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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 20

Yirmiyahu - Jeremiah - Chapter 20

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 20

1. And Pashhur son of Immer the priest-he was the chief officer in the house of the Lord-heard Jeremiah prophesying these things.   א. וַיִּשְׁמַע פַּשְׁחוּר בֶּן אִמֵּר הַכֹּהֵן וְהוּא פָקִיד נָגִיד בְּבֵית יְהֹוָה אֶת יִרְמְיָהוּ נִבָּא אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה:
2. And Pashhur struck Jeremiah the prophet and placed him in the prison that is in the upper gate of Benjamin, which is in the house of the Lord.   ב. וַיַּכֶּה פַשְׁחוּר אֵת יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא וַיִּתֵּן אֹתוֹ עַל הַמַּהְפֶּכֶת אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁעַר בִּנְיָמִן הָעֶלְיוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית יְהֹוָה:
and placed him in the prison: the name of a place of a prison, and Jonathan rendered: לכיפתא (arvolud in O.F.), a vault.  
3. And it came to pass on the next day that Pashhur released Jeremiah from the prison, and Jeremiah said to him, "Not Pashhur did the Lord call your name, but Magor Missaviv.   ג. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֹּצֵא פַשְׁחוּר אֶת יִרְמְיָהוּ מִן הַמַּהְפָּכֶת וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יִרְמְיָהוּ לֹא פַשְׁחוּר קָרָא יְהֹוָה שְׁמֶךָ כִּי אִם מָגוֹר מִסָּבִיב:
Magor: Terror.  
Not Passhur did the Lord call your name, etc.: Your name was not called Pashhur except for this matter, that is to say: פֹשַח ֹשָחוֹר, cut off and black like “a tree that was cut off (נִפֹשַח)” (Shevi’ith 4:6, Orlah 1:5). Also (Lam. 3:11), “And He cut me off (וַיִפֹשְחֵנִי).” And so he said to him, Not Pashhur did He call your name, for the expression of Pashhur means a great man and the son of nobles, Pashhur. ‘Pash’ denotes expansion and ‘hur’ nobility. But for this reason your name was called Pashhur, Pashah shahor. ‘Pashah’ means ‘cut off,’ and ‘shahor’ means ‘black.’ Another explanation. ‘Pashah sehor.’ Many will be around you to slay you. Now according to this explanation, מָגוֹר is an expression of gathering, like (Ezekiel 21: 17) “Gathered (מְגוּרֵי) to the sword.”  
4. For so said the Lord: Behold I will make you a terror to yourself and to all your friends, and they shall fall by the sword of their enemies with your eyes seeing, and all of Judah I will deliver into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall exile them to Babylon and strike them with the sword.   ד. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהֹוָה הִנְנִי נֹתֶנְךָ לְמָגוֹר לְךָ וּלְכָל אֹהֲבֶיךָ וְנָפְלוּ בְּחֶרֶב אֹיְבֵיהֶם וְעֵינֶיךָ רֹאוֹת וְאֶת כָּל יְהוּדָה אֶתֵּן בְּיַד מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְהִגְלָם בָּבֶלָה וְהִכָּם בֶּחָרֶב:
5. And I will give all the wealth of this city and all her toil and all her precious things, and all the treasures of the kings of Judah I will deliver into the hand of their enemies, and they shall plunder them and take them and bring them to Babylon.   ה. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת כָּל חֹסֶן הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְאֶת כָּל יְגִיעָהּ וְאֶת כָּל יְקָרָהּ וְאֵת כָּל אוֹצְרוֹת מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה אֶתֵּן בְּיַד אֹיְבֵיהֶם וּבְזָזוּם וּלְקָחוּם וֶהֱבִיאוּם בָּבֶלָה:
the wealth: money.  
