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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 57

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 57

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 57

1. The righteous man has perished, but no one takes it to heart, and men of kindness are taken away, with no one understanding that because of the evil the righteous man has been taken away.   א. הַצַּדִיק אָבָד וְאֵין אִישׁ שָׂם עַל לֵב וְאַנְשֵׁי חֶסֶד נֶאֱסָפִים בְּאֵין מֵבִין כִּי מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָה נֶאֱסַף הַצַּדִּיק:
The righteous man: such as Josiah.  
but no one takes it to heart: why he departed.  
with no one understanding: what the Holy One, blessed be He, saw to take him away.  
that because of the evil: destined to befall the generation, the righteous man perished.  
2. He shall come in peace; they shall rest in their resting- place, whoever walks in his uprightness.   ב. יָבוֹא שָׁלוֹם יָנוּחוּ עַל מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָם הֹלֵךְ נְכֹחוֹ:
He shall come in peace: for so says the Holy One, blessed be He, Let this righteous man come to his forefathers in peace, and let him not see the evil.  
they shall rest in their resting place: when the evil occurs, he who was walking נְכֹחוֹ, in his uprightness. Comp. (Amos 3:10) “To act rightly (נְכֹחָה).”  
3. And you, draw near hither, children of sorcery; children who commit adultery, and played the whore.   ג. וְאַתֶּם קִרְבוּ הֵנָּה בְּנֵי עֹנְנָה זֶרַע מְנָאֵף וַתִּזְנֶה:
And you, draw near hither: The survivors after the righteous have departed, and receive your sentences.  
children of sorcery: Heb. בְּנֵי עֹנְנָה, children of sorcery.  
children who commit adultery: That the male commits adultery.  
and played the whore: the female.  
4. On whom will you [rely to] enjoy yourselves; against whom do you open your mouth wide; against whom do you stick out your tongue? Are you not children of transgression, seed of falsehood?   ד. עַל מִי תִּתְעַנָּגוּ עַל מִי תַּרְחִיבוּ פֶה תַּאֲרִיכוּ לָשׁוֹן הֲלוֹא אַתֶּם יִלְדֵי פֶשַׁע זֶרַע שָׁקֶר:
On whom will you [rely to] enjoy yourselves: Since you have turned away from following Me, on whom will you rely to enjoy yourselves with good. Had you merited, you would then enjoy yourselves with the Lord, but now, on whom will you rely to enjoy yourselves?  
against whom do you open your mouth wide: when you scorned and mocked His prophets.  
5. You who inflame yourselves among the terebinths, under every green tree, who slaughter the children in the valleys, under the clefts of the rocks.   ה. הַנֵּחָמִים בָּאֵלִים תַּחַת כָּל עֵץ רַעֲנָן שֹׁחֲטֵי הַיְלָדִים בַּנְּחָלִים תַּחַת סְעִפֵי הַסְּלָעִים:
You who inflame yourselves among the terebinths: Who stimulate themselves with semen under the אֵלִים, they are the terebinth and the oak.  
who slaughter the children: for a sacrifice to the idols.  
clefts: Heb. סְעִפֵי, the clefts of the rocks. Comp. (Jud. 15: 11) “to the cleft (סְעִיף) of the rock.”  
6. Of the smooth [stones] of the valley is your portion; they, they are your lot; to them too you have poured out libations, offered up sacrifices; in the face of these shall I relent?   ו. בְּחַלְּקֵי נַחַל חֶלְקֵךְ הֵם הֵם גּוֹרָלֵךְ גַּם לָהֶם שָׁפַכְתְּ נֶסֶךְ הֶעֱלִית מִנְחָה הַעַל אֵלֶּה אֶנָּחֵם:
Of the smooth [stones] of the valley: [Lit. of the smooth ones of the valley, i.e.,] among the smooth stones that are in the valley.  
your portion: With them they will stone you.  
they, they are your lot: to be saddened with them. Why? For to them too you have poured out libations.  
in the face of these shall I relent: from doing harm to you?  
