Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Hoshea - Hosea - Chapter 5

Hoshea - Hosea - Chapter 5

E-mail
Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 5

1. Hear this, O priests; and hearken, O house of Israel; and give ear, O house of the king; for yours is the judgment, because you have been a snare on Mizpah, and a net spread upon Tabor.   א. שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ | בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּי פַח הֱיִיתֶם לְמִצְפָּה וְרֶשֶׁת פְּרוּשָׂה עַל תָּבוֹר:
for yours is the judgment: The judgment of torments is upon you, O house of the king, for you have been a snare at Mizpah and a net on Tabor. On these two mountains they stationed sentries so that Israel would not make the pilgrimage to the Temple.  
2. The extent of their straying they have deepened, and I [will bring] chastisement to all of them.   ב. וְשַׁחֲטָה שֵׂטִים הֶעְמִיקוּ וַאֲנִי מוּסָר לְכֻלָּם:
The extent of their straying they have deepened: The extent of their straying they have deepened. I said that anyone who does not go up to Jerusalem on the Pilgrimage festivals transgresses a positive commandment, and they decreed that anyone who does go up to Jerusalem shall be put to death. Hence, they went deeper than I. I.e., they were more stringent than I (Sanhedrin 102a). The word שַחֲטָה, translated as ‘extent’ is an expression similar to זָהָב שָׁחוּט, “malleable gold” (I Kings 10:16) stretched and spun. Jonathan, however, renders it as an expression of slaughtering sacrifices to idols.  
and I [will bring] chastisement to all of them: Lit. And I too will chastise them with torments, I will prepare chastisement for all of them.  
3. I knew Ephraim, and Israel was not hidden from Me, for now you have committed harlotry, O Ephraim; Israel was defiled.   ג. אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶפְרַיִם וְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא נִכְחַד מִמֶּנִּי כִּי עַתָּה הִזְנֵיתָ אֶפְרַיִם נִטְמָא יִשְׂרָאֵל:
for now you have committed harlotry, O Ephraim: Until Hosea son of Elah, they blamed their sins on their kings, who prevented them from going on the pilgrimages. This one arose and abolished the sentries; yet they did not go up. Therefore, they were exiled. For now you have committed harlotry, O Ephraim, and they cannot blame the king. I learned this in Seder Olam (ch. 22).  
4. They do not abandon their deeds to return to their God, for a spirit of harlotries is within them, and they do not know the Lord.   ד. לֹא יִתְּנוּ מַעַלְלֵיהֶם לָשׁוּב אֶל אֱלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי רוּחַ זְנוּנִים בְּקִרְבָּם וְאֶת יְהֹוָה לֹא יָדָעוּ:
They do not abandon their deeds: Heb. יִתְּנוּ, lit. give. They do not abandon their evil way. Comp. (Gen. 31:7) “And God did not allow him (נְתָנוֹ) ” ; (Num. 21:23) “And Sihon did not permit (נָתַן)” ; (Song 1:12) “abandoned (נָתַן) its fragrance.”  
5. And the pride of Israel shall be humbled before them, and Israel and Ephraim shall stumble over their iniquity, [and] Judah too shall stumble with them.   ה. וְעָנָה גְאוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּפָנָיו וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶפְרַיִם יִכָּשְׁלוּ בַּעֲו‍ֹנָם כָּשַׁל גַּם יְהוּדָה עִמָּם:
And the pride of Israel shall be humbled: Heb. וְעָנָה. Jonathan renders: And the pride of Israel shall be humbled. Comp. (Exodus 10:13) “to humble yourself (לֵעָנֹת) from before Me.” An expression of poverty and humility.  
before them: Jonathan renders: and they see. And Dunash ben Livrat explained it (וְעָנָה) as an expression of testimony; when their retribution comes to them, the pride and haughtiness, which they were haughty, and transgressing My will, will testify against them and before them. [from Teshuvoth Dunash, p.79]  
6. With their flocks and with their cattle, they shall go to seek the Lord, but they shall not find [Him]; He has withdrawn from them.   ו. בְּצֹאנָם וּבִבְקָרָם יֵלְכוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת יְהֹוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ חָלַץ מֵהֶם:
With their flocks and with their cattle: With their sacrifices.  
He has withdrawn: Heb. חָלַץ, slipped away. Comp. (II Sam. 2:21) “and take to yourself his clothing (חֲלִצָתוֹ) ,” the clothing that you will slip off them.  
7. They betrayed the Lord for they begot strange children; now a month shall consume them with their fields.   ז. בַּיהֹוָה בָּגָדוּ כִּי בָנִים זָרִים יָלָדוּ עַתָּה יֹאכְלֵם חֹדֶשׁ אֶת חֶלְקֵיהֶם:
for they begot strange children: for they intermarried among the nations.  
a month shall consume them: The month of Av.  
8. Sound a shofar in Gibeah, a trumpet in Ramah; shout [in] Beth-aven, "After you, Benjamin!"   ח. תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר בַּגִּבְעָה חֲצֹצְרָה בָּרָמָה הָרִיעוּ בֵּית אָוֶן אַחֲרֶיךָ בִּנְיָמִין:
Sound a shofar: so that they take care to beware of the sword of the troops that will come upon them.  
shout [in] Beth- aven: “After you the troop is coming, you Benjamin!” You shall shout this in Beth-aven. Jonathan, however, renders: Sound a shofar: [O prophets, raise your voices like a shofar.] The news of the sword which is coming as retribution for the iniquity of crowning Saul, who was in Gibeah, and for disobeying Samuel, who was from Ramah. And their kings caused them to turn away from following Me, such as Jeroboam and his ilk. Shout over them, “ Violence and great destruction!”  
