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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 38

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 38

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 38

1. Then the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   א. וַיְהִי דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר:
2. "Son of man, set your face toward Gog, [toward] the land of Magog, the prince, the head of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy concerning him.   ב. בֶּן אָדָם שִׂים פָּנֶיךָ אֶל גּוֹג אֶרֶץ הַמָּגוֹג נְשִׂיא רֹאשׁ מֶשֶׁךְ וְתֻבָל וְהִנָּבֵא עָלָיו:
toward Gog: So is the king’s name.  
Magog: The name of the nation, as Scripture states (Gen. 10:2): “Gomer and Magog.”  
3. And you shall say; So said the Lord God: Behold, I am against you, Gog, the prince, the head of Meshech and Tubal.   ג. וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה הִנְנִי אֵלֶיךָ גּוֹג נְשִׂיא רֹאשׁ מֶשֶׁךְ וְתֻבָל:
4. And I shall unbridle you, and I shall put hooks into your jaws and bring you forth and all your army, horses and riders, all of them clothed in finery, a great assembly, with encompassing shield and buckler, all of them grasping swords.   ד. וְשׁוֹבַבְתִּיךָ וְנָתַתִּי חַחִים בִּלְחָיֶיךָ וְהוֹצֵאתִי אוֹתְךָ וְאֶת כָּל חֵילֶךָ סוּסִים וּפָרָשִׁים לְבֻשֵׁי מִכְלוֹל כֻּלָּם קָהָל רָב צִנָּה וּמָגֵן תֹּפְשֵׂי חֲרָבוֹת כֻּלָּם:
And I shall unbridle you: [Heb. וְשּׁוֹבַבְתִּי.] I shall make you שׁוֹבָב a unbridled, backsliding, envoyzer in Old French, to unbridle. Whoever follows the dictates of his heart is called שּׁוֹבַב, as (Isa. 57:17): “for he went rebelliously (שּׁוֹבֵב) in the way of his heart.”  
and I shall put hooks into your jaws: It is customary to lead out a beast with the hooks in its jaws because it does not want to go [voluntarily]. I, too, will put thoughts into your heart and an urge that will draw you from your land to come upon Israel.  
5. Persia, Cush, and Put are with them; all of them with buckler and helmet.   ה. פָּרַס כּוּשׁ וּפוּט אִתָּם כֻּלָּם מָגֵן וְכוֹבָע:
6. Gomer and all its wings, the house of Togarmah, the utmost parts of the north and all its wings, many peoples with you.   ו. גֹּמֶר וְכָל אֲגַפֶּיהָ בֵּית תּוֹגַרְמָה יַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן וְאֶת כָּל אֲגַפָּיו עַמִּים רַבִּים אִתָּךְ:
and all its wings: And all those around it.  
7. Be prepared and make ready for yourself, you and all your assembly who are gathered about you, and you will be to them for a guardian.   ז. הִכֹּן וְהָכֵן לְךָ אַתָּה וְכָל קְהָלֶךָ הַנִּקְהָלִים עָלֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ לָהֶם לְמִשְׁמָר:
Be prepared and make ready for yourself: Prepare yourself, and make ready for yourself an army of others.  
be prepared: [as translated,] be prepared.  
and you will be to them for a guardian: It is the custom of kings to pay attention, concerning their armies, to how they will march forth, and to appoint guards so that a destroyer should not come upon his army at night.  
8. From many days you will be remembered; at the end of the years you will come to a land [whose inhabitants] returned from the sword, gathered from many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which had been continually laid waste, but it was liberated from the nations, and they all dwelt securely.   ח. מִיָּמִים רַבִּים תִּפָּקֵד בְּאַחֲרִית הַשָּׁנִים תָּבוֹא | אֶל אֶרֶץ | מְשׁוֹבֶבֶת מֵחֶרֶב מְקֻבֶּצֶת מֵעַמִּים רַבִּים עַל הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְחָרְבָּה תָּמִיד וְהִיא מֵעַמִּים הוּצָאָה וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח כֻּלָּם:
From many days past you will be remembered: From the many days past that you sinned against Me, you will now be remembered before Me, for [Me] to remember your iniquities and to pay you your recompense. And I shall entice you at the end of years into coming to the land of Israel, “returned from the sword” whose inhabitants returned from the exile wherein they had been exiled by the enemy’s sword.  
which had been continually laid waste: these many years, and [only] shortly before your coming upon them, they returned.  
but it was liberated from the nations: But you should have taken into consideration that it liberated from the nations, and He Who liberated it from the nations will not leave it in your hands.  
