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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 50

Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 50

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 50

1. The word that the Lord spoke concerning Babylon, concerning the land of the Chaldeans, by Jeremiah the prophet.   א. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה אֶל בָּבֶל אֶל אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים בְּיַד יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא:
2. Tell among the nations and let it be heard and raise a standard; let them hear and do not hide it. Say, "Babylon has been taken, Bel has been shamed, Merodach is dismayed, her images have been shamed, her idols have been dismayed.   ב. הַגִּידוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְהַשְׁמִיעוּ וּשְׂאוּ נֵס הַשְׂמִיעוּ אַל תְּכַחֵדוּ אִמְרוּ נִלְכְּדָה בָבֶל הֹבִישׁ בֵּל חַת מְרֹדָךְ הֹבִישׁוּ עֲצַבֶּיהָ חַתּוּ גִּלּוּלֶיהָ:
and raise a standard: (Perche in French.) That is a signal for gathering.  
Bel… Merodach: The names of the Babylonian deities.  
3. For a nation has marched against her from the north; he shall make her land a desolation, and no one shall dwell therein; both man and beast have wandered, yea they have gone.   ג. כִּי עָלָה עָלֶיהָ גּוֹי מִצָּפוֹן הוּא יָשִׁית אֶת אַרְצָהּ לְשַׁמָּה וְלֹא יִהְיֶה יוֹשֵׁב בָּהּ מֵאָדָם וְעַד בְּהֵמָה נָדוּ הָלָכוּ:
a nation… from the north: [viz.] Persia and Media.  
4. In those days and in that time, says the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together; they shall go along weeping, and they shall seek the Lord their God.   ד. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה וּבָעֵת הַהִיא נְאֻם יְהֹוָה יָבֹאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה וּבְנֵי יְהוּדָה יַחְדָּו הָלוֹךְ וּבָכוֹ יֵלֵכוּ וְאֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם יְבַקֵּשׁוּ:
5. They shall inquire of Zion; their faces are directed hitherward. "Come and join the Lord [with] an everlasting covenant that shall not be forgotten."   ה. צִיּוֹן יִשְׁאָלוּ דֶּרֶךְ הֵנָּה פְנֵיהֶם בֹּאוּ וְנִלְווּ אֶל יְהֹוָה בְּרִית עוֹלָם לֹא תִשָּׁכֵחַ:
are directed hitherward: Toward this place, Jerusalem, they shall direct their faces when Babylon will be destroyed and they will leave it with the sanction of Cyrus, king of Persia.  
6. My people were lost sheep, their shepherds caused them to stray, [to the] mountains [they] led them astray; from mountain to hill they went, they forgot their resting place.   ו. צֹאן אֹבְדוֹת הָיוּ עַמִּי רֹעֵיהֶם הִתְעוּם הָרִים שׁוֹבְבוּם מֵהַר אֶל גִּבְעָה הָלָכוּ שָׁכְחוּ רִבְצָם:
their shepherds caused them to stray: Their kings caused them to stray away from Me.  
mountains… led them astray: To the mountains, to the idol worship that was on the mountains. שׁוֹבְבוּם (esvayent in O.F.), led astray, their kings led them astray. And Jonathan rendered: their governors plundered them.  
7. All who found them devoured them, and their adversaries said, "We are not to blame because they sinned against the Lord, the habitation of justice and the hope of their forefathers-the Lord."   ז. כָּל מֹצְאֵיהֶם אֲכָלוּם וְצָרֵיהֶם אָמְרוּ לֹא נֶאְשָׁם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ לַיהֹוָה נְוֵה צֶדֶק וּמִקְוֵה אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם יְהֹוָה:
and the hope of their forefathers: Jonathan renders: וְסִבּוּר אֲבָהָתְהוֹן, and the hope of their forefathers.  
