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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 58

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 58

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 58

1. Call with a [full] throat, do not spare, like a shofar raise your voice, and relate to My people their transgression, and to the house of Jacob their sins.   א. קְרָא בְגָרוֹן אַל תַּחְשֹׂךְ כַּשּׁוֹפָר הָרֵם קוֹלֶךָ וְהַגֵּד לְעַמִּי פִּשְׁעָם וּלְבֵית יַעֲקֹב חַטֹּאתָם:
and relate to My people their transgression: These are the Torah scholars, whose every inadvertent sin is counted as a transgression, for an error in study is accounted as an intentional sin.  
and to the house of Jacob their sins: These are the ignorant people, whose willful sins, are accounted inadvertent.  
2. Yet they seek Me daily and they wish to know My ways, like a nation that performed righteousness and did not forsake the ordinance of its God: they ask Me ordinances of righteousness; they desire nearness to God.   ב. וְאוֹתִי יוֹם | יוֹם יִדְרֹשׁוּן וְדַעַת דְּרָכַי יֶחְפָּצוּן כְּגוֹי אֲשֶׁר צְדָקָה עָשָׂה וּמִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהָיו לֹא עָזָב יִשְׁאָלוּנִי מִשְׁפְּטֵי צֶדֶק קִרְבַת אֱלֹהִים יֶחְפָּצוּן:
Yet they seek Me daily: Like the matter that is stated (Ps. 78:36): “And they beguiled Him with their mouth.”  
and they wish to know My ways: They wish to ask instructions of the wise men as if they wished to fulfill them.  
like a nation that performed righteousness, etc.: In this manner they constantly ask Me ordinances of righteousness, but they do not intend to fulfill them, and when they fast and are not answered, they say, “Why have we fasted, and You did not see?” But I say, “Behold, on the day of your fast you pursue business,” all the affairs of your necessities you toil to pursue, even robbery and violence.  
3. "Why have we fasted, and You did not see; we have afflicted our soul and You do not know?" Behold, on the day of your fast you pursue business, and [from] all your debtors you exact [payment].   ג. לָמָּה צַּמְנוּ וְלֹא רָאִיתָ עִנִּינוּ נַפְשֵׁנוּ וְלֹא תֵדָע הֵן בְּיוֹם צֹמְכֶם תִּמְצְאוּ חֵפֶץ וְכָל עַצְּבֵיכֶם תִּנְגֹּשׂוּ:
and [from] all your debtors: Heb. עַצְּבֵיכֶם [lit. your griefs.] Your debtors, who are grieved because of youyou exact payment from them on the day of your fast.  
4. Behold, for quarrel and strife you fast, and to strike with a fist of wickedness. Do not fast like this day, to make your voice heard on high.   ד. הֵן לְרִיב וּמַצָּה תָּצוּמוּ וּלְהַכּוֹת בְּאֶגְרֹף רֶשַׁע לֹא תָצוּמוּ כַיּוֹם לְהַשְׁמִיעַ בַּמָּרוֹם קוֹלְכֶם:
Do not fast like this day: like the manner of this day, to break your hearts in order that your voice be heard on high.  
5. Will such be the fast I will choose, a day of man's afflicting his soul? Is it to bend his head like a fishhook and spread out sackcloth and ashes? Will you call this a fast and an acceptable day to the Lord?   ה. הֲכָזֶה יִהְיֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ יוֹם עַנּוֹת אָדָם נַפְשׁוֹ הֲלָכֹף כְּאַגְמֹן רֹאשׁוֹ וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר יַצִּיעַ הֲלָזֶה תִּקְרָא צוֹם וְיוֹם רָצוֹן לַיהֹוָה:
Is it to bend: Heb. הֲלָכֹף. This ‘hey’ is the interrogative. That is to say, “Perhaps I require bending the head like a fishhook (כְּאַגְמֹן) ?” אַגְמֹן is a sort of bent needle with which they catch fish, and they call it ajjm in O.F.  
Will you call this a fast: Heb. הֲלָזֶה. An interrogative form. Therefore, the ‘hey’ is punctuated with a ‘hataf-pattah.’  
6. Is this not the fast I will choose? To undo the fetters of wickedness, to untie the bands of perverseness, and to let out the oppressed free, and all perverseness you shall eliminate.   ו. הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ:
fetters: Heb. חַרְצֻבּוֹת, an expression of tying and binding.  
perverseness: Heb. מוֹטָה, perversion of justice.  
and all perverseness you shall eliminate: Heb. וְכָל מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ. Jonathan renders: And all perversion of justice you shall eliminate.  