6. And you, Pashhur, and all those who dwell in your houses shall go into captivity, and you shall come to Babylon and there you shall die and there you shall be buried, you and all your friends to whom you have prophesied falsely.   ו. וְאַתָּה פַשְׁחוּר וְכֹל יֹשְׁבֵי בֵיתֶךָ תֵּלְכוּ בַּשֶּׁבִי וּבָבֶל תָּבוֹא וְשָׁם תָּמוּת וְשָׁם תִּקָּבֵר אַתָּה וְכָל אֹהֲבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לָהֶם בַּשָּׁקֶר:
7. You enticed me, O Lord, and I was enticed, You overcame me and You prevailed. I have become a laughing-stock; everyone mocks me.   ז. פִּתִּיתַנִי יְהֹוָה וָאֶפָּת חֲזַקְתַּנִי וַתּוּכָל הָיִיתִי לִשְׂחוֹק כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלֹּה לֹעֵג לִי:
You enticed me: to go on your mission.  
You overcame me: You made Your strong hand heavy upon me to go against my will.  
and You prevailed: And You were victorious.  
everyone: All the people mock me.  
8. For whenever I speak, I cry out; I call out violence and spoil, for the word of the Lord has been scorn and mockery for me all day long.   ח. כִּי מִדֵּי אֲדַבֵּר אֶזְעָק חָמָס וָשֹׁד אֶקְרָא כִּי הָיָה דְבַר יְהֹוָה לִי לְחֶרְפָּה וּלְקֶלֶס כָּל הַיּוֹם:
Whenever I speak: Every time I speak to them, I must cry out and raise my voice, and I do not proclaim good for them but prophecies of violence and spoil.  
for the word of the Lord has been… for me: Therefore, they spoke to me with scorn, for they scorn me.  
and mockery: for speech. Comp. (Ezekiel 22:4) “and mockery (וְקַלָּסָה).”  
9. Should I say; I will not mention Him, and I will no longer speak in His name, it would be in my heart like a burning fire, confined in my bones, and I wearied to contain it but was unable.   ט. וְאָמַרְתִּי לֹא אֶזְכְּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא אֲדַבֵּר עוֹד בִּשְׁמוֹ וְהָיָה בְלִבִּי כְּאֵשׁ בֹּעֶרֶת עָצֻר בְּעַצְמֹתָי וְנִלְאֵיתִי כַלְכֵּל וְלֹא אוּכָל:
Should I say: I will not mention Him: If my heart said to me not to go on Your mission anymore.  
it would be in my heart: i.e., the prophecy.  
like a burning fire: And against my will I must go.  
confined in my bones: And as if the fire were confined in my bones.  
to contain: To endure the fire.  
10. For I heard the slander of many, a gathering around; tell and let us tell about him: everyone who was friendly with me awaits my destruction. Perhaps he will be enticed and we will prevail against him, and we will wreak vengeance upon him.   י. כִּי שָׁמַעְתִּי דִּבַּת רַבִּים מָגוֹר מִסָּבִיב הַגִּידוּ וְנַגִּידֶנּוּ כֹּל אֱנוֹשׁ שְׁלֹמִי שֹׁמְרֵי צַלְעִי אוּלַי יְפֻתֶּה וְנוּכְלָה לוֹ וְנִקְחָה נִקְמָתֵנוּ מִמֶּנּוּ:
For I heard: I said that I would not mention Him because I heard the speech of many, those who whisper about me.  
a gathering: an expression of gathering, and so did Jonathan render it.  
tell: false testimony against him.  
and let us tell about him: and let us testify against him. And Menahem (Machbereth p. 53) explained ונגידֶנוּ like (Deut. 14:1) “You shall not cut yourselves (לא תתגודדוּ).” He also joined (Job 17:5) “For the sake of flattering, he destroys (יגיד) his friends.” This is an expression of destruction. Comp. (Dan. 4:11) “Cut down (גֹדוּ) the trees.” But Dunash (Teshuvoth p. 54) interpreted it as an actual expression of telling, and this is its interpretation: “Tell false things about him and we will tell about him to the king.” And we have like נַגִידֶנוּ, we will tell about him, many words in the Scriptures that cannot be interpreted unless they are divided into two words or three. Comp. (Gen. 37:4) “And they could not speak with him (דַבְּרוֹ) peacefully.” Also (supra 10:20), “My children have left me (יצאני).”  
await my destruction: Heb. צַלְעֵי Perhaps he will be enticed.  
to listen to us and to stray after us.: and we will prevail against him to bring him to commit idolatry.  
