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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 16

Yechezkel - Ezekiel - Chapter 16

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 16

1. Then the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   א. וַיְהִי דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר:
2. "Son of man, let Jerusalem know its abominations.   ב. בֶּן אָדָם הוֹדַע אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶת תּוֹעֲבֹתֶיהָ:
let… know: Heb. הוֹדַע, fais savoir in French, inform.  
3. And you shall say; So said the Lord God to Jerusalem; Your dwelling place and your birth place are from the land of the Canaanites; your father was the Amorite, and your mother a Hittite.   ג. וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה לִירוּשָׁלִַם מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ מֵאֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי אָבִיךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וְאִמֵּךְ חִתִּית:
your dwelling place: Heb. מְכֹרֹתַיִך, like מְגוּרוֹתַיִ, your dwelling place [interchanging כ and ג], and Menachem (p. 110) connected the word to the idea of birth. He similarly explained (Gen. 49: 5): “weapons of violence are their birth (מְכֵרוֹתֵיהֶם) ” (Deut. 18: 8);“besides what he has from his birth (מִמְכָּרָיו) ” (II Kings 12: 6);“each one from his kinsman (מַכָּרוֹ).” They all mean birth.  
your father, etc., and your mother: Abraham and Sarah took their greatness from there, and the children of Heth gave her a grave.  
4. And as for your birth, on the day you were born, your navel was not cut, neither were you washed with water for cleansing, nor were you salted, nor swaddled at all.   ד. וּמוֹלְדוֹתַיִךְ בְּיוֹם הוּלֶּדֶת אֹתָךְ לֹא כָרַת שָׁרֵךְ וּבְמַיִם לֹא רֻחַצְתְּ לְמִשְׁעִי וְהָמְלֵחַ לֹא הֻמְלַחַתְּ וְהָחְתֵּל לֹא חֻתָּלְתְּ:
on the day you were born: Heb. הוּלֶדֶת, fus nee in French. When I chose you in Egypt, you were without any preparation, and because he compares the matter to birth, he mentions here the preparations of the newborn.  
your navel: Heb. שָּׁרֵך, like שָּׁרְרֵך.  
for cleansing: Heb. לְמִשְּׁעִי, to make smooth, [as] (below 24:7), “ the smoothness of the rock (צְחִיח ַסֶלַע)” is translated שְּׁעִיעוּתכֵּיפָא, apla[ni] ment in Old French, clearing, smoothing. Menachem (p. 177) associates it to the word for dandling (שַּׁעַשּׁוּעַ).  
nor were you salted: From here it is derived that we salt the newborn so that his flesh hardens.  
nor swaddled: Heb. וְהָחְתֵּל, a word denoting enwrapping with garments, and likewise (Job 38:9): “and the dark cloud its wrapping (חֲתֻלָּתוֹ)” It is [the cloth with] which they swathe the infant.  
5. No eye pitied you [enough] to do for you any of those, to have mercy on you, and you were cast on the open field in the loathsomeness of your body on the day you were born.   ה. לֹא חָסָה עָלַיִךְ עַיִן לַעֲשׂוֹת לָךְ אַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה לְחֻמְלָה עָלָיִךְ וַתֻּשְׁלְכִי אֶל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְּגֹעַל נַפְשֵׁךְ בְּיוֹם הֻלֶּדֶת אֹתָךְ:
to have mercy: Heb. לְחֻמְלָה, to pity.  
in the loathsomeness: Heb. בְּגֹעַל an [a] borissemant, in abhorrence, loathing.  
6. And I passed by you and saw you downtrodden with your blood, and I said to you, 'With your blood, live,' and I said to you, 'With your blood, live.'   ו. וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת בְּדָמָיִךְ וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי:
downtrodden: Heb. מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת, downtrodden, as (Ps. 60:14): “and He will trample (יָבוּס) our adversaries.”  
With your blood, live: Even with this loathsomeness of yours you shall not die. He repeats this a second time because they were redeemed with the blood of the Passover sacrifice and the blood of circumcision (Pirke d’Rabbi Eliezer, chapter 29). Another explanation of מִתְבּוֹסֶסת : souillee in French, soiled, sullied.  
7. Myriads, like the plants of the field I have made you, and you have increased and grown, and you have come with perfect beauty, breasts fashioned and your hair grown, but you were naked and bare.   ז. רְבָבָה כְּצֶמַח הַשָּׂדֶה נְתַתִּיךְ וַתִּרְבִּי וַתִּגְדְּלִי וַתָּבֹאִי בַּעֲדִי עֲדָיִים שָׁדַיִם נָכֹנוּ וּשְׂעָרֵךְ צִמֵּחַ וְאַתְּ עֵרֹם וְעֶרְיָה:
with perfect beauty: Heb. בַּעֲדִי עֲדָיִם, [a form] expressing perfection. But Menachem (p. 131) explained בַּעֲדִי עֲדָיִם as related to the word עַד, eternity, as (Isa. 26:4): “Trust in the Lord forever (עֲדֵי עַד) ”; enjusque a s(i)egle in Old French, to eternity [lit. for centuries]. Dunash (p. 83), however, interpreted it as a word for ornaments. The declension of עַדִי עֲדָיִם is one of the ten nouns: lion, lions אֲרָיִם) (אֲרִי; deer [sing.], deer [pl.] (צְבִי צְבָיִם); kid, kids (גְדִי גְּדָיִם).  
fashioned: Heb. נָכֹנוּ, furent efeties in Old French, were fashioned, developed.  
and your hair grown: Signs of puberty.  