8. Wander out of Babylon and go out of the land of the Chaldeans, and be like the he-goats before the flocks.   ח. נֻדוּ מִתּוֹךְ בָּבֶל וּמֵאֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים צֵאוּ וִהְיוּ כְּעַתּוּדִים לִפְנֵי צֹאן:
Wander out of Babylon: Accordingly, go out of there.  
like the he goats before the flocks: It is customary for the he-goats to go before the flock, at the head of the she-goats.  
9. For behold I am arousing and bringing up upon Babylon an alliance of great nations from the north land, and they shall set themselves in array against her, from there she shall be taken; his arrows are like [those of] a mighty man who bereaves, it shall not return empty.   ט. כִּי הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מֵעִיר וּמַעֲלֶה עַל בָּבֶל קְהַל גּוֹיִם גְּדֹלִים מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן וְעָרְכוּ לָהּ מִשָּׁם תִּלָּכֵד חִצָּיו כְּגִבּוֹר מַשְׁכִּיל לֹא יָשׁוּב רֵיקָם:
and they shall set themselves in array against her: They shall array themselves in battle against her.  
10. And the [land of the] Chaldeans shall become a prey; all who prey upon it shall be sated, says the Lord.   י. וְהָיְתָה כַשְׂדִּים לְשָׁלָל כָּל שֹׁלְלֶיהָ יִשְׂבָּעוּ נְאֻם יְהֹוָה:
11. As you rejoice, as you jubilate, O spoilers of My heritage, as you become fat like a threshing heifer, and you neigh as strong horses,   יא. כִּי תִשְׂמְחוּ כִּי תַעַלְזוּ שֹׁסֵי נַחֲלָתִי כִּי תָפוּשׁוּ כְּעֶגְלָה דָשָׁה וְתִצְהֲלוּ כָּאַבִּרִים:
O spoilers of My heritage: Heb. שֹּׁסֵי.  
as you become fat: Heb. תפושו, an expression of fat.  
a threshing heifer: Heb. דשא, a heifer that threshes the grain and eats constantly.  
12. your mother has been exceedingly shamed, she who bore you has been embarrassed; behold the end of the nations is desert, wasteland, and a barren plain.   יב. בּוֹשָׁה אִמְּכֶם מְאֹד חָפְרָה יוֹלַדְתְּכֶם הִנֵּה אַחֲרִית גּוֹיִם מִדְבָּר צִיָּה וַעֲרָבָה:
Your mother: Your nation.  
the end of the nations: Although your beginning was great, your end will be a desert.  
13. Because of the wrath of the Lord, she shall not be inhabited, and all of her shall be desolate; whoever passes by Babylon shall be amazed and hiss about all her plagues.   יג. מִקֶּצֶף יְהֹוָה לֹא תֵשֵׁב וְהָיְתָה שְׁמָמָה כֻּלָּהּ כֹּל עֹבֵר עַל בָּבֶל יִשֹּׁם וְיִשְׁרֹק עַל כָּל מַכּוֹתֶיהָ:
14. Set yourselves in array against Babylon all around, all you who bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrow, for she has sinned against the Lord.   יד. עִרְכוּ עַל בָּבֶל | סָבִיב כָּל דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת יְדוּ אֵלֶיהָ אַל תַּחְמְלוּ אֶל חֵץ כִּי לַיהֹוָה חָטָאָה:
shoot at her: Heb. ידו, cast stones at her. Cf.“And they cast (וידוּ) stones at me” (Lam. 3:53).  
15. Shout against her all around; she gave her hand, her foundations have fallen, her walls are torn down, for it is the Lord's vengeance; wreak vengeance upon her: as she did, do to her.   טו. הָרִיעוּ עָלֶיהָ סָבִיב נָתְנָה יָדָהּ נָפְלוּ אָשְׁיוֹתֶיהָ נֶהֶרְסוּ חוֹמוֹתֶיהָ כִּי נִקְמַת יְהֹוָה הִיא הִנָּקְמוּ בָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עֲשׂוּ לָהּ:
she gave her hand: like a person who has no strength and stretches forth his hand to whomever he sees, to beg mercy and aid. Cf. We gave our hand to Egypt" (Lam. 5:6).  
her foundations have fallen: Heb. אשיותיה. The strength of her foundations. Cf.“And the foundations (וְאֻשַּׁיָא) shall be fastened” (Ezra 4:12). And in the language of the Mishnah: Those who dig for foundations (לְאֻשִׁין) [Baba Kamma 50a]. Cf.“And strengthen yourselves (והתאוששוּ)” (Isa. 46:8), equivalent to והתחזקוּ, and strengthen yourselves.  
as she did: to the city of the Lord.  
