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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 66

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 66

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 66

1. So says the Lord, "The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool; which is the house that you will build for Me, and which is the place of My rest?   א. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ לִי וְאֵי זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי:
The heavens are My throne: I do not need your Temple.  
which is the house: that is fitting for My Shechinah.  
2. And all these My hand made, and all these have become," says the Lord. "But to this one will I look, to one poor and of crushed spirit, who hastens to do My bidding.   ב. וְאֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה יָדִי עָשָׂתָה וַיִּהְיוּ כָל אֵלֶּה נְאֻם יְהֹוָה וְאֶל זֶה אַבִּיט אֶל עָנִי וּנְכֵה רוּחַ וְחָרֵד עַל דְּבָרִי:
And all these: The heavens and the earth, and for this reason I confined My Shechinah among you when you obeyed Me, for so is My wont, to look at one poor and of crushed spirit, who hastens to do My bidding. But now, I have no desire for you, for whoever slaughters an ox, has smitten its owner and robbed him of it. Therefore, whoever slaughters a lamb seems to Me as one who beheads a dog, and whoever offers up a meal offering is before Me like swine blood, and מַזְכִּיר, he who burns incense. Comp. (Lev. 5:12) “its memorial part (אַזְכָּרָתָהּ).” Also (ibid. 24:7), “and it shall be for the bread as a memorial (לְאַזְכָּרָה).”  
3. Whoever slaughters an ox has slain a man; he who slaughters a lamb is as though he beheads a dog; he who offers up a meal-offering is [like] swine blood; he who burns frankincense brings a gift of violence; they, too, chose their ways, and their soul desired their abominations.   ג. שׁוֹחֵט הַשּׁוֹר מַכֵּה אִישׁ זוֹבֵחַ הַשֶּׂה עוֹרֵף כֶּלֶב מַעֲלֵה מִנְחָה דַּם חֲזִיר מַזְכִּיר לְבֹנָה מְבָרֵךְ אָוֶן גַּם הֵמָּה בָּחֲרוּ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם נַפְשָׁם חָפֵצָה:
brings a gift of violence: Heb. מְבָרֵ, blesses Me with a gift of violence, brings a gift of violence. This is its explanation, and the expression of בְּרָכָה applies to a gift that is for a reception. Comp. (Gen. 33:11) “Please take my gift (בִּרְכָתִי).” Also (supra 36: 16), “Make peace (בְרָכָה) with me and come out to me.”  
they, too, chose their ways: They desire these evil ways, and I, too, will choose and desire their mockeries. Now if you ask the meaning of גַּם, too, so is the style of the Hebrew language to say twice גַּם one next to the other. Comp. (Deut. 32:25) “Both a young man and a virgin (גַּם בָּחוּר גַּם בְּתוּלָה) ” ; (I Kings 3:26) “neither mine nor yours (גַּם לִי גַּם לָ) ” ; (Ecc. 9:1) “neither love nor hate גַּם שִׂנְאָה) (גַּם אַהֲבָה ” ; (Num. 18:3) “and neither they nor you shall die הֵם גַּם אַתֶּם) (גַּם.” Here, too, both they chose and I will choose.  
4. I, too, will choose their mockeries, and their fears I will bring to them, since I called and no one answered, I spoke and they did not hearken, and they did what was evil in My eyes, and what I did not wish they chose.   ד. גַּם אֲנִי אֶבְחַר בְּתַעֲלֻלֵיהֶם וּמְגוּרֹתָם אָבִיא לָהֶם יַעַן קָרָאתִי וְאֵין עוֹנֶה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ הָרַע בְּעֵינַי וּבַאֲשֶׁר לֹא חָפַצְתִּי בָּחָרוּ:
their mockeries: Heb. בְּתַעֲלוּלֵיהֶם, to mock them, an expression like (ibid. 22:29) “For you mocked (הִתְעַלַּלְתְּ) me.”  
and their fears: What they fear.  
since I called: Hearken and return to Me.  
and no one answered: saying, “I heard.”  
5. Hearken to the word of the Lord, who quake at His word, "Your brethren who hate you, who cast you out, said, "For the sake of my name, the Lord shall be glorified," but we will see your joy, and they shall be ashamed.   ה. שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר יְהֹוָה הַחֲרֵדִים אֶל דְּבָרוֹ אָמְרוּ אֲחֵיכֶם שֹׂנְאֵיכֶם מְנַדֵּיכֶם לְמַעַן שְׁמִי יִכְבַּד יְהֹוָה וְנִרְאֶה בְשִׂמְחַתְכֶם וְהֵם יֵבֹשׁוּ:
who quake at His word: The righteous who hasten with quaking to draw near to His words.  
