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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 33

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 33

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 33

1. Then the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   א. וַיְהִי דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר:
2. "Son of man, speak to the members of your people and say to them: When I bring armed attackers upon a land, and the people of the land take one man from among themselves and appoint him for them as a lookout,   ב. בֶּן אָדָם דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי עַמְּךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם אֶרֶץ כִּי אָבִיא עָלֶיהָ חָרֶב וְלָקְחוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אִישׁ אֶחָד מִקְצֵיהֶם וְנָתְנוּ אֹתוֹ לָהֶם לְצֹפֶה:
as a lookout: [Heb. לְצֹפֶה,] badete in 0. F., sentry, watchman.  
3. And he sees the army coming upon the land, and he sounds the shofar and warns the people,   ג. וְרָאָה אֶת הַחֶרֶב בָּאָה עַל הָאָרֶץ וְתָקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר וְהִזְהִיר אֶת הָעָם:
And he sees the army: [lit. the sword.] They are the armies.  
4. And whoever hears the sound of the shofar and does not take heed, and the army comes and takes him, his blood will be upon his own head.   ד. וְשָׁמַע הַשֹּׁמֵעַ אֶת קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר וְלֹא נִזְהָר וַתָּבוֹא חֶרֶב וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ דָּמוֹ בְרֹאשׁוֹ יִהְיֶה:
his blood will be on his own head: The iniquity of causing his death will be required of himself, because he was neglected his life.  
5. He heard the sound of the shofar and did not take heed; his blood will be upon him, for had he taken heed, he would have saved his life.   ה. אֵת קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר שָׁמַע וְלֹא נִזְהָר דָּמוֹ בּוֹ יִהְיֶה וְהוּא נִזְהָר נַפְשׁוֹ מִלֵּט:
for had he taken heed, he would have saved his life: Had he taken heed, he would have escaped.  
6. But the lookout-should he see the army coming and not sound the shofar, and the people did not take heed, and an army came and took a soul from them-he was taken for his iniquity, but I shall require his blood from the hand of the lookout.   ו. וְהַצֹּפֶה כִּי יִרְאֶה אֶת הַחֶרֶב בָּאָה וְלֹא תָקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר וְהָעָם לֹא נִזְהָר וַתָּבוֹא חֶרֶב וַתִּקַּח מֵהֶם נָפֶשׁ הוּא בַּעֲו‍ֹנוֹ נִלְקָח וְדָמוֹ מִיַּד הַצֹּפֶה אֶדְרֹשׁ:
7. Now you, son of man, I have made you a lookout for the house of Israel, and you will hear a word from My mouth, and you shall warn them from Me.   ז. וְאַתָּה בֶן אָדָם צֹפֶה נְתַתִּיךָ לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׁמַעְתָּ מִפִּי דָּבָר וְהִזְהַרְתָּ אֹתָם מִמֶּנִּי:
I have made you a lookout: Like that lookout, who is appointed to give warning so that no soul be lost, so have I appointed you to warn Israel.  
8. When I say of a wicked man, Wicked one, you shall surely die! and you did not speak to warn the wicked man from his way-he is wicked and for his iniquity he will die, but his blood I shall require of your hand.   ח. בְּאָמְרִי לָרָשָׁע רָשָׁע מוֹת תָּמוּת וְלֹא דִבַּרְתָּ לְהַזְהִיר רָשָׁע מִדַּרְכּוֹ הוּא רָשָׁע בַּעֲו‍ֹנוֹ יָמוּת וְדָמוֹ מִיָּדְךָ אֲבַקֵּשׁ:
9. But you-if you warned a wicked man from his way, to repent thereof, and he did not repent of his way-he will die for his iniquity, and you have saved your soul.   ט. וְאַתָּה כִּי הִזְהַרְתָּ רָשָׁע מִדַּרְכּוֹ לָשׁוּב מִמֶּנָּה וְלֹא שָׁב מִדַּרְכּוֹ הוּא בַּעֲו‍ֹנוֹ יָמוּת וְאַתָּה נַפְשְׁךָ הִצַּלְתָּ:
10. Now you, son of man, say to the house of Israel; So have you spoken, saying: For our transgressions and our sins are upon us, and because of them we are melting away, so how can we live?   י. וְאַתָּה בֶן אָדָם אֱמֹר אֶל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כֵּן אֲמַרְתֶּם לֵאמֹר כִּי פְשָׁעֵינוּ וְחַטֹּאתֵינוּ עָלֵינוּ וּבָם אֲנַחְנוּ נְמַקִּים וְאֵיךְ נִחְיֶה:
So have you spoken: Therefore, you do not wish to repent, because you believe that repentance will not avail you.  