16. Cut off a sower from Babylon and one who grasps a sickle at the time of harvest; because of the intoxicating sword, every man shall turn to his people, and every man shall flee to his land.   טז. כִּרְתוּ זוֹרֵעַ מִבָּבֶל וְתֹפֵשׂ מַגָּל בְּעֵת קָצִיר מִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב הַיּוֹנָה אִישׁ אֶל עַמּוֹ יִפְנוּ וְאִישׁ לְאַרְצוֹ יָנוּסוּ:
Cut off a sower: Destroy a king from Babylon and one who grasps a sword in time of slaughter.  
First… devoured him: For he exiled the Ten Tribes.  
broke his bones: He broke his bones, for he finished the leftovers, Judah and Benjamin. עִצְמוֹ (desossa in French), [broke the bones].  
17. A scattered sheep is Israel which lions have driven away. First the king of Assyria devoured him, and this last one broke his bones, Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon.   יז. שֶׂה פְזוּרָה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲרָיוֹת הִדִּיחוּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲכָלוֹ מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וְזֶה הָאַחֲרוֹן עִצְּמוֹ נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל:
18. Therefore, so said the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel; Behold I visit retribution upon the king of Babylon and upon his land, as I visited upon the king of Assyria.   יח. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי פֹקֵד אֶל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאֶל אַרְצוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר פָּקַדְתִּי אֶל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר:
19. And I will return Israel to his dwelling and he shall pasture in the Carmel and the Bashan, and in Mount Ephraim and Gilead shall his soul be sated.   יט. וְשֹׁבַבְתִּי אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל נָוֵהוּ וְרָעָה הַכַּרְמֶל וְהַבָּשָׁן וּבְהַר אֶפְרַיִם וְהַגִּלְעָד תִּשְׂבַּע נַפְשׁוֹ:
and he shall pasture in the Carmel: An expression of pasture.  
20. In those days and at that time, says the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought, but it shall not be there, and the sins of Judah, but they shall not be found, for I will forgive those I leave over.   כ. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּבָעֵת הַהִיא נְאֻם יְהֹוָה יְבֻקַּשׁ אֶת עֲו‍ֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵינֶנּוּ וְאֶת חַטֹּאת יְהוּדָה וְלֹא תִמָּצֶאינָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַאֲשֶׁר אַשְׁאִיר:
21. Upon the rebellious land, march upon her, and upon the inhabitants of Pekod; slay with the sword and utterly destroy after them, says the Lord, and do according to all that I have commanded you.   כא. עַל הָאָרֶץ מְרָתַיִם עֲלֵה עָלֶיהָ וְאֶל יוֹשְׁבֵי פְּקוֹד חֲרֹב וְהַחֲרֵם אַחֲרֵיהֶם נְאֻם יְהֹוָה וַעֲשֵׂה כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ:
the rebellious land: Heb. מרתים, which rebelled against Me and provoked Me.  
Pekod: The name of a province. Cf.“Pekod and Shoa and Koa” (Ezekiel 23:23). Jonathan renders [them as] names of provinces.  
and do according to all that I have commanded you: You, Cyrus, through Isaiah the prophet.  
22. The sound of war is in the land and great destruction.   כב. קוֹל מִלְחָמָה בָּאָרֶץ וְשֶׁבֶר גָּדוֹל:
23. How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder and broken? How has Babylon become a desolation among the nations?   כג. אֵיךְ נִגְדַּע וַיִּשָּׁבֵר פַּטִּישׁ כָּל הָאָרֶץ אֵיךְ הָיְתָה לְשַׁמָּה בָּבֶל בַּגּוֹיִם:
the hammer of the whole earth: which would shatter and crush everyone.  