7. On a high and lofty mountain you placed your couch; there too you went to slaughter sacrifices.   ז. עַל הַר גָּבֹהַּ וְנִשָּׂא שַׂמְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבֵךְ גַּם שָׁם עָלִית לִזְבֹּחַ זָבַח:
you placed your couch: The couch of your adultery to idolatry on the high mountains.  
8. And behind the door and the doorpost you have directed your thoughts, for while with Me, you uncovered [us] and went up, you widened your couch and made for yourself [a covenant] with them; you loved their couch, you chose a place.   ח. וְאַחַר הַדֶּלֶת וְהַמְּזוּזָה שַֹמְתְּ זִכְרוֹנֵךְ כִּי מֵאִתִּי גִּלִּית וַתַּעֲלִי הִרְחַבְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבֵךְ וַתִּכְרָת לָךְ מֵהֶם אָהַבְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבָם יָד חָזִית:
And behind the door and the doorpost you have directed your thoughts: Since he compares her to an adulterous woman, for whom her paramours look and wait before the door of her house, while she, lying beside her husband, directs her heart and her thoughts to the door and the doorpost, how she will open the door and come out to them.  
for while with Me, you uncovered [us] and went up: You were lying beside Me, and you removed the cover with which we were covered together, and you went up from beside Me.  
you widened your couch: to accommodate many adulterers.  
and made for yourself: a covenant with them.  
you loved their couch: when you chose for yourself יָד, a place, to demonstrate to them your love.  
a place: Heb. יָד, aise or ajjse in O. F., a side. Comp. (II Sam. 14:30) “See Joab’s field is near mine יָדִי) (עַל.”  
9. And you brought a gift to the king with oil, and you increased your perfumes; and you sent your ambassadors far off, and you humbled them to the grave.   ט. וַתָּשֻׁרִי לַמֶּלֶךְ בַּשֶּׁמֶן וַתַּרְבִּי רִקֻּחָיִךְ וַתְּשַׁלְּחִי צִירַיִךְ עַד מֵרָחֹק וַתַּשְׁפִּילִי עַד שְׁאוֹל:
And you brought a gift to the king with oil: Heb. וַתָּשֻׁרִי. Originally, I aggrandized you, and you would greet your king with all sorts of delights. וַתָּשֻׁרִי is an expression of an audience. Comp. (Num. 24:17) “I see him (אֲשׁוּרֶנוּ) but he is not near.” [Also] (I Sam. 9:7), “And there is no present (תְּשׁוּרָה) to bring,” [i.e.,] a gift for an audience.  
and you sent your ambassadors: Your messenger afar to collect tribute from the heathen kings. ([Manuscripts and K’li Paz read:] the kings of the nations.)  
and you humbled: the laws of the heathens (of the nations [Mss. and K’li Paz]) to the grave. Jonathan rendered it in this manner.  
10. With the length of your way you became wearied; you did not say, "Despair." The power of your hand you found; therefore, you were not stricken ill.   י. בְּרֹב דַּרְכֵּךְ יָגַעַתְּ לֹא אָמַרְתְּ נוֹאָשׁ חַיַּת יָדֵךְ מָצָאת עַל כֵּן לֹא חָלִית:
With the length of your way you became wearied: You engaged in your necessities, in the filling of your lust, to increase your wealth.  
you did not say, “Despair.”: I will despair of these and I will no longer care to engage in them, but I will pay my attention to Torah and precepts.  
The power of your hand you found: Heb. חַיַּת, the necessity of your hand you have found; you have succeeded in your deeds.  
therefore, you were not stricken ill: Your heart was not stricken ill to worry about My service, to engage in the Torah. חַיַּת is an Arabic word, meaning necessity.  