8. And I passed by you and saw you, and behold your time was the time of love, and I spread My skirt over you, and I covered your nakedness, and I swore to you and came into a covenant with you, says the Lord, and you were Mine.   ח. וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ וְהִנֵּה עִתֵּךְ עֵת דֹּדִים וָאֶפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפִי עָלַיִךְ וָאֲכַסֶּה עֶרְוָתֵךְ וָאֶשָּׁבַע לָךְ וָאָבוֹא בִבְרִית אֹתָךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וַתִּהְיִי לִי:
love: Heb. דֹדִים, amities in French; friendship, love.  
9. And I washed you with water, and I rinsed your blood off you, and I anointed you with oil.   ט. וָאֶרְחָצֵךְ בַּמַּיִם וָאֶשְׁטֹף דָּמַיִךְ מֵעָלָיִךְ וָאֲסֻכֵךְ בַּשָּׁמֶן:
and I anointed you: Heb. וָאֲסֻכֵך, a word expressing anointing. Now the entire episode is only a parable, and Jonathan explained it all, leaving nothing to add to the Targum, and he explained it in this manner:  
[3] Your dwelling place and your birthplace, etc.: Your dwelling place and your birthplace are from the land of the Canaanites; there I revealed Myself to your father Abraham [in the covenant] between the parts, and I let him know that you are going down to Egypt. With an arm raised on high, I redeemed you, and through the merit of your fathers, I drove out the Amorites and destroyed the Hittites.  
[4] And as for your birth, on the day you were born, etc.: And also, when your forefathers went down to Egypt, sojourners in a land that was not theirs, they subjugated them and oppressed them. The assembly of Israel was like a newborn infant abandoned in the open field, whose navel was not cut, and who was not rinsed with water to be cleansed, and not salted with salt or swaddled with swaddling clothes.  
[5] No eye pitied you, etc.: The eye of the wicked Pharaoh did not pity you to do you any favor, to lighten your bondage, [or] to have pity on you, and he decreed upon you a decree of annihilation, to cast your males into the river to destroy you at the time you were in Egypt.  
[6] And I passed by you, etc.: And the remembrance of the covenant of your forefathers came before Me. I revealed Myself to redeem you because it was known to Me that you were being oppressed in your bondage, and I said to you, “With the blood of the circumcision I shall spare you,” and I said, “With the blood of the Passover, I shall redeem you.”  
[7] Myriads, like the plants of the field I have made you: Myriads, as the plants of the field, I have made you, and you have increased and become strong, and you have become families and tribes, and with the good deeds of your forefathers, the time of the redemption of your assembly arrived because you were subjugated and oppressed.  
Myriads, like the plants of the field I made you: as it is said (Exod. 1:7): “And the children of Israel were fruitful and increased.”  
but you were naked and bare: of the commandments.  
[8] And I passed by you, etc: And I revealed Myself to Moses in the thorn bush because it was revealed to Me that the time of your redemption had arrived. I shielded you with My word, and I removed your sins, and I swore by My word to redeem you as I swore to your forefathers, said the Lord God, that you should be a people serving before Me.  
and I spread My skirt: The skirt of My garment.  
and I swore to you: (Exod. 6:6): “Therefore (לָכֵן) , say to the children of Israel: I am the Lord! I shall take you out, etc.” “Therefore” means only an [introduction to an] oath, as it is said (I Sam. 3:14): “therefore, I have sworn to the house of Eli…”  
and came into a covenant with you: (Exod. 24:8): “Behold the blood of the covenant that the Lord has made with you.”  
[9] and I washed you with water: And I redeemed you from the bondage of the Egyptians, and I removed the strength of their lordship from you, and I led you to freedom.  
10. And I clothed you with embroidered garments, and I shod you with [the skin of the] badger, and I girded you with fine linen, and I covered you with silk.   י. וָאַלְבִּשֵׁךְ רִקְמָה וָאֶנְעֲלֵךְ תָּחַשׁ וָאֶחְבְּשֵׁךְ בַּשֵּׁשׁ וַאֲכַסֵּךְ מֶשִׁי:
And I clothed you with embroidered garments: “And I clothed you with embroidered garments of the spoils of your enemies.”  
and I shod you with badger: [Jonathan renders:] And I put shoes of glory on your feet.  
and I girded you: Heb. וָאֶחְבְּשֵּׁךּ. [Jonathan renders:] and I hallowed priests of you to be serving before Me with turbans of fine linen.  
and I covered you with silk: Heb. מֶשִּׁי, soie in French. And the High Priest with colored raiment, and [according to] Midrash Aggadah (Mid. Song 4:2), these are the seven clouds of glory, as it is written (Exod. 13:22): “He did not move (יָמִישּׁ) the pillar of cloud by day.”  
11. And I adorned you with ornaments, and I put bracelets on your hands and a necklace on your neck.   יא. וָאֶעְדֵּךְ עֶדִי וָאֶתְּנָה צְמִידִים עַל יָדַיִךְ וְרָבִיד עַל גְּרוֹנֵךְ:
And I adorned you with ornaments: E pare toy, and I adorned you. [Jonathan renders:] And I adorned you with the adornment of the words of the Torah, written on the two stone tablets.  
and I put: Heb. וָאֶתְּנָה [lit. and I gave,] through Moses.  
bracelets: Heb. צְמִידִים [from צמד, to join]. I joined one commandment opposite the other, five opposite five.  