11. Say to them: As I live, says the Lord God, I do not wish for the death of the wicked, but for the wicked to repent of his way so that he may live. Repent, repent of your evil ways, for why should you die, O house of Israel!   יא. אֱמֹר אֲלֵיהֶם חַי אָנִי | נְאֻם | אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה אִם אֶחְפֹּץ בְּמוֹת הָרָשָׁע כִּי אִם בְּשׁוּב רָשָׁע מִדַּרְכּוֹ וְחָיָה שׁוּבוּ שׁוּבוּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶם הָרָעִים וְלָמָּה תָמוּתוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל:
12. And you, son of man, say to the members of your people: The righteousness of the righteous will not save him on the day of his transgression, and the wickedness of the wicked-he will not stumble upon it on the day of his repentance of his wickedness, and a righteous man cannot live with it on the day of his sinning.   יב. וְאַתָּה בֶן אָדָם אֱמֹר אֶל בְּנֵי עַמְּךָ צִדְקַת הַצַּדִּיק לֹא תַצִּילֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם פִּשְׁעוֹ וְרִשְׁעַת הָרָשָׁע לֹא יִכָּשֶׁל בָּהּ בְּיוֹם שׁוּבוֹ מֵרִשְׁעוֹ וְצַדִּיק לֹא יוּכַל לִחְיוֹת בָּהּ בְּיוֹם חֲטֹאתוֹ:
live with it: with his righteousness.  
13. When I say of the righteous that he will surely live, and he relied on his righteousness and committed injustice, none of his righteous deeds will be remembered, and for the injustices which he committed he shall die.   יג. בְּאָמְרִי לַצַּדִּיק חָיֹה יִחְיֶה וְהוּא בָטַח עַל צִדְקָתוֹ וְעָשָׂה עָוֶל כָּל צִדְקֹתָיו לֹא תִזָּכַרְנָה וּבְעַוְלוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה בּוֹ יָמוּת:
none… will be remembered: to save him from being punished for his sin.  
14. And when I say of the wicked man, "You shall surely die," and he repents of his sin and performs justice and righteousness,   יד. וּבְאָמְרִי לָרָשָׁע מוֹת תָּמוּת וְשָׁב מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה:
15. The wicked man will return the pledge, he will repay the theft; in the statutes of life he walked, not to commit injustice-he will surely live, he will not die.   טו. חֲבֹל יָשִׁיב רָשָׁע גְּזֵלָה יְשַׁלֵּם בְּחֻקּוֹת הַחַיִּים הָלַךְ לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת עָוֶל חָיוֹ יִחְיֶה לֹא יָמוּת:
the pledge: the pledge that I commanded [one] to return at sunset.  
16. All his sins that he sinned will not be remembered for him: he performed justice and righteousness; he will surely live.   טז. כָּל חַטֹּאתָיו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא לֹא תִזָּכַרְנָה לוֹ מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה עָשָׂה חָיוֹ יִחְיֶה:
17. Now, should the members of your people say, 'The Lord's way is not right,' but they-their way is not right.   יז. וְאָמְרוּ בְּנֵי עַמְּךָ לֹא יִתָּכֵן דֶּרֶךְ אֲדֹנָי וְהֵמָּה דַּרְכָּם לֹא יִתָּכֵן:
18. When a righteous man repents of his righteousness and commits injustice, he will die because of them.   יח. בְּשׁוּב צַדִּיק מִצִּדְקָתוֹ וְעָשָׂה עָוֶל וּמֵת בָּהֶם:
he will die because of them: He will be punished for them.  