Your brethren… said: The transgressors of Israel mentioned above. Another explanation:  
Your brethren… who cast you out, said: Who said to you (Lam. 4:15), “Turn away, unclean one.”  
who hate you, who cast you out: Who say (supra 65:5), “Keep to yourself, do not come near me.” [Because of the confusion, we quote other readings. Some manuscripts, as well as K’li Paz, read:]  
Your brethren… said: The transgressors of Israel mentioned above.  
who hate you, who cast you out: who say (supra 65:5), “Keep to yourself, do not come near me.” Another explanation:  
Your brethren… said: The children of Esau.  
who cast you out: Who said to you (Lam. 4:15), “Turn away, unclean one.”  
For the sake of my name, the Lord shall be glorified: With our greatness, the Holy One, blessed be He, is glorified, for we are closer to Him than you are.  
but we will see your joy: The prophet says, But it is not so as their words, for “we will see your joy, and they shall be ashamed.” Why? For sound a sound of their stirring has come before the Holy One, blessed be He, from what they did in His city, and a sound emanates from His Temple and accuses those who destroyed it, and then the voice of the Lord, recompensing His enemies.  
6. There is a sound of stirring from the city, a sound from the Temple, the voice of the Lord, recompensing His enemies.   ו. קוֹל שָׁאוֹן מֵעִיר קוֹל מֵהֵיכָל קוֹל יְהֹוָה מְשַׁלֵּם גְּמוּל לְאֹיְבָיו:
7. When she has not yet travailed, she has given birth; when the pang has not yet come to her, she has been delivered of a male child.   ז. בְּטֶרֶם תָּחִיל יָלָדָה בְּטֶרֶם יָבוֹא חֵבֶל לָהּ וְהִמְלִיטָה זָכָר:
When she has not yet travailed: When Zion has not yet travailed with birth pangs, she has borne her children; that is to say that her children will gather into her midst, which was desolate and bereft of them, and it is as though she bore them now without birth pangs, for all the nations will bring them into her midst.  
she has been delivered of a male child: Heb. וְהִמְלִיטָה. Any emerging of an embedded thing is called הַמְלָטָה. And הַמְלָטָה is esmoucer, or eschamocier in O.F., to allow to escape.  
8. Who heard [anything] like this? Who saw [anything] like these? Is a land born in one day? Is a nation born at once, that Zion both experienced birth pangs and bore her children?   ח. מִי שָׁמַע כָּזֹאת מִי רָאָה כָּאֵלֶּה הֲיוּחַל אֶרֶץ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד אִם יִוָּלֵד גּוֹי פַּעַם אֶחָת כִּי חָלָה גַּם יָלְדָה צִיּוֹן אֶת בָּנֶיהָ:
Is a land born in one day?: Can a pain come to a woman in confinement to bear a land full of sons in one day?  
9. "Will I bring to the birth stool and not cause to give birth?" says the Lord. "Am I not He who causes to give birth, now should I shut the womb?" says your God.   ט. הַאֲנִי אַשְׁבִּיר וְלֹא אוֹלִיד יֹאמַר יְהֹוָה אִם אֲנִי הַמּוֹלִיד וְעָצַרְתִּי אָמַר אֱלֹהָיִךְ:
Will I bring to the birth stool and not cause to give birth: Will I bring a woman to the birth stool and not open her womb to bring out her fetus? That is to say, Shall I commence a thing and not be able to complete it? Am I not the One Who causes every woman in confinement to give birth, and now will I shut the womb? This is a question.  
10. Rejoice with Jerusalem and exult in her all those who love her: rejoice with her a rejoicing, all who mourn over her.   י. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ:
11. In order that you suck and become sated from the breast of her consolations in order that you drink deeply and delight from her approaching glory.   יא. לְמַעַן תִּינְקוּ וּשְׂבַעְתֶּם מִשֹּׁד תַּנְחֻמֶיהָ לְמַעַן תָּמֹצּוּ וְהִתְעַנַּגְתֶּם מִזִּיז כְּבוֹדָהּ:
from the breast: Heb. מִשֹּׁד, an expression of breasts (שָׁדַיִם).  
you drink deeply: Heb. תָּמֹצּוּ, sucer in French, to suck.  
from her approaching glory: Heb. מִזִּיז. From the great glory that is moving and coming nearer to her. זִיז means esmoviment in O.F., movement.  