12. And I put a nose ring on your nose and earrings on your ears, and a crown of glory on your head.   יב. וָאֶתֵּן נֶזֶם עַל אַפֵּךְ וַעֲגִילִים עַל אָזְנָיִךְ וַעֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת בְּרֹאשֵׁךְ:
And I put a nose ring on your nose: [Jonathan renders:] And I placed the ark of My covenant among you.  
and earrings on your ears: Heb. וַעֲגִילִים, a word for an earring. [Jonathan interprets:] And the cloud of My glory covering over you. [The clouds of glory are called וַעֲגִילִים] because they surrounded them in a circle (עִגּוּל).  
and a crown of glory on your head: [Jonathan renders:] And an angel was sent from before Me leading at your head, as it is said (Micah 2:13): “and their king passed before them, and the Lord was at their head.”  
13. And you adorned yourself with gold and silver, and your raiment was fine linen and silk and embroidered cloth; fine flour, honey, and oil you ate, and you became exceedingly beautiful and you became fit for the throne.   יג. וַתַּעְדִּי זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּמַלְבּוּשֵׁךְ שֵׁשׁ וָמֶשִׁי וְרִקְמָה סֹלֶת וּדְבַשׁ וָשֶׁמֶן אָכָלְתְּ וַתִּיפִי בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּצְלְחִי לִמְלוּכָה:
And you adorned yourself with gold and silver: [Jonathan renders:] And I placed My Tabernacle among you, adorned with gold, silver, curtains of linen, colored tapestries and embroidery, and mannawhich was as good as fine flour, honey and oilI fed you, and you became exceedingly rich and strong, and you prospered and ruled over all the kingdoms.  
fine flour, honey, and oil you ate: The manna, which would change to any flavorto fine flour, honey, and oilyou ate. The Midrash Aggadah (Mid. Song 4:2) [points out that] thirteen items are enumerated here, and corresponding to them, the Holy One, blessed be He, ordered them to bring the thirteen items enumerated in the donation for the Tabernacle (Exod. 25:1-7). Nevertheless, He is destined to repay them in the future with thirteen items (Isa. 4:5f.): “And the Lord shall create over every dwelling of Mount Zion, etc. And a tabernacle shall be for shade by day from the heat, etc., from stream and from rain, etc.”  
became exceedingly beautiful: An expression of beauty.  
14. Then your name went out among the nations for your beauty, for it is all-inclusive, with My majesty that I placed upon you, says the Lord God.   יד. וַיֵּצֵא לָךְ שֵׁם בַּגּוֹיִם בְּיָפְיֵךְ כִּי | כָּלִיל הוּא בַּהֲדָרִי אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי עָלַיִךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה:
for it is all inclusive: Heb. כָּלִיל, an expression of all- inclusive beauty (23:12). Another explanation: כִּי כָּלִיל הוּא, for it was perfect. Another explanation: כִּי כָּלִיל couronne in French, like (Lev. 21:12): “crown (נֵזֶר),” which is translated כְּלִיל by Targum.  
15. And you relied on your beauty, and you went astray because of your fame, and you poured out your harlotries on every passerby; to him it would be.   טו. וַתִּבְטְחִי בְיָפְיֵךְ וַתִּזְנִי עַל שְׁמֵךְ וַתִּשְׁפְּכִי אֶת תַּזְנוּתַיִךְ עַל כָּל עוֹבֵר לוֹ יֶהִי:
and you went astray because of your fame: You relied on the fame of the beauty that spread concerning you.  
and you poured out your harlotries: You displayed your beauty to every passerby until the lust for your harlotry gushed upon them [arousing them] to seduce you into fornicating with them.  
to him it would be: And once they desired you, you surrendered yourself to them; and to anyone who requested your harlotry, it would be his. Jonathan renders: and it was not fitting for you to do so, as though it were written לֹא יְהִי. This entire allegory represents the Calf of the desert and the other idolatry that the tribe of Dan worshipped in the desert, as it is written (Deut. 25:18): “all those who trailed after you,” and we find in the Pesikta (d’Rav Kahana p. 27b): This is the tribe of Dan, for the cloud would reject them, because the were all idolators.  
16. And you took of your garments and made for yourself mounds of colored garments, and you played the harlot upon them; this should not have come, nor should it be.   טז. וַתִּקְחִי מִבְּגָדַיִךְ וַתַּעֲשִׂי לָךְ בָּמוֹת טְלֻאוֹת וַתִּזְנִי עֲלֵיהֶם לֹא בָאוֹת וְלֹא יִהְיֶה:
mounds of colored garments: Covered with spotted garments of various colors, pla[t] rees in Old French, multi-colored.  
this should not have come: It was not proper for this to come, non a venir et non a etre in French, [which was] not to come nor to be.  
17. And you took the vessels of your glory-of My gold and of My silver, which I gave to you- and you made for yourself male images and you fornicated with them.   יז. וַתִּקְחִי כְּלֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ מִזְּהָבִי וּמִכַּסְפִּי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָךְ וַתַּעֲשִׂי לָךְ צַלְמֵי זָכָר וַתִּזְנִי בָם:
male images: Since he compares her to a female harlot, he compares the image to a male who fornicates with her.  
18. And you took your embroidered garments and covered them.   יח. וַתִּקְחִי אֶת בִּגְדֵי רִקְמָתֵךְ וַתְּכַסִּים וְשַׁמְנִי וּקְטָרְתִּי נָתַתְּ לִפְנֵיהֶם:
19. And My bread that I gave you, fine flour, oil, and honey I gave you to eat, and you placed it before them for a pleasant odor. So it was, says the Lord God.   יט. וְלַחְמִי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָךְ סֹלֶת וָשֶׁמֶן וּדְבַשׁ הֶאֱכַלְתִּיךְ וּנְתַתִּיהוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ וַיֶּהִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה:
And My bread that I gave you: The day they made the Calf, the manna descended for them and they placed some of it before the Calf. Nonetheless, ‘so it was’ on the morrow, and it did not cease. Even this is delineated in the Book of Ezra (Neh. 9:18ff.): “Even when they made for themselves a molten calf, etc. And You, with Your manifold mercies, did not forsake them, etc., and You did not withhold Your manna from their mouth.” It was fitting to withhold it from them, yet You did not withhold it. [Scripture writes] here, too, “so it was, says the Lord God” the bread was, and it did not stop falling on the next day. So did Rabbi Tanchuma expound on it (Buber, Re’eh 13a).  