9. And you will ascend; like mist you will come; like a cloud to cover the earth you will be; you and all your wings and many peoples with you.   ט. וְעָלִיתָ כַּשּׁוֹאָה תָבוֹא כֶּעָנָן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ תִּהְיֶה אַתָּה וְכָל אֲגַפֶּיךָ וְעַמִּים רַבִּים אוֹתָךְ:
like mist: [Heb. כַּשּׁוֹאָה,] like darkness that covers the earth, שּׁוֹאָה is broine, bruine in Old French, fog, mist.  
10. So said the Lord God: It will come to pass on that day that words will enter your heart and you will think a thought of evil.   י. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְהָיָה | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַעֲלוּ דְבָרִים עַל לְבָבֶךָ וְחָשַׁבְתָּ מַחֲשֶׁבֶת רָעָה:
words will enter: Thoughts will arise.  
a thought of evil: to wage war against Me.  
11. And you will say, "I shall ascend upon a land of open cities; I shall come upon the tranquil, who dwell securely; all of them living without a wall, and they have no bars or doors.   יא. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶעֱלֶה עַל אֶרֶץ פְּרָזוֹת אָבוֹא הַשֹּׁקְטִים יֹשְׁבֵי לָבֶטַח כֻּלָּם יֹשְׁבִים בְּאֵין חוֹמָה וּבְרִיחַ וּדְלָתַיִם אֵין לָהֶם:
upon a land of open cities: [Heb. פְּרָזוֹת,] dwellers in villages without a wall, who trust in their might and are not [so] afraid as to gather into fortified cities. פְּרָזוֹת is like (Deut. 3:5): “in addition to the very many open cities (עָרֵי הַפְרָזִי),” without a wall.  
I shall come: to the tranquil ones and see what they trust in.  
12. To take spoil and to plunder loot, to return your hand upon the resettled ruins and to a people gathered from nations, acquiring livestock and possessions, dwelling on the navel of the earth.   יב. לִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל וְלָבֹז בַּז לְהָשִׁיב יָדְךָ עַל חֳרָבוֹת נוֹשָׁבוֹת וְאֶל עַם מְאֻסָּף מִגּוֹיִם עֹשֶׂה מִקְנֶה וְקִנְיָן יֹשְׁבֵי עַל טַבּוּר הָאָרֶץ:
to return your hand upon the resettled ruins: To destroy a second time the cities that were in ruins until now, and now have been settled.  
and to a people gathered: from peoples, who now acquire livestock and possessions.  
on the navel of the earth: In the height and the strength of the earth, like the navel, which is in the center of a person and slopes downward from all its sides.  
13. Sheba and Dedan and merchants of Tarshish and all its magnates will say to you, "Are you coming to take spoil? Have you assembled your assembly to plunder loot, to carry off silver and gold, to take livestock and possessions, to take much spoil?"   יג. שְׁבָא וּדְדָן וְסֹחֲרֵי תַרְשִׁישׁ וְכָל כְּפִירֶיהָ יֹאמְרוּ לְךָ הֲלִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל אַתָּה בָא הֲלָבֹז בַּז הִקְהַלְתָּ קְהָלֶךָ לָשֵׂאת | כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב לָקַחַת מִקְנֶה וְקִנְיָן לִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל גָּדוֹל:
and all its magnates: [Heb. כְּפִירֶיהָ,] shrewd merchants therein, who are accustomed to roam, like young lions (כְּפִירִים) , in all the countries and who know where the place of riches is.  
Are you coming to take spoil: i.e., who told you the place of the riches? Did you know [for a fact] that you are going to a land full of spoil and loot, and that there you will really find powerful wealth?  
14. Therefore, prophesy, O son of man, and say to Gog, So said the Lord God: Surely on that day, when My people dwells securely, you will know.   יד. לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא בֶן אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ לְגוֹג כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה הֲלוֹא | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא בְּשֶׁבֶת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָבֶטַח תֵּדָע:
you will know: Jonathan renders: you will know the retribution of My might, i.e., you will know and recognize Who is their might and their stronghold.  