12. For so says the Lord, "Behold, I will extend peace to you like a river, and like a flooding stream the wealth of the nations, and you shall suck thereof; on the side you shall be borne, and on knees you shall be dandled.   יב. כִּי כֹה | אָמַר יְהֹוָה הִנְנִי נֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם וּכְנַחַל שׁוֹטֵף כְּבוֹד גּוֹיִם וִינַקְתֶּם עַל צַד תִּנָּשֵׂאוּ וְעַל בִּרְכַּיִם תְּשָׁעֳשָׁעוּ:
and like a flooding stream: I extend to her the wealth of the nations.  
on the side: On the sides of your nurses, [in Aramaic,] גִּסְסִין.  
you shall be dandled: You shall be dandled as they dandle an infant. Esbanier in O.F.  
13. Like a man whose mother consoles him, so will I console you, and in Jerusalem, you shall be consoled.   יג. כְּאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אִמּוֹ תְּנַחֲמֶנּוּ כֵּן אָנֹכִי אֲנַחֶמְכֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם תְּנֻחָמוּ:
14. And you shall see, and your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall bloom like grass, and the hand of the Lord shall be known to His servants, and He shall be wroth with His enemies.   יד. וּרְאִיתֶם וְשָׂשׂ לִבְּכֶם וְעַצְמוֹתֵיכֶם כַּדֶּשֶׁא תִפְרַחְנָה וְנוֹדְעָה יַד יְהֹוָה אֶת עֲבָדָיו וְזָעַם אֶת אֹיְבָיו:
and the hand of the Lord shall be known: When He wreaks His vengeance and His awesome acts, His servants shall know the strength of the might of His hand.  
15. For behold, the Lord shall come with fire, and like a tempest, His chariots, to render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames of fire.   טו. כִּי הִנֵּה יְהֹוָה בָּאֵשׁ יָבוֹא וְכַסּוּפָה מַרְכְּבֹתָיו לְהָשִׁיב בְּחֵמָה אַפּוֹ וְגַעֲרָתוֹ בְּלַהֲבֵי אֵשׁ:
shall come with fire: With the fury of fire He shall come upon the wicked.  
to render: Heb. לְהָשִׁיב, [lit. to return] to His adversaries with fury His anger.  
16. For with fire, will the Lord contend, and with His sword with all flesh, and those slain by the Lord shall be many.   טז. כִּי בָאֵשׁ יְהֹוָה נִשְׁפָּט וּבְחַרְבּוֹ אֶת כָּל בָּשָׂר וְרַבּוּ חַלְלֵי יְהֹוָה:
For with fire: of Gehinnom will the Lord contend with His adversaries, and since He is the plaintiff and the judge, the expression of contending is appropriate for Him, for He, too, presents His claim to find their iniquity and their transgression. Comp. (Ezekiel 38:22) “And I will contend with him (וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי) ” ; (Jer. 2:35) “Behold, I contend with you.” It is an expression of debate. Derajjsner in O.F. [And its simple meaning is: For with the fire of the Lord and with His sword, all flesh shall be judged. Similarly, there are many inverted verses in Scriptures.]  
17. "Those who prepare themselves and purify themselves to the gardens, [one] after another in the middle, those who eat the flesh of the swine and the detestable thing and the rodent, shall perish together," says the Lord.   יז. הַמִּתְקַדְּשִׁים וְהַמִּטַּהֲרִים אֶל הַגַּנּוֹת אַחַר אַחַת בַּתָּוֶךְ אֹכְלֵי בְּשַׂר הַחֲזִיר וְהַשֶּׁקֶץ וְהָעַכְבָּר יַחְדָּו יָסֻפוּ נְאֻם יְהֹוָה:
Those who prepare themselves: Heb. הַמִּתְקַדְּשִׁים. Those who prepare themselves, “Let you and me go on such-and-such a day to worship such-and-such an idol.”  
to the gardens: where they plant vegetables, and there they would erect idols.  
[one] after one: As Jonathan renders: a company after a company. They prepare themselves and purify themselves to worship, one company after its fellow has completed its worship.  
in the middle: In the middle of the garden. Such was their custom to erect it.  
18. And I-their deeds and their thoughts have come to gather all the nations and the tongues, and they shall come and they shall see My glory.   יח. וְאָנֹכִי מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וּמַחְשְׁבֹתֵיהֶם בָּאָה לְקַבֵּץ אֶת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם וְהַלְּשֹׁנוֹת וּבָאוּ וְרָאוּ אֶת כְּבוֹדִי:
And I - their deeds and their thoughts have come etc.: And I What am I to do? Their deeds and their thoughts have come to Me. And that forces Me to gather all the heathens (nations [Mss. and K’li Paz]), and to let them know that their deeds are vanity and the thoughts they are thinking, “For the sake of my name, the Lord shall be glorified,” let them understand that it is false. And where is the gathering? It is the gathering that Zechariah prophesied (14:2): “And I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem.”  
and they shall see My glory: When I wage war with them with the plague of the following description (ibid. 14: 12): “Their flesh shall disintegrate… and their eyes… and their tongue.”  