20. Then you took your sons and your daughters that you bore for Me, and you slaughtered them for them to eat. Were your harlotries a trivial matter,   כ. וַתִּקְחִי אֶת בָּנַיִךְ וְאֶת בְּנוֹתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר יָלַדְתְּ לִי וַתִּזְבָּחִים לָהֶם לֶאֱכוֹל הַמְעַט מִתַּזְנוּתָיִךְ:
that you bore for Me: If one had five sons, four of them were devoted to worshipping idols, and one he would set aside to attend school; and when he comes to offer up one of his sons to Molech, he offers up to it this one whom he had set aside to study Torahin the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma. But I say that “that you bore for Me” refers to the firstborn. Likewise, it is stated in this Book (20:26): “And I defiled them with their gifts, when they caused every one who opened the womb to pass.”  
21. That you slaughtered My children and gave them over by passing them over to them?   כא. וַתִּשְׁחֲטִי אֶת בָּנָי וַתִּתְּנִים בְּהַעֲבִיר אוֹתָם לָהֶם:
22. And with all your abominations and your harlotries, you did not remember the days of your youth; when you were naked and bare, and you were downtrodden in your blood.   כב. וְאֵת כָּל תּוֹעֲבֹתַיִךְ וְתַזְנֻתַיִךְ לֹא זָכַרְתְּ אֶת יְמֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ בִּהְיוֹתֵךְ עֵרֹם וְעֶרְיָה מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת בְּדָמֵךְ הָיִית:
the days of your youth: My acts of kindness that I performed for you in Egypt.  
23. What will be after all your evil? Woe, woe is to you, says the Lord God.   כג. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי כָּל רָעָתֵךְ אוֹי אוֹי לָךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה:
Woe, woe is to you: Woe is to you because you have sinned! Woe is to you because you have not repented!  
24. You built yourself an eminent place, and you made yourself a lofty place in every square.   כד. וַתִּבְנִי לָךְ גָּב וַתַּעֲשִׂי לָךְ רָמָה בְּכָל רְחוֹב:
You built yourself an eminent place: Heb. גָב, a height such as pedestal or an altar.  
You built: Heb. וַתִּבְנִי, an expression for building.  
25. At the head of every road you built your lofty place, and you made your beauty an abomination; you spread your legs to every passerby, and you increased your harlotries.   כה. אֶל כָּל רֹאשׁ דֶּרֶךְ בָּנִית רָמָתֵךְ וַתְּתַעֲבִי אֶת יָפְיֵךְ וַתְּפַשְּׂקִי אֶת רַגְלַיִךְ לְכָל עוֹבֵר וַתַּרְבִּי אֶת תַּזְנוּתָיִךְ:
you spread your legs: Since He compares her to a harlot, He speaks in terms of sexual activity, in which there is spreading of the legs, a cesmas in Old French, you spread wide apart.  
26. You played the harlot with the sons of Egypt, your neighbors great of flesh, and you increased your harlotry to provoke Me.   כו. וַתִּזְנִי אֶל בְּנֵי מִצְרַיִם שְׁכֵנַיִךְ גִּדְלֵי בָשָׂר וַתַּרְבִּי אֶת תַּזְנֻתֵךְ לְהַכְעִסֵנִי:
great of flesh: Having a large male organ.  
27. Now behold, I stretched out My hand over you, and I diminished your ration, and I delivered you to the will of those who hate you, the daughters of the Philistines, who were embarrassed by your lewd way.   כז. וְהִנֵּה נָטִיתִי יָדִי עָלַיִךְ וָאֶגְרַע חֻקֵּךְ וָאֶתְּנֵךְ בְּנֶפֶשׁ שׂנְאֹתַיִךְ בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים הַנִּכְלָמוֹת מִדַּרְכֵּךְ זִמָּה:
your ration: Your food, in the days that the judges judged.  
and I delivered you to the will of those who hate you: in the days of Samson.  
who were embarrassed by your lewd way: Jonathan [paraphrases]: For had I sent My prophets to them, they would have humbled themselves, and they would not have gone in the way of your lewdness.  
28. And you played the harlot with the people of Assyria because you were not sated, and you played the harlot with them, but still you were not sated.   כח. וַתִּזְנִי אֶל בְּנֵי אַשּׁוּר מִבִּלְתִּי שָׂבְעָתֵךְ וַתִּזְנִים וְגַם לֹא שָׂבָעַתְּ:
because you were not sated: Because you were not sated with the abominations of Egypt.  
and you played the harlot with them: Heb. וַתִּזְנִים, from the term for harlotry (זְנוּת), e ansera[s] a els.  
