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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 18

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 18

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 18

1. And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   א. וַיְהִי דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר:
And the word of the Lord came to me, saying::  
What do you mean that you use this parable: Asanplanz in Old French, comparison, parable.  
The fathers have eaten sour grapes: Heb. בוֹסֶר, fruit before it has ripened. Verjus inFrench, verjuice.  
and the children’s teeth are set on edge: Heb. תִּקְהֶינָה, agazeront in Old French, will be set on edge. So is the way of the Holy One, blessed be He: the fathers sin and the children are punished, for the kings of Israel sinned for many years before they were exiled, and we too need not be concerned that we shall be punished for our iniquities.  
2. "What do you mean that you use this parable over the land of Israel, saying, 'The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge'?   ב. מַה לָּכֶם אַתֶּם מֹשְׁלִים אֶת הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה עַל אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אָבוֹת יֹאכְלוּ בֹסֶר וְשִׁנֵּי הַבָּנִים תִּקְהֶינָה:
3. As truly as I live, says the Lord God, you shall no longer use this parable in Israel.   ג. חַי אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה אִם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עוֹד מְשֹׁל הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
shall no longer use this parable: Heb. מְשֹּׁל, like לִמְשֹּׁל [the infinitive].  
4. Behold, all souls are Mine. Like the soul of the father, like the soul of the son they are Mine; the soul that sins, it shall die.   ד. הֵן כָּל הַנְּפָשׁוֹת לִי הֵנָּה כְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָב וּכְנֶפֶשׁ הַבֵּן לִי הֵנָּה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַחֹטֵאת הִיא תָמוּת:
Behold, all souls are Mine: So why should the son who did not sin against Me suffer? Is he not Mine?  
5. So a man who is righteous and practices justice and righteousness,   ה. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה צַדִּיק וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה:
6. And does not eat [offerings of meals] on the mountains, and does not lift up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel; neither defiles his fellow man's wife nor approaches a woman in her period of separation,   ו. אֶל הֶהָרִים לֹא אָכָל וְעֵינָיו לֹא נָשָׂא אֶל גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא טִמֵּא וְאֶל אִשָּׁה נִדָּה לֹא יִקְרָב:
And does not eat on the mountains: “On the mountains, he did not worship pagan deities” [Targum Jonathan] by eating “sacrifices of the dead.”  
to the idols: Referring to other idolatry, e.g., Baal in Samaria and the calves in Bethel and Dan.  
7. And wrongs no man; what has been pledged for a debt he returns; [he] has committed no robbery, gives his bread to the hungry, and clothes the naked with garments,   ז. וְאִישׁ לֹא יוֹנֶה חֲבֹלָתוֹ חוֹב יָשִׁיב גְּזֵלָה לֹא יִגְזֹל לַחְמוֹ לְרָעֵב יִתֵּן וְעֵירֹם יְכַסֶּה בָּגֶד:
wrongs: Heb. יוֹנֶה, an expression of wronging (אוֹנָאָה); i.e., he wronged no man.  
what has been pledged for a debt he returns: If he took his friend’s garment as a pledge for a loan, he would return it to him at sunset.  
8. Does not lend on interest, nor does he take any increase on a loan, keeps his hand back from wrong, executes true judgment between man and man,   ח. בַּנֶּשֶׁךְ לֹא יִתֵּן וְתַרְבִּית לֹא יִקָּח מֵעָוֶל יָשִׁיב יָדוֹ מִשְׁפַּט אֱמֶת יַעֲשֶׂה בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִישׁ:
9. Has walked in My statutes, and has kept My ordinances to deal truly-he is a righteous man; he shall surely live, says the Lord God.   ט. בְּחֻקּוֹתַי יְהַלֵּךְ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי שָׁמַר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֱמֶת צַדִּיק הוּא חָיֹה יִחְיֶה נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה:
10. If he beget a profligate son, a shedder of blood, and he commits upon his brother any of these [crimes].   י. וְהוֹלִיד בֵּן פָּרִיץ שֹׁפֵךְ דָּם וְעָשָׂה אָח מֵאַחַד מֵאֵלֶּה:
and he commits upon his brother any of these: Heb. אָח. Jonathan renders: and he does to his brother any one of these.  