11. But the Lord is with me as a mighty warrior. Therefore, my pursuers shall stumble and did not prevail. They were very much ashamed for they not succeed, a perpetual shame that will not be forgotten.   יא. וַיהֹוָה אוֹתִי כְּגִבּוֹר עָרִיץ עַל כֵּן רֹדְפַי יִכָּשְׁלוּ וְלֹא יֻכָלוּ בֹּשׁוּ מְאֹד כִּי לֹא הִשְׂכִּילוּ כְּלִמַּת עוֹלָם לֹא תִשָּׁכֵחַ:
for they did not succeed: They did not succeed with their plan.  
12. And the Lord of Hosts tests the righteous, He sees the kidneys and the heart. Let me see Your vengeance from them for to You I have revealed my cause.   יב. וַיהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת בֹּחֵן צַדִּיק רֹאֶה כְלָיוֹת וָלֵב אֶרְאֶה נִקְמָתְךָ מֵהֶם כִּי אֵלֶיךָ גִּלִּיתִי אֶת רִיבִי:
13. Sing to the Lord, praise the Lord, for He has saved the soul of the poor from the hand of evildoers.   יג. שִׁירוּ לַיהֹוָה הַלְלוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה כִּי הִצִּיל אֶת נֶפֶשׁ אֶבְיוֹן מִיַּד מְרֵעִים:
14. Cursed be the day in which I was begotten; the day in which my mother bore me shall not be blessed.   יד. אָרוּר הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יֻלַּדְתִּי בּוֹ יוֹם אֲשֶׁר יְלָדַתְנִי אִמִּי אַל יְהִי בָרוּךְ:
Cursed be the day in which I was begotten: (engendrer or engenrer in O.F.). That is the time of conception, and through compulsion Hilkiah his father performed the marriage act by day, for he was fleeing from before Manasseh, who was slaying the prophets, and he performed the marriage act and fled.  
15. Cursed be the man who brought the news to my father, saying, "A male child has been born to you," making him glad.   טו. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בִּשַּׂר אֶת אָבִי לֵאמֹר יֻלַּד לְךָ בֵּן זָכָר שַׂמֵּחַ שִׂמְּחָהוּ:
making him glad: The ‘mem’ is punctuated with a ‘dagesh,’ which is an expression of making others glad, for he made his father glad with his news.  
16. And that man shall be like the cities that the Lord overturned and did not repent, and let him hear an outcry in the morning and a scream at noontime.   טז. וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא כֶּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר הָפַךְ יְהֹוָה וְלֹא נִחָם וְשָׁמַע זְעָקָה בַּבֹּקֶר וּתְרוּעָה בְּעֵת צָהֳרָיִם:
like the cities that… overturned: Namely Sodom and Gemorrah.  
and did not repent: Since He decreed destruction upon them, he did not think another thought to rescind His decree.  
17. That he did not put me to death from the womb, that my mother should be my grave and her womb a perpetual pregnancy.   יז. אֲשֶׁר לֹא מוֹתְתַנִי מֵרָחֶם וַתְּהִי לִי אִמִּי קִבְרִי וְרַחְמָּה הֲרַת עוֹלָם:
That he did not put me to death: I.e., that the angel of death did not put me to death from the womb, and this is one of the verses with brief language.  
a perpetual pregnancy: a pregnancy of eternity.  
18. Why did I come forth out of the womb to see toil and grief, and my days end with shame?   יח. לָמָּה זֶּה מֵרֶחֶם יָצָאתִי לִרְאוֹת עָמָל וְיָגוֹן וַיִּכְלוּ בְּבֹשֶׁת יָמָי:
toil and grief: The destruction of the Temple.  
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