29. And you increased your harlotry with the land of Canaan, with the Chaldeans, and even with this you were not sated.   כט. וַתַּרְבִּי אֶת תַּזְנוּתֵךְ אֶל אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן כַּשְׂדִּימָה וְגַם בְּזֹאת לֹא שָׂבָעַתְּ:
with the land of Canaan, with the Chaldeans: The Chaldeans were not from the land of Canaan, but this is its meaning: You added the images of the Chaldeans to those of the Canaanites, who were near you, and you played the harlot with them. However Jonathan rendered: You increased your harlotries with the Chaldeans and You became like the Canaanites, who were steeped in idolatry, and you increased your gods, joining the people of Canaan who follow the customs of the Chaldeans. But to me it appears that כְּנַעַן is like סוֹחֵר, a merchant, like (Hosea 12:8): “A trafficker (כְּנַעַן) who has deceitful scales in his hand.” He thus calls the land of the Chaldeans the land of the merchants, as it is said [concerning Babylon, too,] (17: 4): “and he brought it to the land of merchants (כְּנַעַן), in a city of traffickers he placed it.”  
30. How degenerate is your heart! says the Lord God, when you do all these things-the deed of a harlot dominated [by passion].   ל. מָה אֲמֻלָה לִבָּתֵךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה בַּעֲשׂוֹתֵךְ אֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה מַעֲשֵׂה אִשָּׁה זוֹנָה שַׁלָּטֶת:
How degenerate: Heb. אֲמֻלָה, spoiled. Similarly (Neh. 3:34): “the feeble (הָאֲמֵלָלִים) Jews,” and similarly (Ps. 6:3), “because I languish (אֻמְלַל).”  
your heart: Heb. לִבָּתֵ, like לִבֵּךּ.  
dominated: Heb. שַּׁלָּטֶת, whose evil inclination dominates her.  
31. When you build your eminent place at the head of every road and you make your lofty place in every square, but you are not like a harlot to boast of a hire.   לא. בִּבְנוֹתַיִךְ גַּבֵּךְ בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל דֶּרֶךְ וְרָמָתֵךְ עָשִׂית בְּכָל רְחוֹב וְלֹא הָיִית כַּזּוֹנָה לְקַלֵּס אֶתְנָן:
When you build your eminent place: Heb. בִּבְנוֹתַיִךּ, like בִּבְנוֹתֵךּ, from the word for building.  
to boast of a hire: Heb. לְּקַלֵס, to speak and to boast of the fine hire that they give her. Similarly, every form of קֶלֶס is an expression of speech, parliz in Old French, boastful, empty talk.  
hire: Heb. אֶתְנַן, an expression for hire, loyez in old French.  
32. [You are] the adulterous wife, who, under her husband, takes strangers.   לב. הָאִשָּׁה הַמְּנָאָפֶת תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ תִּקַּח אֶת זָרִים:
the adulterous wife: You are the adulterous wife.  
who, under her husband, takes strangers: While she is under her husband, [she] casts her eyes on others.  
33. To all harlots they give gifts, but you gave your gifts to all your lovers, and you bribed them to come to you from around because of your harlotries.   לג. לְכָל זֹנוֹת יִתְּנוּ נֵדֶה וְאַתְּ נָתַתְּ אֶת נְדָנַיִךְ לְכָל מְאַהֲבַיִךְ וַתִּשְׁחֳדִי אוֹתָם לָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ מִסָּבִיב בְּתַזְנוּתָיִךְ:
gifts: Heb. נֵדֶה, a dowry.  
because of your harlotries: Because of the great [lust for] harlotry that was in you, you did so.  
34. With you was the opposite of [other] women because of your harlotries, and after you, there was no such harlotry, and when you gave hire and it was not given to you, you were the opposite.   לד. וַיְהִי בָךְ הֵפֶךְ מִן הַנָּשִׁים בְּתַזְנוּתַיִךְ וְאַחֲרַיִךְ לֹא זוּנָּה וּבְתִתֵּךְ אֶתְנָן וְאֶתְנַן לֹא נִתַּן לָךְ וַתְּהִי לְהֶפֶךְ:
there was no such harlotry: No harlotry was done with any harlot like your harlotry.  
35. Therefore, [you] harlot, listen to the word of the Lord.   לה. לָכֵן זוֹנָה שִׁמְעִי דְּבַר יְהֹוָה:
36. So said the Lord God: Because your bottom was poured out and your nakedness was uncovered because of your harlotries with your lovers, and because of all your abominable idols, and according to the blood of your sons, which you gave them.   לו. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה יַעַן הִשָּׁפֵךְ נְחֻשְׁתֵּךְ וַתִּגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתֵךְ בְּתַזְנוּתַיִךְ עַל מְאַהֲבָיִךְ וְעַל כָּל גִּלּוּלֵי תוֹעֲבוֹתַיִךְ וְכִדְמֵי בָנַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתְּ לָהֶם:
your bottom was poured out: Heb. נְחֻשְּׁתֵךּ. This is a term for a bottom, which is called fonz in old French, bottom. And so [is this word] many [times] in the [Mishnaic] order of Tohoroth (Kelim 8:3): “the base (נְחֻשְּׁתוֹ) of a stove.”  
your bottom was poured out: Because of the great lust for harlotry. your ‘fountain’ would flow.  
and because of all your abominable idols: Heb. וְעַל.  
and according to the blood of your sons: And for the iniquity of the blood of your sons I will do to you this evil delineated in the chapter: “Behold I gather etc.”  
37. Therefore, behold I gather all your lovers with whom you mingled, and all whom you loved with all whom you hated, and I shall gather them against you from around and I shall expose your nakedness to them, and they will see all your nakedness.   לז. לָכֵן הִנְנִי מְקַבֵּץ אֶת כָּל מְאַהֲבַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר עָרַבְתְּ עֲלֵיהֶם וְאֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתְּ עַל כָּל אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵאת וְקִבַּצְתִּי אֹתָם עָלַיִךְ מִסָּבִיב וְגִלֵּיתִי עֶרְוָתֵךְ אֲלֵהֶם וְרָאוּ אֶת כָּל עֶרְוָתֵךְ:
you mingled: Heb. עָרַבְתְּ, mellas in Old French.  