24. I laid a snare for you, and you were also taken, O Babylon, and you were unaware; you were discovered and you were also seized, for you have stricken against the Lord.   כד. יָקֹשְׁתִּי לָךְ וְגַם נִלְכַּדְתְּ בָּבֶל וְאַתְּ לֹא יָדָעַתְּ נִמְצֵאת וְגַם נִתְפַּשְׂתְּ כִּי בַיהֹוָה הִתְגָּרִית:
I laid a snare for you: Heb. יקשתי, an expression of a snare (מוֹקֵש).  
25. The Lord has opened his treasury and has taken out the weapons of His fury, for the Lord God has work in the land of the Chaldeans.   כה. פָּתַח יְהֹוָה אֶת אוֹצָרוֹ וַיּוֹצֵא אֶת כְּלֵי זַעְמוֹ כִּי מְלָאכָה הִיא לַאדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה צְבָאוֹת בְּאֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים:
26. Come against her from the border, open her gates, thresh her like stacks of grain and utterly destroy her: let her have no remnant.   כו. בֹּאוּ לָהּ מִקֵּץ פִּתְחוּ מַאֲבֻסֶיהָ סָלּוּהָ כְמוֹ עֲרֵמִים וְהַחֲרִימוּהָ אַל תְּהִי לָהּ שְׁאֵרִית:
Come against her from her border: From the end of the city, commence upon her, that she not know, and she will be taken suddenly.  
open her gates: Jonathan renders: אִבּוּלָהָא, her gates, but it has no similar instance [in Scripture]. Menahem (Machbereth p. 14) classifies it as an expression of a manger.  
thresh her: Heb. סלוה.  
stacks: Granaries.  
27. Slay all her bulls with the sword, let them go down to the slaughter; woe is to them for their day has come, the time of their visitation.   כז. חִרְבוּ כָּל פָּרֶיהָ יֵרְדוּ לַטָּבַח הוֹי עֲלֵיהֶם כִּי בָא יוֹמָם עֵת פְּקֻדָּתָם:
all her bulls: Her princes. So is the custom of the prophets to compare the princes to mighty bulls and to he-goats.  
28. Hearken to those fleeing and escaping from the land of Babylon to tell in Zion the vengeance of the Lord our God, the vengeance of His Temple.   כח. קוֹל נָסִים וּפְלֵטִים מֵאֶרֶץ בָּבֶל לְהַגִּיד בְּצִיּוֹן אֶת נִקְמַת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ נִקְמַת הֵיכָלֹו:
29. Gather archers against Babylon, all those who bend the bow, encamp against her all around. Let her have no escape. Recompense her according to her deed; according to all that she has done, do to her, for she has dealt wickedly with the Lord, with the Holy One of Israel.   כט. הַשְׁמִיעוּ אֶל בָּבֶל | רַבִּים כָּל דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת חֲנוּ עָלֶיהָ סָבִיב אַל יְהִי לָהּ פְּלֵיטָה שַׁלְּמוּ לָהּ כְּפָעֳלָהּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עֲשׂוּ לָהּ כִּי אֶל יְהֹוָה זָדָה אֶל קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Gather archers against Babylon: Heb. השמיעו, an expression similar to: “And Saul called the people together (וַיְשַׁמַע) ” (I Sam. 15:4). Call out that archers assemble against Babylon. Cf.“His archers (רַבָּיו) surround me” (Job 16:13).  
30. Therefore, her youths shall fall in her broad places, and all her warriors they shall be cut off on that day, says the Lord.   ל. לָכֵן יִפְּלוּ בַחוּרֶיהָ בִּרְחֹבֹתֶיהָ וְכָל אַנְשֵׁי מִלְחַמְתָּהּ יִדַּמּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהֹוָה:
Therefore: An expression of an oath.  