11. And whom did you dread and fear, that you failed, and you did not remember Me; you did not lay [Me] to your heart. Indeed, I am silent and from everlasting, but you do not fear Me.   יא. וְאֶת מִי דָּאַגְתְּ וַתִּירְאִי כִּי תְכַזֵּבִי וְאוֹתִי לֹא זָכַרְתְּ לֹא שַׂמְתְּ עַל לִבֵּךְ הֲלֹא אֲנִי מַחְשֶׁה וּמֵעֹלָם וְאוֹתִי לֹא תִירָאִי:
And whom did you dread: Of whom were you afraid?  
that you failed: Heb. תְּכַזֵּבִי, that you ceased to worship Me and you betrayed Me. Comp. (infra 58:11) “Whose water shall not fail (יְכַזְּבוּ).” Comp. also (Psalms 116:11) “Every man is a traitor (כֹּזֵב).” Falajjnc in O.F., to fail. Likewise, every expression of כָּזָב means one upon whom people rely, and he fails and betrays them.  
Indeed, I am silent: I kept silent in the face of many transgressions that you transgressed against Me.  
12. I tell your righteousness and your deeds, and they shall not avail you.   יב. אֲנִי אַגִּיד צִדְקָתֵךְ וְאֶת מַעֲשַׂיִךְ וְלֹא יוֹעִילוּךְ:
I tell your righteousness: Constantly, I tell you things to do, so that you will be righteous.  
and your deeds: that you do against My will shall not avail you at the time of your distress.  
13. When you cry out, let your collections save you; wind shall carry all of them off, a breath shall take them, but he who trusts in Me shall inherit the land and shall inherit My holy mount.   יג. בְּזַעֲקֵךְ יַצִּילֻךְ קִבּוּצַיִךְ וְאֶת כֻּלָּם יִשָּׂא רוּחַ יִקַּח הָבֶל וְהַחוֹסֶה בִי יִנְחַל אֶרֶץ וְיִירַשׁ הַר קָדְשִׁי:
When you cry out, let your collections save you: Let the collection of your idols and your graven images [and those who deny the Torah] that you collected, rise and save you when you cry out from your distress. Indeed, wind will carry all of them off, and they will not rise, neither will they be able to save.  
14. And he shall say, "Pave, pave, clear the way; remove the obstacles from the way of My people."   יד. וְאָמַר סֹלּוּ סֹלּוּ פַּנּוּ דָרֶךְ הָרִימוּ מִכְשׁוֹל מִדֶּרֶךְ עַמִּי:
And he shall say, “Pave, pave”: So will the prophet say in My name to My people, “Pave, pave a paved highway, clear away the evil inclination from your ways.”  
remove the obstacle: Remove the stones upon which your feet stumble; they are wicked thoughts.  
15. For so said the High and Exalted One, Who dwells to eternity, and His name is Holy, "With the lofty and the holy ones I dwell, and with the crushed and humble in spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble and to revive the heart of the crushed.   טו. כִּי כֹה אָמַר רָם וְנִשָּׂא שֹׁכֵן עַד וְקָדוֹשׁ שְׁמוֹ מָרוֹם וְקָדוֹשׁ אֶשְׁכּוֹן וְאֶת דַּכָּא וּשְׁפַל רוּחַ לְהַחֲיוֹת רוּחַ שְׁפָלִים וּלְהַחֲיוֹת לֵב נִדְכָּאִים:
“With the lofty and the holy ones”: I dwell, and thence I am with the crushed and the humble in spirit, upon whom I lower My Presence.  
humble… crushed: Suffering from poverty and illnesses.  
16. For I will not contend forever, neither will I be wroth to eternity, when a spirit from before Me humbles itself, and souls [which] I have made.   טז. כִּי לֹא לְעוֹלָם אָרִיב וְלֹא לָנֶצַח אֶקְּצוֹף כִּי רוּחַ מִלְּפָנַי יַעֲטוֹף וּנְשָׁמוֹת אֲנִי עָשִׂיתִי:
For I will not contend forever: If I bring afflictions upon a person, My contention with him is not for a long time, neither is My anger forever.  
when a spirit from before Me humbles itself: Heb. יַעֲטוֹף. When the spirit of man, which is from before Me, humbles itself, confesses and humbles itself because of its betrayal. Comp. (Lam. 2:19) “humbled (הָעֲטוּפִים) with hunger”, “when the small child and the suckling are humbled (בֵּעָטֵף).” And the souls which I made.  
when a spirit from before Me: Heb. כִּי. This instance of the word כִּי is used as an expression of “when.” Comp. (infra 58:7) “When you see (כִּי תִרְאֶה) ” ; (Deut. 26:1) “When you come (כִּי תָבוֹא).” That is to say, when his spirit is humbled, and he is humbled, I terminate My quarrel and My anger from upon him.  