19. And when a wicked man repents of his wickedness and performs justice and righteousness, he shall live because of them.   יט. וּבְשׁוּב רָשָׁע מֵרִשְׁעָתוֹ וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא יִחְיֶה:
20. But you say, 'The Lord's way is not right.' Each one according to his ways I will judge you, O house of Israel."   כ. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לֹא יִתָּכֵן דֶּרֶךְ אֲדֹנָי אִישׁ כִּדְרָכָיו אֶשְׁפּוֹט אֶתְכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל:
21. Now it came to pass in the twelfth year, in the tenth [month], on the fifth [day] of the month of our exile, that the fugitive from Jerusalem came to me, saying, "The city was struck."   כא. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁתֵּי עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בָּעֲשִׂרִי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ לְגָלוּתֵנוּ בָּא אֵלַי הַפָּלִיט מִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר הֻכְּתָה הָעִיר:
22. Now the hand of the Lord had been upon me in the evening before the coming of the fugitive and He opened my mouth before [his] coming to me in the morning, and my mouth was opened and I was no longer mute.   כב. וְיַד יְהֹוָה הָיְתָה אֵלַי בָּעֶרֶב לִפְנֵי בּוֹא הַפָּלִיט וַיִּפְתַּח אֶת פִּי עַד בּוֹא אֵלַי בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּפָּתַח פִּי וְלֹא נֶאֱלַמְתִּי עוֹד:
and He opened my mouth: as He says in the beginning of the Book (3:26): “and you shall become mute, and you shall not be a reprover to them.” Afterward, He said to him (24:25ff.): “on the day I take from them their strength, etc., the fugitive will come to you, etc., on that day, your mouth will be opened with the fugitive, and you will speak and no longer be mute.”  
before [his] coming to me in the morning: [Heb. עַד בּוֹא אֵלִי בַּבֹּקֶר,] i.e., when he had not yet (בְּעוֹד) come to me in the morning, like: before he came to me in the morning.  
23. Now the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   כג. וַיְהִי דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר:
24. "Son of man, the dwellers of these ruins on the soil of Israel speak, saying: Abraham was one, and he inherited the land, and we are many-the land has [surely] been given to us for an inheritance.   כד. בֶּן אָדָם יֹשְׁבֵי הֶחֳרָבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה עַל אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֹמְרִים לֵאמֹר אֶחָד הָיָה אַבְרָהָם וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת הָאָרֶץ וַאֲנַחְנוּ רַבִּים לָנוּ נִתְּנָה הָאָרֶץ לְמוֹרָשָׁה:
Abraham was one: This is one of four things that Rabbi Akiva interpreted [in one way] and which his disciple, Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, did not interpret as he did. Rabbi Shimon interpreted it in this manner: Abraham, who was commanded with only one commandment [namely circumcision], inherited the land. We, then, who have been commanded with many commandments, should surely have the land given to us for an inheritance (Tosefta Sotah 6: 7). This is what the prophet answers them.  
25. Therefore, say to them: So said the Lord God, You eat on the blood and you raise your eyes to your pagan deities, and you shed blood-and you should inherit the land?   כה. לָכֵן אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם כֹּה אָמַר | אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה עַל הַדָּם | תֹּאכֵלוּ וְעֵינֵכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ אֶל גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְדָם תִּשְׁפֹּכוּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּירָשׁוּ:
You eat on the blood, etc., and you should inherit the land: This is a rhetorical question. If you were commanded [many commandments], you do not keep [them]. You eat on the blood: you eat delicacies through murder, for you slay those who have money and take away their money.  
26. You stood on your sword, you committed abominations, and you contaminated each man his neighbor's wife, and you should inherit the land?   כו. עֲמַדְתֶּם עַל חַרְבְּכֶם עֲשִׂיתֶן תּוֹעֵבָה וְאִישׁ אֶת אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ טִמֵּאתֶם וְהָאָרֶץ תִּירָשׁוּ:
You stood on your sword: i.e., all your trust. You strengthened yourself on your sword.  
you committed abominations: homosexual acts.  