31. Behold I am against you, O [man of] wickedness, says the Lord God of Hosts, for your day has come, the time I visit retribution upon you.   לא. הִנְנִי אֵלֶיךָ זָדוֹן נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה צְבָאוֹת כִּי בָּא יוֹמְךָ עֵת פְּקַדְתִּיךָ:
32. And [the man of] wickedness shall stumble and fall, and he shall have no one to raise him up, and I will kindle fire in his cities, and it shall consume all those around him.   לב. וְכָשַׁל זָדוֹן וְנָפַל וְאֵין לֹו מֵקִים וְהִצַּתִּי אֵשׁ בְּעָרָיו וְאָכְלָה כָּל סְבִיבֹתָיו:
33. So said the Lord of Hosts: The children of Israel and the children of Judah are plundered together, and all their captors have held onto them, they have refused to release them.   לג. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת עֲשׁוּקִים בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְנֵי יְהוּדָה יַחְדָּו וְכָל שֹׁבֵיהֶם הֶחֱזִיקוּ בָם מֵאֲנוּ שַׁלְּחָם:
34. Their Redeemer is mighty; the Lord of Hosts is His name, He shall surely plead their cause, in order to give rest to the earth and unrest to the inhabitants of Babylon.   לד. גֹּאֲלָם | חָזָק יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ רִיב יָרִיב אֶת רִיבָם לְמַעַן הִרְגִּיעַ אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִרְגִּיז לְיֹשְׁבֵי בָבֶל:
in order to give rest to the earth: When Babylon falls, there will be rest and peace for all.  
35. A sword is upon the Chaldeans, says the Lord, and upon the inhabitants of Babylon and upon her princes and upon her wise men.   לה. חֶרֶב עַל כַּשְׂדִּים נְאֻם יְהֹוָה וְאֶל יֹשְׁבֵי בָבֶל וְאֶל שָׂרֶיהָ וְאֶל חֲכָמֶיהָ:
36. A sword is upon the imposters and they shall become foolish; a sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall become dismayed.   לו. חֶרֶב אֶל הַבַּדִּים וְנֹאָלוּ חֶרֶב אֶל גִּבּוֹרֶיהָ וָחָתּוּ:
upon the imposters: Heb. הבדים, to her diviners.  
and they shall become foolish: with their divining. Similar to this is: “Who frustrates the signs of imposters” (Isa. 44:25), and so did Jonathan render. They are called בּדים because they fabricate (בּוֹדִים) and say false things.  
37. A sword is upon his horses and upon his chariots and upon all the allies who are in her midst, and they shall become [like] women; a sword is upon her treasuries, and they shall be spoiled.   לז. חֶרֶב אֶל סוּסָיו וְאֶל רִכְבּוֹ וְאֶל כָּל הָעֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָהּ וְהָיוּ לְנָשִׁים חֶרֶב אֶל אוֹצְרֹתֶיהָ וּבֻזָּזוּ:
the allies: Heb. הערב. Jonathan renders: סוּמְכותא (garantie in French).  
38. A drought is upon her waters, and they shall dry up, for it is a land of graven images, and they are mad upon things of horror.   לח. חֹרֶב אֶל מֵימֶיהָ וְיָבֵשׁוּ כִּי אֶרֶץ פְּסִלִים הִיא וּבָאֵימִים יִתְהֹלָלוּ:
and they are mad upon things of horror: Heb. יתהללו, they shall become mad. Another interpretation: (Pour vanter in French) in order to boast. And so did Jonathan render: משתבּחין, they boast, [i.e.,] with the gods of the giants that they had.  
39. Therefore, martens shall dwell with cats, and ostriches shall dwell therein, and it shall never again be settled until eternity, neither shall it be inhabited from generation to generation.   לט. לָכֵן יֵשְׁבוּ צִיִּים אֶת אִיִּים וְיָשְׁבוּ בָהּ בְּנוֹת יַעֲנָה וְלֹא תֵשֵׁב עוֹד לָנֶצַח וְלֹא תִשְׁכּוֹן עַד דּוֹר וָדוֹר:
martens… with cats: Jonathan [renders]: And martens shall meet cats. [These are] species of animals found in ruins.  