7. Is it not to share your bread with the hungry, and moaning poor you shall bring home; when you see a naked one, you shall clothe him, and from your flesh you shall not hide.   ז. הֲלוֹא פָרֹס לָרָעֵב לַחְמֶךָ וַעֲנִיִּים מְרוּדִים תָּבִיא בָיִת כִּי תִרְאֶה עָרֹם וְכִסִּיתוֹ וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ לֹא תִתְעַלָּם:
moaning poor: Heb. מְרוּדִים. Sighing and moaning about their distress. Comp. (Lam. 3:19) “my affliction and my sighing (וּמְרוּדִי) ” ; (Ps. 55:3) “I mourn (אָרִיד) in my grief.”  
and from your flesh: And from your kinsman.  
8. Then your light shall break forth as the dawn, and your healing shall quickly sprout, and your righteousness shall go before you; the glory of the Lord shall gather you in.   ח. אָז יִבָּקַע כַּשַּׁחַר אוֹרֶךָ וַאֲרֻכָתְךָ מְהֵרָה תִצְמָח וְהָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ צִדְקֶךָ כְּבוֹד יְהֹוָה יַאַסְפֶךָ:
as the dawn: Like the ray of dawn that breaks through the clouds.  
and your healing: Heb. וַאֲרֻכָתְ, and your healing shall quickly sprout. Comp. (Jer. 30:17) “I will bring up healing (אֲרֻכָה) for you.”  
9. Then you shall call and the Lord shall answer, you shall cry and He shall say, "Here I am," if you remove perverseness from your midst, putting forth the finger and speaking wickedness.   ט. אָז תִּקְרָא וַיהֹוָה יַעֲנֶה תְּשַׁוַּע וְיֹאמַר הִנֵּנִי אִם תָּסִיר מִתּוֹכְךָ מוֹטָה שְׁלַח אֶצְבַּע וְדַבֶּר אָוֶן:
10. And you draw out your soul to the hungry, and an afflicted soul you sate, then your light shall shine in the darkness, and your darkness shall be like noon.   י. וְתָפֵק לָרָעֵב נַפְשֶׁךָ וְנֶפֶשׁ נַעֲנָה תַּשְׂבִּיעַ וְזָרַח בַּחֹשֶׁךְ אוֹרֶךָ וַאֲפֵלָתְךָ כַּצָּהֳרָיִם:
And you draw out your soul to the hungry: with consolations of good words.  
11. And the Lord shall always lead you, and He shall satisfy your soul in drought, and strengthen your bones; and you shall be like a well-watered garden and like a spring of water whose water does not fail.   יא. וְנָחֲךָ יְהֹוָה תָּמִיד וְהִשְׂבִּיעַ בְּצַחְצָחוֹת נַפְשֶׁךָ וְעַצְמֹתֶיךָ יַחֲלִיץ וְהָיִיתָ כְּגַן רָוֶה וּכְמוֹצָא מַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְכַזְּבוּ מֵימָיו:
in drought: Heb. בְּצַחְצָחוֹת, at the time of thirst and drought. So did Jonathan render.  
strengthen: Heb. יַחֲלִיף [lit. arm.] Comp. (Num. 31:5) “Armed (חֲלוּצֵי) for war.”  
12. And [those coming] from you shall build ancient ruins, foundations of generations you shall erect, and you shall be called the repairer of the breaches, restorer of the paths, to dwell in.   יב. וּבָנוּ מִמְּךָ חָרְבוֹת עוֹלָם מוֹסְדֵי דוֹר וָדוֹר תְּקוֹמֵם וְקֹרָא לְךָ גֹּדֵר פֶּרֶץ מְשׁוֹבֵב נְתִיבוֹת לָשָׁבֶת:
restorer of the paths, to dwell in: Heb. מְשׁוֹבֵב. Jonathan renders: restorer of the wicked to the Torah. מְשׁוֹבֵב is like מֵשִׁיב, restores to dwell, to the Torah, which insures the settlement of the world.  
13. If you restrain your foot because of the Sabbath, from performing your affairs on My holy day, and you call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord honored, and you honor it by not doing your wonted ways, by not pursuing your affairs and speaking words.   יג. אִם תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהֹוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר:
14. Then, you shall delight with the Lord, and I will cause you to ride on the high places of the land, and I will give you to eat the heritage of Jacob your father, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.   יד. אָז תִּתְעַנַּג עַל יְהֹוָה וְהִרְכַּבְתִּיךָ עַל בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ כִּי פִּי יְהֹוָה דִּבֵּר:
the heritage of Jacob your father: An inheritance without boundaries, as it is said (Gen. 28:14): “And you shall spread to the west and to the east, etc.” Not like Abraham, about whom it is stated (ibid. 13:15): “The land that you see…” And Jacob indeed kept the Sabbath, as it is said (ibid. 33:18): “And he encamped before the city,” i.e., he established the Sabbath limits at twilight. So did Rabbi Samson explain it.  
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