15. And you will come from your place, from the utmost north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding horses; a great assembly and a mighty army.   טו. וּבָאתָ מִמְּקוֹמְךָ מִיַּרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן אַתָּה וְעַמִּים רַבִּים אִתָּךְ רֹכְבֵי סוּסִים כֻּלָּם קָהָל גָּדוֹל וְחַיִל רָב:
16. And you will ascend upon My people Israel like a cloud to cover the earth; at the end of days it will be, and I shall bring you upon My land in order that the nations recognize Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog.   טז. וְעָלִיתָ עַל עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל כֶּעָנָן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים תִּהְיֶה וַהֲבִאוֹתִיךָ עַל אַרְצִי לְמַעַן דַּעַת הַגּוֹיִם אֹתִי בְּהִקָּדְשִׁי בְךָ לְעֵינֵיהֶם גּוֹג:
17. So said the Lord God: Are you he about whom I spoke in ancient days through My servants, the prophets of Israel who prophesied in those days many years ago, to bring you upon them.   יז. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה הַאַתָּה הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי בְּיָמִים קַדְמוֹנִים בְּיַד עֲבָדַי נְבִיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּבְּאִים בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם שָׁנִים לְהָבִיא אֹתְךָ עֲלֵיהֶם:
Are you he: In those days, the Holy One, blessed be He, will say, “Are you the one about whom I spoke in ancient days through My servants, the prophets of Israel, e.g. Ezekiel and Zechariah?” For he [Zechariah] too prophesied about the wars of Gog and Magog (Zech. 14:2): “And I will gather all the nations, etc.” Our Sages said (Sanh. 17a): Eldad and Medad they [also] prophesied about it. That is the שָּׁנִים stated here. Do not read שָּׁנִים, years, but שְּׁנַיִם, two. Two prophets prophesied one prophecy at one time (though not in the same style of expression).  
18. And it will come to pass on that day, when Gog comes against the land of Israel, declares the Lord God, that My blazing indignation will flame in My nostrils.   יח. וְהָיָה | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא בְּיוֹם בּוֹא גוֹג עַל אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה תַּעֲלֶה חֲמָתִי בְּאַפִּי:
19. For in My jealousy and in the fire of My wrath I have spoken; Surely there shall be a great noise on that day in the land of Israel.   יט. וּבְקִנְאָתִי בְאֵשׁ עֶבְרָתִי דִּבַּרְתִּי אִם לֹא | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל עַל אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל:
a great noise: [Heb. רַעַשּׁ,] through noise and thunder, as he states.  
20. And at My presence, the fishes of the sea and the birds of the heaven and the beasts of the field and all the creeping things that creep upon the earth and all the men who are upon the surface of the earth shall quake, and all the mountains shall be thrown down, and the cliffs shall fall to the ground.   כ. וְרָעֲשׁוּ מִפָּנַי דְּגֵי הַיָּם וְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְחַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְכָל הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל הָאֲדָמָה וְכֹל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וְנֶהֱרְסוּ הֶהָרִים וְנָפְלוּ הַמַּדְרֵגוֹת וְכָל חוֹמָה לָאָרֶץ תִּפּוֹל:
and the cliffs shall fall: [Heb. הַמַּדְרִגוֹת.] I heard that they are perpendicular hanging rocks, which appear to be falling, but I say that they are mounds of the towers, for they dig around and cast up the earth in the center to raise the mound, and it is made into steps, eschelons, eschillons in Old French, steps, in order that the earth remain, and after it is pressed down well, they remove the forms that hold up the step.  
21. And I will call the sword against him upon all My mountains, says the Lord God: every man's sword shall be against his brother.   כא. וְקָרָאתִי עָלָיו לְכָל הָרַי חֶרֶב נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה חֶרֶב אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו תִּהְיֶה:
And I will call the sword against him upon all My mountains: for the sword to come upon them, against him. “And I will call” means, I will prepare. And what is the sword that I will call against him? Their own sword: “every man’s sword shall be against his brother.”  
22. And I will judge against him with pestilence and with blood, and rain bringing floods, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone will I rain down upon him and upon his hordes and upon the many peoples that are with him.   כב. וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי אִתּוֹ בְּדֶבֶר וּבְדָם וְגֶשֶׁם שׁוֹטֵף וְאַבְנֵי אֶלְגָּבִישׁ אֵשׁ וְגָפְרִית אַמְטִיר עָלָיו וְעַל אֲגַפָּיו וְעַל עַמִּים רַבִּים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ:
and great hailstones: Hailstones that glisten like precious stones named גָּבִישּׁ, crystal, as the matter is stated (Job 28:18): “Coral and crystal (וְגָּבִישּׁ).” Our Sages said (Ber. 54b): עַל גַב אִישּׁ : Hailstones that started to fall on Egypt, and stood in the air over the man (עַל גַב אִישּׁ), Moses, who prayed that they not fall, as the matter that is stated (Exod. 9:33), לֹא נִתַּ אַרְצָה“[it] did not reach the ground.”  
23. And I will reveal Myself in My greatness and in My holiness and will be recognized in the eyes of many nations, and they will know that I am the Lord.   כג. וְהִתְגַּדִּלְתִּי וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתִּי וְנוֹדַעְתִּי לְעֵינֵי גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
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