38. And I shall judge you [with] the judgments of adulteresses and murderesses, and I shall deliver you [to those who shed] blood with fury and zeal.   לח. וּשְׁפַטְתִּיךְ מִשְׁפְּטֵי נֹאֲפוֹת וְשֹׁפְכֹת דָּם וּנְתַתִּיךְ דַּם חֵמָה וְקִנְאָה:
and I shall deliver you [to those who shed] blood with fury and zeal: And I shall deliver you to those who slay with fury and zeal and anger.  
39. And I shall deliver you into their hands, and they will demolish your eminent place, and they will break down your lofty places and strip you of your clothing and take the vessels of your glory and leave you naked and bare.   לט. וְנָתַתִּי אֹתָךְ בְּיָדָם וְהָרְסוּ גַבֵּךְ וְנִתְּצוּ רָמֹתַיִךְ וְהִפְשִׁיטוּ אוֹתָךְ בְּגָדַיִךְ וְלָקְחוּ כְּלֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ וְהִנִּיחוּךְ עֵירֹם וְעֶרְיָה:
and they will demolish your eminent place: Your tall ceremonial buildings.  
and your lofty places: An expression used for high altars.  
40. And they will raise up a mob against you and pelt you with stones, and they will pierce you with their swords.   מ. וְהֶעֱלוּ עָלַיִךְ קָהָל וְרָגְמוּ אוֹתָךְ בָּאָבֶן וּבִתְּקוּךְ בְּחַרְבוֹתָם:
and pierce you: Heb. וּבִתְּקוּ. There is no similar word elsewhere in Scripture, and Jonathan rendered וְיִבְזְעוּנִיךּ, and they will pierce you, e tre[s] perzeront toy in Old French.  
41. And they will burn your houses with fire and will inflict judgments upon you before the eyes of many women, and I shall stop you from [being] a harlot, neither will you any longer give hire.   מא. וְשָׂרְפוּ בָתַּיִךְ בָּאֵשׁ וְעָשׂוּ בָךְ שְׁפָטִים לְעֵינֵי נָשִׁים רַבּוֹת וְהִשְׁבַּתִּיךְ מִזּוֹנָה וְגַם אֶתְנַן לֹא תִתְּנִי עוֹד:
and I shall stop you from a harlot: From being a harlot.  
42. And I shall relieve My fury in you, and My jealousy will depart from you, and I shall be quiet and be angry no longer.   מב. וַהֲנִחֹתִי חֲמָתִי בָּךְ וְסָרָה קִנְאָתִי מִמֵּךְ וְשָׁקַטְתִּי וְלֹא אֶכְעַס עוֹד:
43. Because you did not remember the days of your youth, and you angered Me with all these, I, too, behold I have laid your way on [your] head, says the Lord God, yet you did not make a plan concerning all your abominations.   מג. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא זָכַרְתְּ אֶת יְמֵי נְעוּרַיִךְ וַתִּרְגְּזִי לִי בְּכָל אֵלֶּה וְגַם אֲנִי הֵא דַּרְכֵּךְ | בְּרֹאשׁ נָתַתִּי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְלֹא עָשִׂית אֶת הַזִּמָּה עַל כָּל תּוֹעֲבֹתָיִךְ:
behold: Heb. הֵא, like הִנֵה.  
yet you did not make a plan: Although I have given your way on your head, you have not made a plan to ponder your abominations, to repent of them. Every זִמָה in Scripture is an expression of counsel, sometimes for good and sometimes for bad.  
44. Behold, whoever uses proverb will use this proverb about you, saying, "Like mother, like daughter."   מד. הִנֵּה כָּל הַמֹּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ:
whoever uses proverbs: Heb. הַמֹשֵּׁל. This is an expression of a proverb and a riddle  
“Like mother, like daughter”: Heb. כְּאִמָה בִּתָּה. The ‘hey’ of כְּאִמָה is not a ‘mappiq [aspirate] hey,’ [to read her mother; i.e. it is not the third person possessive] because it does not serve for any noun but it means, as the mother, so is her daughter.  
45. You are your mother's daughter, spewing forth her husband and her children, and you are your sister's sister, who spewed forth their husbands and their children; your mother was a Hittite and your father an Amorite.   מה. בַּת אִמֵּךְ אַתְּ גֹּעֶלֶת אִישָׁהּ וּבָנֶיהָ וַאֲחוֹת אֲחוֹתֵךְ אַתְּ אֲשֶׁר גָּעֲלוּ אַנְשֵׁיהֶן וּבְנֵיהֶן אִמְּכֶן חִתִּית וַאֲבִיכֶן אֱמֹרִי:
your mother’s daughter: The nation of Canaan, whose land you inherited.  
spewing forth her husband and her children: Who so increased their abominations that the land spewed forth its inhabitants, the fathers and the children together.  
and you are your sister’s sister: Sodom, which is next to the land of Israel.  
your mother was a Hittite, etc.: Jonathan renders: Is it not so that your mother Sarah was among the Hittites, yet did not do as their deeds, and your father Abraham was among the Amorites, yet did not follow their counsel!  
46. And your big sister, Samaria she and her daughters who lives at your left, and your sister who was smaller than you, who lives at your right, namely Sodom and her daughters.   מו. וַאֲחוֹתֵךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה שֹׁמְרוֹן הִיא וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל שְׂמֹאולֵךְ וַאֲחוֹתֵךְ הַקְּטַנָּה מִמֵּךְ הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת מִימִינֵךְ סְדֹם וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ:
at your left: Since the territory of Judah was at the southern border of Eretz Israel [and one is considered facing east], all the other tribes were situated at their left [since they are north of Judah].  