17. For the iniquity of his thievery I became wroth, and I smote him, I hid Myself and became wroth, for he went rebelliously in the way of his heart.   יז. בַּעֲו‍ֹן בִּצְעוֹ קָצַפְתִּי וְאַכֵּהוּ הַסְתֵּר וְאֶקְצֹף וַיֵּלֶךְ שׁוֹבָב בְּדֶרֶךְ לִבּוֹ:
For the iniquity of his thievery: Heb. בִּצְעוֹ, his thievery.  
I became wroth: at the beginning and I smote him, always hiding My face from his distress and I was wroth for he went rebelliously in the way of his heart. Transpose the verse and explain it thus: For the iniquity of his thievery and the fact that he went rebelliously in the way of his heart, I became wroth and smote him.  
18. I saw his ways and I will heal him, and I will lead him and requite with consolations him and his mourners.   יח. דְּרָכָיו רָאִיתִי וְאֶרְפָּאֵהוּ וְאַנְחֵהוּ וַאֲשַׁלֵּם נִחֻמִים לוֹ וְלַאֲבֵלָיו:
I saw his ways: when he humbled himself before Me, when troubles befell him.  
and I will heal him, and I will lead him: Heb. וְאַנְחֵהוּ. I will lead him in the way of healing. Alternatively, וְאַנְחֵהוּ is an expression of rest and tranquility.  
him and his mourners: to those who are troubled over him.  
19. [I] create the speech of the lips; peace, peace to the far and to the near," says the Lord, "and I will heal him."   יט. בּוֹרֵא נִיב שְׂפָתָיִם שָׁלוֹם | שָׁלוֹם לָרָחוֹק וְלַקָּרוֹב אָמַר יְהֹוָה וּרְפָאתִיו:
[I] create the speech of the lips: I create for him a new manner of speech. In contrast to the trouble that befell him, and everyone was degrading him, they will call, “Peace, peace.”  
to the far and to the near: Both are equal; he who aged and was accustomed to My Torah and My worship from his youth, and he who drew near now, just recently to repent of his evil way. Said the Lord, “I will heal him of his malady and of his sins.”  
20. But the wicked are like the turbulent sea, for it cannot rest, and its waters cast up mud and dirt.   כ. וְהָרְשָׁעִים כַּיָּם נִגְרָשׁ כִּי הַשְׁקֵט לֹא יוּכָל וַיִּגְרְשׁוּ מֵימָיו רֶפֶשׁ וָטִיט:
But the wicked: who do not give a thought to repent.  
like the turbulent sea: This seaits waves raise themselves high and strive to go out of the boundary of sand that I made as a boundary for the sea, and when it reaches there, against its will it breaks. The next wave sees all this, yet does not turn back. Similarly, the wicked man sees his friend being punished for his wickedness; yet he does not turn back. Also, just as the sea has its mud and its offensive matter on its mouth, [i.e., on its surface,] so do the wicked have their offensive matter in their mouth; e.g., Pharaoh said, (Exodus 5: 2) “Who is the Lord?” Sennacherib said (supra 36:20), “Who are they among all the Gods of the lands…?” Nebuchadnezzar said, (supra 14:14) “I will liken myself to the Most High.”  
like the turbulent sea: Like the sea, which is turbulent, that casts up all day mud and dirt.  
21. "There is no peace," says my God, "for the wicked."   כא. אֵין שָׁלוֹם אָמַר אֱלֹהַי לָרְשָׁעִים:
There is no peace: In contrast to what he said to the righteous and the repentant, “Peace, peace to the far, etc.,” he returned and said, “There is no peace for the wicked.”  
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