40. Like God's overturning Sodom and Gemorrah and her neighbors, says the Lord, no man shall dwell there, and no man shall sojourn therein.   מ. כְּמַהְפֵּכַת אֱלֹהִים אֶת סְדֹם וְאֶת עֲמֹרָה וְאֶת שְׁכֵנֶיהָ נְאֻם יְהֹוָה לֹא יֵשֵׁב שָׁם אִישׁ וְלֹא יָגוּר בָּהּ בֶּן אָדָם:
41. Behold a people is coming from the north, and a great nation and great kings shall be aroused from the ends of the earth.   מא. הִנֵּה עַם בָּא מִצָּפוֹן וְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וּמְלָכִים רַבִּים יֵעֹרוּ מִיַּרְכְּתֵי אָרֶץ:
42. They grasp bow and spear; they are cruel, having no mercy; their voice is like the roaring sea, and they ride on steeds, arrayed like a man for war, against you, O daughter of Babylon.   מב. קֶשֶׁת וְכִידֹן יַחֲזִיקוּ אַכְזָרִי הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְרַחֵמוּ קוֹלָם כַּיָּם יֶהֱמֶה וְעַל סוּסִים יִרְכָּבוּ עָרוּךְ כְּאִישׁ לַמִּלְחָמָה עָלַיִךְ בַּת בָּבֶל:
43. The king of Babylon has heard the report of them, and his hands have become feeble; distress has grasped him, pangs like a woman in confinement.   מג. שָׁמַע מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל אֶת שִׁמְעָם וְרָפוּ יָדָיו צָרָה הֶחֱזִיקַתְהוּ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה:
44. Behold, as a lion that ascends from the heights of the Jordan to a strong dwelling, when I bring the moment [that] I will hasten them over her, for who is like Me and who will appoint Me a time, and who is a shepherd who will stand before Me?   מד. הִנֵּה כְּאַרְיֵה יַעֲלֶה מִגְּאוֹן הַיַּרְדֵּן אֶל נְוֵה אֵיתָן כִּי אַרְגִּיעָה אֲרִיצֵם מֵעָלֶיהָ וּמִי בָחוּר אֵלֶיהָ אֶפְקֹד כִּי מִי כָמוֹנִי וּמִי יוֹעִדֶנִּי וּמִי זֶה רֹעֶה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲמֹד לְפָנָי:
Behold, as a lion: that ascends from the heights of the Jordan, so will the spoiler come to the strong dwelling. So did Jonathan paraphrase: Behold a king with his camp shall ascend upon them like a lion that ascends from the height of the Jordan. We learn that the height of the Jordan is a place of lions. Also, in this manner Jonathan renders: “How will you do in the heights of the Jordan” (12:5): Against the wild beasts of the heights of the Jordan.  
when I bring the moment: Heb. ארגיעה, when I bring the time.  
over her: Heb. מעליה.  
and who will appoint Me a time: for war?  
45. Therefore, hearken to the counsel of the Lord, which He advised Babylon, and His plans that He planned concerning the land of the Chaldeans, if the young of the flock will not drag them, if He will not make desolate their dwelling with them.   מה. לָכֵן שִׁמְעוּ עֲצַת יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר יָעַץ אֶל בָּבֶל וּמַחְשְׁבוֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב אֶל אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים אִם לֹא יִסְחָבוּם צְעִירֵי הַצֹּאן אִם לֹא יַשִּׁים עֲלֵיהֶם נָוֶה:
the young of the flock: Persia, the youngest of the sons of Japheth.  
46. From the report that Babylon was taken, the earth quaked, and a cry was heard among the nations.   מו. מִקּוֹל נִתְפְּשָׂה בָבֶל נִרְעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ וּזְעָקָה בַּגּוֹיִם נִשְׁמָע:
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