47. If only you had gone in their ways and you had done as their abominations, it would have been so very little, but you dealt more corruptly than they in all your ways.   מז. וְלֹא בְדַרְכֵיהֶן הָלַכְתְּ וּכְתוֹעֲבוֹתֵיהֶן עָשִׂית כִּמְעַט קָט וַתַּשְׁחִתִי מֵהֶן בְּכָל דְּרָכָיִךְ:
If only you had gone in their ways: Heb. וְלֹא, if only you had gone in their ways and not committed abominations more than they. Likewise (II Kings 5:17): “Now if only (וָלֹא) your servant to be given.” Likewise (I Sam. 20:14): “And please, if (וְלֹא) I am still alive,” concerning Jonathan, et plut a in French, would that…, if only!  
so very little: Would your abominations have been before Me, had you not committed abominations more than they, but you dealt more corruptly than they. This is also Jonathan’s rendering. Others interpret וְלא בָּדֳרְכֵהֶן הָלֳכְתְּ as its apparent meaning, “and you did not go in their ways,” [and thus follows the reason:] So very little were their abominations in your eyes that you dealt more corruptly than they, pochet in Old French, a little.  
48. As I live, says the Lord God, Sodom your sister has not done as you and your daughters have done.   מח. חַי אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה אִם עָשְׂתָה סְדֹם אֲחוֹתֵךְ הִיא וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית אַתְּ וּבְנוֹתָיִךְ:
49. Behold this was the iniquity of Sodom your sister: pride, abundance of bread, and careless ease were hers and her daughters', and she did not strengthen the hand of the poor and needy.   מט. הִנֵּה זֶה הָיָה עֲו‍ֹן סְדֹם אֲחוֹתֵךְ גָּאוֹן שִׂבְעַת לֶחֶם וְשַׁלְוַת הַשְׁקֵט הָיָה לָהּ וְלִבְנוֹתֶיהָ וְיַד עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לֹא הֶחֱזִיקָה:
50. And they became haughty and did abomination before Me, and I removed them when I saw.   נ. וַתִּגְבְּהֶינָה וַתַּעֲשֶׂינָה תוֹעֵבָה לְפָנָי וָאָסִיר אֶתְהֶן כַּאֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי:
And they became haughty: She and her daughters, as is delineated in Job (28:5): “A land from which bread emerged,” and the entire piece (ibid. 4-9). [The Sodomites grew in haughtiness] until they said, “Let us cause the habit of traveling [lit. the foot] to be forgotten from our land, for they come only to cause us loss.”  
and I removed them when I saw: their way, as the matter that is stated regarding Sodom (Gen. 18:21): “I shall go down and see.”  
51. And Samaria did not sin like half of your sins, but you increased your abominations more than they, and you vindicated your sisters with all your abominations that you did.   נא. וְשֹׁמְרוֹן כַּחֲצִי חַטֹּאתַיִךְ לֹא חָטָאָה וַתַּרְבִּי אֶת תּוֹעֲבוֹתַיִךְ מֵהֵנָּה וַתְּצַדְּקִי אֶת אֲחוֹתַיִךְ בְּכָל תּוֹעֲבֹתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית:
and you vindicated your sisters: Before you had committed abominations more than they, they would have been a judged guilty, but since you became more wicked than they, you made them [appear] as righteous women, and you gave them an excuse to say, “There are some who have provoked you more than I.”  
52. You too, bear your disgrace that you judged your sister; with your sins that you have committed abomination more than they, they will be more righteous than you; and you too, be ashamed and bear your disgrace when you vindicate your sister!   נב. גַּם אַתְּ | שְׂאִי כְלִמָּתֵךְ אֲשֶׁר פִּלַּלְתְּ לַאֲחוֹתֵךְ בְּחַטֹּאתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר הִתְעַבְתְּ מֵהֵן תִּצְדַּקְנָה מִמֵּךְ וְגַם אַתְּ בּוֹשִׁי וּשְׂאִי כְלִמָּתֵךְ בְּצַדֶּקְתֵּךְ אַחְיוֹתֵךְ:
that you judged: That you judged them; before you behaved more wickedly than they, you used to say about them that they are fit for punishment.  
53. And I shall return their captivity and the captivity of Sodom and her daughters and the captivity of Samaria and her daughters and the captivity of your captives in their midst.   נג. וְשַׁבְתִּי אֶת שְׁבִיתְהֶן אֶת שְׁבוּת סְדֹם וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת שְׁבוּת שֹׁמְרוֹן וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ וּשְׁבוּת שְׁבִיתַיִךְ בְּתוֹכָהְנָה:
the captivity of Sodom: Heb. שְּׁבוּת. I shall cure the land of brimstone and salt, and I shall settle it with inhabitants.  
in their midst: Heb. בְּתוֹכָהְנָה, like בְּתוֹכָן.  
54. In order that you bear your disgrace and that you be humiliated because of all that you did, in that you consoled them.   נד. לְמַעַן תִּשְׂאִי כְלִמָּתֵךְ וְנִכְלַמְתְּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית בְּנַחֲמֵךְ אֹתָן:
in that you consoled them: when you became more wicked than they, and you gave them an excuse [to neglect righteousness]. Another explanation:  
in that you consoled them: When the evil comes upon you, they will be consoled, saying, We have not suffered alone.  