27. So shall you say to them: So said the Lord God, As I live, I swear that those who are in the ruins will fall by the sword, and those who are on the face of the field I have delivered to the beasts to devour them, and those who are in the strongholds and in the caves shall die from pestilence.   כז. כֹּה תֹאמַר אֲלֵהֶם כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה חַי אָנִי אִם לֹא אֲשֶׁר בֶּחֳרָבוֹת בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וַאֲשֶׁר עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה לַחַיָּה נְתַתִּיו לְאָכְלוֹ וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמְּצָדוֹת וּבַמְּעָרוֹת בַּדֶּבֶר יָמוּתוּ:
those who are in the ruins: in the fortified cities that will ultimately become ruins.  
and those who are in the strongholds: in a hideout, to hide from the sword - I shall send the pestilence upon them.  
28. And I shall make the land desolate and waste, and the pride of its strength will be cut off, and the mountains of Israel will be desolate without a passerby.   כח. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת הָאָרֶץ שְׁמָמָה וּמְשַׁמָּה וְנִשְׁבַּת גְּאוֹן עֻזָּהּ וְשָׁמְמוּ הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֵין עוֹבֵר:
29. And they will know that I am the Lord when I make the land desolate and waste because of all their abominations, which they have committed.   כט. וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה בְּתִתִּי אֶת הָאָרֶץ שְׁמָמָה וּמְשַׁמָּה עַל כָּל תּוֹעֲבֹתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ:
30. And you, son of man, the members of your people who talk about you beside the walls and in the entrances of the houses, and one talks to the other, one to his brother, saying, "Come now and listen to what the word is that is coming forth from before the Lord."   ל. וְאַתָּה בֶן אָדָם בְּנֵי עַמְּךָ הַנִּדְבָּרִים בְּךָ אֵצֶל הַקִּירוֹת וּבְפִתְחֵי הַבָּתִּים וְדִבֶּר חַד אֶת אַחַד אִישׁ אֶת אָחִיו לֵאמֹר בֹּאוּ נָא וְשִׁמְעוּ מָה הַדָּבָר הַיּוֹצֵא מֵאֵת יְהֹוָה:
who talk about you: who mock you.  
31. And they will come to you as a public gathering, and they will sit before you as My people, and they will hear your words but not fulfill them; instead they make them into jokes with their mouth; their heart goes after their gain.   לא. וְיָבוֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ כִּמְבוֹא עָם וְיֵשְׁבוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמִּי וְשָׁמְעוּ אֶת דְּבָרֶיךָ וְאוֹתָם לֹא יַעֲשׂוּ כִּי עֲגָבִים בְּפִיהֶם הֵמָּה עֹשִׂים אַחֲרֵי בִצְעָם לִבָּם הֹלֵךְ:
and they will sit before you as My people: as if they were My people.  
jokes: [Heb. עֲגָבִים,] laughter, related to עוּגָב, a flute.  
their gain: their stolen goods.  
32. And you are to them as a song on the flute, which has a beautiful voice and plays well; they will hear your words, but will not fulfill them.   לב. וְהִנְּךָ לָהֶם כְּשִׁיר עֲגָבִים יְפֵה קוֹל וּמֵטִב נַגֵּן וְשָׁמְעוּ אֶת דְּבָרֶיךָ וְעֹשִׂים אֵינָם אוֹתָם:
And you are to them as a song on the flute: And you are to them as a song on the flute.  
33. And when it comes-behold it is coming, and they will know that a prophet was in their midst."   לג. וּבְבֹאָהּ הִנֵּה בָאָה וְיָדְעוּ כִּי נָבִיא הָיָה בְתוֹכָם:
And when it comes: the evil to them.  
behold it is coming: for, indeed, it is ready to come; then they will know that your words were not a jest, but that a true prophet was in their midst.  
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