11. And he does not do all these [good deeds], but has even eaten [offerings of a meal] to the mountains and defiled his fellow man's wife;   יא. וְהוּא אֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה לֹא עָשָׂה כִּי גַם אֶל הֶהָרִים אָכַל וְאֶת אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ טִמֵּא:
And he does not do all these: All these good deeds that his father did.  
12. Wronged the poor and the needy, committed robberies, did not return pledges, lifted up his eyes to the idols, committed abomination;   יב. עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן הוֹנָה גְּזֵלוֹת גָּזָל חֲבֹל לֹא יָשִׁיב וְאֶל הַגִּלּוּלִים נָשָׂא עֵינָיו תּוֹעֵבָה עָשָׂה:
committed abomination: Homosexual relations.  
13. Gave out on interest, accepted increase on loans -shall he then live? He shall not live! He has done all these abominations; he shall surely die; his blood falls back on himself!   יג. בַּנֶּשֶׁךְ נָתַן וְתַרְבִּית לָקַח וָחָי לֹא יִחְיֶה אֵת כָּל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה עָשָׂה מוֹת יוּמָת דָּמָיו בּוֹ יִהְיֶה:
14. And behold, if he beget a son, who sees all the sins of his father which he has done, and sees and does not do likewise;   יד. וְהִנֵּה הוֹלִיד בֵּן וַיַּרְא אֶת כָּל חַטֹּאת אָבִיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּרְאֶה וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כָּהֵן:
and sees and does not do likewise: He sees with his heart that it is not good to do so, et il apercut in French, he realized.  
15. He did not eat on the mountains and did not lift up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, did not defile his fellow man's wife,   טו. עַל הֶהָרִים לֹא אָכָל וְעֵינָיו לֹא נָשָׂא אֶל גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא טִמֵּא:
16. Wronged no man; did not retain any pledge, and committed no robbery; his bread he gave to the hungry and the naked he covered with clothes;   טז. וְאִישׁ לֹא הוֹנָה חֲבֹל לֹא חָבָל וּגְזֵלָה לֹא גָזָל לַחְמוֹ לְרָעֵב נָתָן וְעֵרוֹם כִּסָּה בָגֶד:
17. From the poor he kept his hand back, interest and increase he did not take; My ordinances he kept, in My laws did he walk-he shall not die for the sins of his father, he shall surely live.   יז. מֵעָנִי הֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית לֹא לָקָח מִשְׁפָּטַי עָשָׂה בְּחֻקּוֹתַי הָלָךְ הוּא לֹא יָמוּת בַּעֲו‍ֹן אָבִיו חָיֹה יִחְיֶה:
From the poor he kept his hand back: from harming him.  
18. [But] his father, because he illegally suppressed, committed robbery against his brother and did what is not good among his people, behold, he shall die for his iniquity.   יח. אָבִיו כִּי עָשַׁק עֹשֶׁק גָּזַל גֵּזֶל אָח וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא טוֹב עָשָׂה בְּתוֹךְ עַמָּיו וְהִנֵּה מֵת בַּעֲו‍ֹנוֹ:
19. Yet you say, "Why does the son not bear with the sin of the father?" But the son has practiced justice and righteousness, he has kept all My laws and he carries them out; he shall surely live.   יט. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם מַדֻּעַ לֹא נָשָׂא הַבֵּן בַּעֲו‍ֹן הָאָב וְהַבֵּן מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה עָשָׂה אֵת כָּל חֻקּוֹתַי שָׁמַר וַיַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם חָיֹה יִחְיֶה:
20. The soul that sins, it shall die; a son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, and a father shall not bear the iniquity of the son; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself.   כ. הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַחֹטֵאת הִיא תָמוּת בֵּן לֹא יִשָּׂא | בַּעֲו‍ֹן הָאָב וְאָב לֹא יִשָּׂא בַּעֲו‍ֹן הַבֵּן צִדְקַת הַצַּדִּיק עָלָיו תִּהְיֶה וְרִשְׁעַת הָרָשָׁע עָלָיו תִּהְיֶה:
21. And if the wicked man repent of all his sins that he has committed and keeps all My laws and executes justice and righteousness, he shall surely live, he shall not die.   כא. וְהָרָשָׁע כִּי יָשׁוּב מִכָּל חַטֹּאתָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְשָׁמַר אֶת כָּל חֻקּוֹתַי וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה חָיֹה יִחְיֶה לֹא יָמוּת:
22. All his transgressions that he has committed shall not be remembered regarding him: through his righteousness that he has done he shall live.   כב. כָּל פְּשָׁעָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לֹא יִזָּכְרוּ לוֹ בְּצִדְקָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יִחְיֶה:
23. Do I desire the death of the wicked? says the Lord God. Is it not rather in his repenting of his ways that he may live?   כג. הֶחָפֹץ אֶחְפֹּץ מוֹת רָשָׁע נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה הֲלוֹא בְּשׁוּבוֹ מִדְּרָכָיו וְחָיָה:
24. And when the righteous repents of his righteousness and does wrong and does like all the abominations that the wicked man did, shall he live? All his righteous deeds that he has done shall not be remembered; in his treachery that he has perpetrated and in his sin that he has sinned, in them shall he die.   כד. וּבְשׁוּב צַדִּיק מִצִּדְקָתוֹ וְעָשָׂה עָוֶל כְּכֹל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הָרָשָׁע יַעֲשֶׂה וָחָי כָּל צִדְקֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לֹא תִזָּכַרְנָה בְּמַעֲלוֹ אֲשֶׁר מָעַל וּבְחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּם יָמוּת:
All his righteous deeds, etc., shall not be remembered: Our Sages qualified this as referring to one who regrets them.  
25. Yet you say, 'The way of the Lord is not right!' Hear now, O house of Israel: Is it My way that is not right? Is it not rather your ways that are not right?   כה. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לֹא יִתָּכֵן דֶּרֶךְ אֲדֹנָי שִׁמְעוּ נָא בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדַרְכִּי לֹא יִתָּכֵן הֲלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם לֹא יִתָּכֵנוּ:
26. When a righteous man repents of his righteousness and does wrong and dies on that account; for the wrong that he has done he should die.   כו. בְּשׁוּב צַדִּיק מִצִּדְקָתוֹ וְעָשָׂה עָוֶל וּמֵת עֲלֵיהֶם בְּעַוְלוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יָמוּת:
27. And when a wicked man repents of his wickedness that he has done, and does justice and righteousness, he will keep his soul alive.   כז. וּבְשׁוּב רָשָׁע מֵרִשְׁעָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיַּעַשׂ מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה הוּא אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ יְחַיֶּה:
28. He will see and repent of all his transgressions that he has committed-he shall surely live; he shall not die.   כח. וַיִּרְאֶה וַיָּשָׁב מִכָּל פְּשָׁעָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה חָיוֹ יִחְיֶה לֹא יָמוּת:
29. And yet the house of Israel say, 'The way of the Lord is not right!' Is it My ways that are not right, O house of Israel? Is it not rather your ways that are not right?   כט. וְאָמְרוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִתָּכֵן דֶּרֶךְ אֲדֹנָי הַדְּרָכַי לֹא יִתָּכְנוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם לֹא יִתָּכֵן:
is not right: Heb. יִתָּכֵן, like יִתָּקֵן, afetes in Old French; just, correct, right.  
30. Therefore, every man according to his ways I will judge you, O house of Israel, says the Lord God: repent and cause others to repent of all your transgressions, and it will not be a stumbling block of iniquity for you.   ל. לָכֵן אִישׁ כִּדְרָכָיו אֶשְׁפֹּט אֶתְכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה שׁוּבוּ וְהָשִׁיבוּ מִכָּל פִּשְׁעֵיכֶם וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לְמִכְשׁוֹל עָו‍ֹן:
repent and cause others to repent: Heb. שּׁוּבוּ וְהָשִּׁיבוּ, you repent and you cause others to repent (tourner, retourner in French), turn [others], return.  
31. Cast away from yourselves all your transgressions whereby you have transgressed, and make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit, and why should you die, O house of Israel!   לא. הַשְׁלִיכוּ מֵעֲלֵיכֶם אֶת כָּל פִּשְׁעֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר פְּשַׁעְתֶּם בָּם וַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה וְלָמָּה תָמֻתוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל:
32. For I do not desire the death of him who dies, says the Lord God: so turn away and live!"   לב. כִּי לֹא אֶחְפֹּץ בְּמוֹת הַמֵּת נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְהָשִׁיבוּ וִחְיוּ:
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