19. And I will place a sign upon them, and I will send from them refugees to the nations, Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, the distant islands, who did not hear of My fame and did not see My glory, and they shall recount My glory among the nations.   יט. וְשַׂמְתִּי בָהֶם אוֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי מֵהֶם | פְּלֵיטִים אֶל הַגּוֹיִם תַּרְשִׁישׁ פּוּל וְלוּד מֹשְׁכֵי קֶשֶׁת תֻּבַל וְיָוָן הָאִיִּים הָרְחֹקִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֶת שִׁמְעִי וְלֹא רָאוּ אֶת כְּבוֹדִי וְהִגִּידוּ אֶת כְּבוֹדִי בַּגּוֹיִם:
And I will place a sign upon them etc.: Refugees will survive the war, and I will allow them to remain in order to go to report to the distant islands My glory that they saw in the war, and also upon those refugees I will place one of the signs with which their colleagues were punished, in order to let the distant ones know that with this plague, those who gathered about Jerusalem were smitten.  
20. And they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a tribute to the Lord, with horses and with chariots, and with covered wagons and with mules and with joyous songs upon My holy mount, Jerusalem," says the Lord, "as the children of Israel bring the offering in a pure vessel to the house of the Lord.   כ. וְהֵבִיאוּ אֶת כָּל אֲחֵיכֶם מִכָּל הַגּוֹיִם | מִנְחָה לַיהֹוָה בַּסּוּסִים וּבָרֶכֶב וּבַצַּבִּים וּבַפְּרָדִים וּבַכִּרְכָּרוֹת עַל הַר קָדְשִׁי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אָמַר יְהֹוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַמִּנְחָה בִּכְלִי טָהוֹר בֵּית יְהֹוָה:
and with covered wagons: Heb. וּבַצַּבִּים. These are wagons equipped with partitions and a tent. Comp. (Num. 7: 3) “Six covered wagons (עֶגְלוֹתצָב).”  
and with joyous songs: Heb. וּבַכִּרְכָּרוֹת. With a song of players and dancers. Comp. (II Sam. 6: 14) “And David danced (מְכַרְכֵּר) ,” treper in O.F. [Menahem (p. 109) explains it as an expression meaning a lamb. Comp. (supra 16:1) “Send lambs (כַּר) of the ruler of the land.”]  
as… bring: an offering in a pure vessel for acceptance, so will they bring your brethren as an acceptable offering.  
21. And from them too will I take for priests and for Levites," says the Lord.   כא. וְגַם מֵהֶם אֶקַּח לַכֹּהֲנִים לַלְוִיִּם אָמַר יְהֹוָה:
And from them too: From the peoples bringing them and from those brought, I will take priests and Levites, for they are now assimilated among the heathens (nations [Mss. and K’li Paz]) under coercion, and before Me the priests and the Levites among them are revealed, and I will select them from among them, and they shall minister before Me, said the Lord. Now where did He say it? (Deut. 29:28) “The hidden things are for the Lord our God.” In this manner it is explained in the Aggadah of Psalms (87:6).  
22. "For, as the new heavens and the new earth that I am making, stand before Me," says the Lord, "so shall your seed and your name stand.   כב. כִּי כַאֲשֶׁר הַשָּׁמַיִם הַחֳדָשִׁים וְהָאָרֶץ הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה עֹמְדִים לְפָנַי נְאֻם יְהֹוָה כֵּן יַעֲמֹד זַרְעֲכֶם וְשִׁמְכֶם:
23. And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, that all flesh shall come to prostrate themselves before Me," says the Lord.   כג. וְהָיָה מִדֵּי חֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁוֹ וּמִדֵּי שַׁבָּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ יָבוֹא כָל בָּשָֹר לְהִשְׁתַּחֲו‍ֹת לְפָנַי אָמַר יְהֹוָה:
24. "And they shall go out and see the corpses of the people who rebelled against Me, for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring for all flesh."   כד. וְיָצְאוּ וְרָאוּ בְּפִגְרֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הַפֹּשְׁעִים בִּי כִּי תוֹלַעְתָּם לֹא תָמוּת וְאִשָּׁם לֹא תִכְבֶּה וְהָיוּ דֵרָאוֹן לְכָל בָּשָׂר:
their worm: The worm that consumes their flesh.  
and their fire: in Gehinnom.  
and abhorring: Heb. דֵרָאוֹן, an expression of contempt. Jonathan, however, renders it as two words: enough (דֵּי) seeing (רְאִיָה), until the righteous say about them, We have seen enough.  
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