“After you, Benjamin!”: Since you delayed and hesitated to go on the pilgrimages to the Temple, which is in Benjamin’s territory. Because of your delay of Benjamin. [explaining according to Targum Jonathan]  
9. Ephraim shall be bewildered on the day of contention; among the tribes of Israel I made known the true [doctrine].   ט. אֶפְרַיִם לְשַׁמָּה תִהְיֶה בְּיוֹם תּוֹכֵחָה בְּשִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוֹדַעְתִּי נֶאֱמָנָה:
shall be bewildered on the day of contention: When I come to debate with them, they will be bewildered and will wonder, and they will have no answer in their mouth. Why? Because, among the tribes of Israel I made known a true Torah, and they transgressed it. [Another explanation:]  
Ephraim shall be bewildered etc. among the tribes of Israel I made known a true [judgment]: Said Rabbi Abahu in the name of Rabbi Yose bar Chanina. On the day that the Holy One, blessed be He, debates with them in judgment, they will not be able to open their mouths, for among their tribes I made known that the judgment is a true judgment. You find that, when the ten tribes were exiled, Benjamin and Judah were not exiled, and the ten tribes were saying, Because they are the dwellers of His palace, He did not exile them. There is favoritism in this matter. God forbid, there is no favoritism, but their measure of sin was not yet full. As soon as they sinned, they were exiled. Then the ten tribes were bewildered, without an answer in their mouths, and they said, “Behold God! Behold the Mighty One! Behold the Just One! For even to those who dwell in His house He shows no favoritism.” This is to fulfill what is stated: Among the tribes of Israel I made known a true judgment. [from Lam. Rabbah, Proem 6]  
10. The princes of Judah were like those who remove the landmark; upon them will I pour My wrath like water.   י. הָיוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה כְּמַסִּיגֵי גְּבוּל עֲלֵיהֶם אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ כַּמַּיִם עֶבְרָתִי:
like those who remove the landmark: As a person who attaches the landmark of his neighbor, so did they hasten to grasp the ways of Israel, their colleagues, the kings. Therefore, “upon them will I pour My wrath like water.” And, according to its apparent meaning, they were stealing fields. But it is difficult to me, since he should have written. מַסִיגֵי גְבוּל, those who remove the landmark, not כְּמַסִיגֵי like those who remove.  
11. Ephraim is plundered, broken by judgment, because he desired and followed a command.   יא. עָשׁוּק אֶפְרַיִם רְצוּץ מִשְׁפָּט כִּי הוֹאִיל הָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי צָו:
Ephraim is plundered: in the hands of the nations.  
broken by judgment: Chastised with torments. Now why does he suffer with all this? Because he wished and desired and followed the new commands of the prophets of Baal.  
12. And I am like a moth to Ephraim and like decay to the house of Judah.   יב. וַאֲנִי כָעָשׁ לְאֶפְרָיִם וְכָרָקָב לְבֵית יְהוּדָה:
and like decay: A worm which eats the wood and pulverizes it.  
13. And Ephraim saw his ailment, and Judah his pain, and Ephraim went to Assyria, and he sent to the king of Yarev, but he will not be able to heal you, and he will not remove the pain from you.   יג. וַיַּרְא אֶפְרַיִם אֶת חָלְיוֹ וִיהוּדָה אֶת מְזֹרוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶפְרַיִם אֶל אַשּׁוּר וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶל מֶלֶךְ יָרֵב וְהוּא לֹא יוּכַל לִרְפֹּא לָכֶם וְלֹא יִגְהֶה מִכֶּם מָזוֹר:
his pain: Heb. מְזֹרוֹ, an expression of illness.  
and Ephraim went to Assyria: This is Hosea son of Elah, who was his vassal and then rebelled against him (II Kings 17:4).  
and he sent: i.e., Judah sent.  
to the king of Yarev: This refers to Ahaz, who gave a bribe to Tiglath-pileser to assist him against Rezin the king of Aram and Pekah son of Remaliah (II Kings 16:8).  
but he will not be able to heal you: from the many bands of Philistines and Arabs that attacked Ahaz, as is related in Chronicles (II 28:21): “For Ahaz divided the house of the Lord etc. and he gave it to the king of Assyria, but he did not help him.”  
and he will not remove the pain from you: Heb. וְלֹא יִגְהֶה מִכֶּם מָזוֹר. And I say that it is one of the words whose radicals are transposed. This is an expression similar to (II Sam. 20:13) “When he was removed (הוֹגָה) from the highway” ; (Isaiah 59:13) “sprouting and giving forth (והוֹגוֹ) from the heart” ; (Prov. 25:4), “take away (הָגוֹ) the dross from the silver.”  
14. For I am like a young lion to Ephraim and like a lion's whelp to the house of Judah; I, yea I, will tear and I will go away; I will carry off and no one will rescue.   יד. כִּי אָנֹכִי כַשַּׁחַל לְאֶפְרַיִם וְכַכְּפִיר לְבֵית יְהוּדָה אֲנִי אֲנִי אֶטְרֹף וְאֵלֵךְ אֶשָּׂא וְאֵין מַצִּיל:
I will carry off and no one will rescue: I will carry off the prey.  
15. I will go away and return to My place until they admit their guilt and seek My face; in their straits they will seek Me.   טו. אֵלֵךְ אָשׁוּבָה אֶל מְקוֹמִי עַד אֲשֶׁר יֶאְשְׁמוּ וּבִקְשׁוּ פָנָי בַּצַּר לָהֶם יְשַׁחֲרֻנְנִי:
I will go away: I will withdraw from them and return to the heaven.  
until they admit their guilt: i. e., until they consider themselves guilty, to confess their guilt.  
they will seek Me: Heb. יִשַׁחֲרֻנְנִי.  
E-mail
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG