתְּאֵנָה אֻמְלָלָה רִמּוֹן גַּם תָּמָר וְתַפּוּחַ כָּל עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה יָבֵשׁוּ כִּי הֹבִישׁ שָׂשׂוֹן מִן בְּנֵי אָדָם:
The vines have dried up, and the fig trees have been cut off: Heb. הוֹבִישָׁה, it was cut off, its produce terminated.  
has dried up: Heb. הֹבִיש, like יָבֵש  
13Gird yourselves and lament, you priests; wail, you ministers of the altar; come, lodge in sackcloth, you ministers of my God, for the meal offering and the libations have been withheld from the house of your God.   יגחִגְרוּ וְסִפְדוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים הֵילִילוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי מִזְבֵּחַ בֹּאוּ לִינוּ בַשַּׂקִּים מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהָי כִּי נִמְנַע מִבֵּית אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִנְחָה וָנָסֶךְ:
14Proclaim a fast, call an assembly; assemble, you elders, all the inhabitants of the land to the house of the Lord your God, and cry out to the Lord.   ידקַדְּשׁוּ צוֹם קִרְאוּ עֲצָרָה אִסְפוּ זְקֵנִים כֹּל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ בֵּית יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְזַעֲקוּ אֶל יְהֹוָה:
Proclaim a fast: Heb. קַדְּשׁוּ, designate a fast  
an assembly: Heb. עֲצָרָה, a gathering.  
15Woe is to the day, for the day of the Lord is near, and like plunder, it will come from the Almighty.   טואֲהָהּ לַיּוֹם כִּי קָרוֹב יוֹם יְהֹוָה וּכְשֹׁד מִשַּׁדַּי יָבוֹא:
Woe: Heb. אֲהָהּ. An expression of sighing and wailing.  
and like plunder: Heb. וּכְשֹׁד. Like the plunder of brigands.  
it will come: from the Omnipresent.  
16Is not the food cut off from before our eyes? From the house of our God joy and jubilation?   טזהֲלֹא נֶגֶד עֵינֵינוּ אֹכֶל נִכְרָת מִבֵּית אֱלֹהֵינוּ שִׂמְחָה וָגִיל:
from before our eyes: I.e., we see it.  
17Casks of wine have gathered mold under their bungs, the storehouses are laid desolate, garners are demolished, for the corn has dried out.   יזעָבְשׁוּ פְרֻדוֹת תַּחַת מֶגְרְפֹתֵיהֶם נָשַׁמּוּ אֹצָרוֹת נֶהֶרְסוּ מַמְּגֻרוֹת כִּי הֹבִישׁ דָּגָן:
have gathered mold: Heb. עָבְשׁוּ, have gathered rust and mold. in French moisir, to become moldy.  
casks of wine: Heb. פְרֻדּדוֹת. Jonathan renders: casks of wine.  
under their bungs: Heb. מֶגְרְפֹתֵיהֶם. Jonathan renders: מְגוּפָתֵיהוֹן, the cover of the cask.  
the storehouses are laid desolate: I.e. the storehouses of wine and oil.  
garners are demolished: Granaries of wheat.  
18How the cattle sighs, herds of cattle are perplexed, for they have no pasture; also flocks of sheep are laid waste.   יחמַה נֶּאֶנְחָה בְהֵמָה נָבֹכוּ עֶדְרֵי בָקָר כִּי אֵין מִרְעֶה לָהֶם גַּם עֶדְרֵי הַצֹּאן נֶאְשָׁמוּ:
herds of cattle are perplexed: They are confounded. They are closed in and astray in the forests and in the wilderness.  
are laid waste: Heb. נֶאְשָׁמוּ. have become spoiled through their guilt.  
19To You, O Lord, I call, for a fire has consumed the dwellings of the wilderness, and a flame has burnt all the trees of the field.   יטאֵלֶיךָ יְהֹוָה אֶקְרָא כִּי אֵשׁ אָכְלָה נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר וְלֶהָבָה לִהֲטָה כָּל עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה:
the dwellings of the wilderness: Heb. נְאוֹת, an expression of a dwelling (נָוֶה).  
20Also, the beasts of the field cry out to You for the springs of water have dried up, and fire has consumed the dwellings of the wilderness.   כגַּם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדֶה תַּעֲרוֹג אֵלֶיךָ כִּי יָבְשׁוּ אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם וְאֵשׁ אָכְלָה נְאוֹת הַמִּדְבָּר:
Also the beasts of the field: I.e., the hind of the field.  
cry out: Heb. תַּעֲרֹג, will cry out, as Dunash (Teshuvoth Dunash, p. 18) interpreted it: ערג is the cry of the hinds. נהם is the roar of the lions; געה is the lowing of the calves; צהל is the whinnying of the horses; צִפצוּף is the chirping of the birds, and נבח is the barking of the dogs.  
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