55. And your sisters: Sodom and her daughters shall return to their former state, and Samaria and her daughters shall return to their former state, and you and your daughters shall return to your former state.   נה. וַאֲחוֹתַיִךְ סְדֹם וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ תָּשֹׁבְןָ לְקַדְמָתָן וְשֹׁמְרוֹן וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ תָּשֹׁבְןָ לְקַדְמָתָן וְאַתְּ וּבְנוֹתַיִךְ תְּשֻׁבֶינָה לְקַדְמַתְכֶן:
56. Now, was not Sodom your sister a report in your mouth on the day of your pride?   נו. וְלוֹא הָיְתָה סְדֹם אֲחוֹתֵךְ לִשְׁמוּעָה בְּפִיךְ בְּיוֹם גְּאוֹנָיִךְ:
Now, was not Sodom your sister, etc.: This is a [rhetorical] question.  
a report in your mouth: [by which] to reprove many and to say, Beware that you should not be overturned like Sodom, as though it were recent news to you.  
on the day of your pride: When you were in your greatness.  
57. Before your evil was revealed, like at the time of the taunt by the daughters of Aram and all those around her, the daughters of the Philistines, who disgraced you from around.   נז. בְּטֶרֶם תִּגָּלֶה רָעָתֵךְ כְּמוֹ עֵת חֶרְפַּת בְּנוֹת אֲרָם וְכָל סְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים הַשָּׁאטוֹת אוֹתָךְ מִסָּבִיב:
like [at] the time of the taunt by the daughters of Aram: As it was revealed when I delivered you into the hands of the kings of Aram, who attacked Ahaz (II Kings 15:36); “In those days, the Lord began to incite Rezin the king of Aram. etc.” ; (II Chron. 28:5), “And the Lord his God delivered him into the hands of the king of Aram, etc.” ; (ibid. verse 18),"And the Philistines invaded the cities of the plain and the south, etc.  
who disgraced you: Heb. הֳשָּׁאטוֹת, an expression for disgrace. The ‘aleph’ is not sounded. וַיִבֶז, despised (Gen. 25:34), is translated as וְשָּׁט [in Targum Onkelos].  
58. Your lewdness and your abominations-you bore them, says the Lord.   נח. אֶת זִמָּתֵךְ וְאֶת תּוֹעֲבוֹתַיִךְ אַתְּ נְשָׂאתִים נְאֻם יְהֹוָה:
you bore them: Heb. נְשָּׂאתִים, you bore them. This is a feminine form [used] in many places in this Book.  
59. For so said the Lord God: I have done with you as you did, that you despised an oath to violate a covenant.   נט. כִּי כֹה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה וְעָשִׂיתִי אוֹתָךְ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית אֲשֶׁר בָּזִית אָלָה לְהָפֵר בְּרִית:
I have done with you, etc.: I have done evil to you commensurate to your [ungrateful] repayment [to Me] which you made.  
that you despised an oath, etc.: That one that you accepted upon yourself in Horeb (Deut. 29: 11): “That you pass into the covenant of the Lord your God, etc.” But I shall not violate the covenant by not remembering it, because I am not like you.  
60. But I shall remember My covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I shall establish for you an everlasting covenant.   ס. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָךְ בִּימֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ וַהֲקִמוֹתִי לָךְ בְּרִית עוֹלָם:
But I shall remember My covenant: That was with you in the days of your youth.  
61. And you will remember your ways, and you will be humiliated when you take your sisters, [joining] those greater than you to those smaller than you, and I shall give them to you for daughters, but not from your covenant.   סא. וְזָכַרְתְּ אֶת דְּרָכַיִךְ וְנִכְלַמְתְּ בְּקַחְתֵּךְ אֶת אֲחוֹתַיִךְ הַגְּדֹלוֹת מִמֵּךְ אֶל הַקְּטַנּוֹת מִמֵּךְ וְנָתַתִּי אֶתְהֶן לָךְ לְבָנוֹת וְלֹא מִבְּרִיתֵךְ:
And you will remember: when I improve you evil ways for you, and you will be humiliated before Me for repaying Me with evil whereas I paid you with good.  
when you take your sisters: When you conquer to inherit the nations that are around you, the small and the great.  
for daughters: For your suburbs, subordinate to you, like (verse 55): “Sodom and her daughters,” [translated by Jonathan as] וְכָפְרָנָהָא, its suburbs.  
but not from your covenant: But not because of your observance of the covenant that I made with you, but because of My kindnesses and My mercies, [namely] that I observe My covenant. Midrash Aggadah of Rabbi Tanchuma (Buber, Devarim 3a) states: but not from your covenant (מִבְּרִיתֵ) not from your ‘patromonia’: I did not grant them to Abraham your father [in the covenant] ‘between the segments’ (Gen. 15:1). This term is close to the French, for now, kinship is called patremone, patrimony, and this is what they call anything a person has from the inheritance of his fathers.  
62. And I shall establish My covenant with you, and you will know that I am the Lord.   סב. וַהֲקִימוֹתִי אֲנִי אֶת בְּרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וְיָדַעַתְּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה:
63. In order that you remember and be ashamed, and you will no longer have an excuse by reason of your humiliation, when I forgive you for all that you have done," says the Lord God.   סג. לְמַעַן תִּזְכְּרִי וָבֹשְׁתְּ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לָּךְ עוֹד פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה מִפְּנֵי כְּלִמָּתֵךְ בְּכַפְּרִי לָךְ לְכָל אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה:
In order that you remember: your way when I do good for you.  
and be ashamed: to raise your face to Me.  
when I forgive you: Heb. בְּכַּפְרִי לָ [lit. in my atoning to you]. When I forgive you for what you have done, you will be ashamed, and you will know that I did not benefit you because of the good that you bestowed upon Me.  
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