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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 45

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 45

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 45

1. So said the Lord to His anointed one, to Cyrus, whose right hand I held, to flatten nations before him, and the loins of kings I will loosen, to open portals before him, and gates shall not be closed.   א. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ:
to His anointed one: Every title of greatness is called anointing. Comp. (Num. 18:8) “To you I have given them for greatness (לְמָשְׁחָה).” Our Sages, however, said: To the King Messiah, the Holy One, blessed be He, says, “I complain to you about Cyrus,” as it is stated in Tractate Megillah 12a.  
to flatten nations before him: Heb. לְרַד, to spread out and to flatten nations before him. לְרַד is equivalent to לְרַדֵּד, to spread out.  
and the loins of kings I will loosen: This is an expression of weakness and breaking strength, for girding the loins constitutes arming with strength. Comp. (Job 38: 3) “Gird up your loins like a mighty man” ; (Jer. 1:17) “And you gird up your loins” ; (Job 12:21) “And the belt of the mighty He loosens”; an expression of breaking strength.  
to open… before him: the portals of the gates of Babylon. Gates are the space of the opening of the gate; portals are those with which they open and lock the gate.  
2. I will go before you, and I will straighten out crooked paths; I will break portals of copper and cut off bars of iron.   ב. אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ אֵלֵךְ וַהֲדוּרִים אֲיַשֵּׁר דַּלְתוֹת נְחוּשָׁה אֲשַׁבֵּר וּבְרִיחֵי בַרְזֶל אֲגַדֵּעַ:
and I will straighten out crooked paths: Heb. וַהֲדוּרִים אֲיַשֵּׁר. Jonathan renders: I will level the walls. Comp. (Shab. 77b) “the surrounding area (הדר הדרנא) ,” since the wall surrounds the city. The word may also be explained as: I will straighten out crooked paths before him.  
3. And I will give you treasures of darkness, and riches hidden in secret places, in order that you know that I am the Lord Who calls [you] by your name-the Holy One of Israel.   ג. וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אוֹצְרוֹת חֹשֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵי מִסְתָּרִים לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה הַקּוֹרֵא בְשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Who calls [you] by your name: You are not yet born, and I call you by the name Cyrus.  
4. For the sake of My servant Jacob, and Israel My chosen one, and I called to you by your name; I surnamed you, yet you have not known Me.   ד. לְמַעַן עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב וְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחִירִי וָאֶקְרָא לְךָ בִּשְׁמֶךָ אֲכַנְּךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתָּנִי:
For the sake of My servant Jacob: that you take him out of Babylonian exile.  
yet you have not known Me: You did not do My will, for I said, (infra v. 13) “He shall build My city,” but he when he assumed the throne said, “Whoever among you is from all His people, may ascend.” He gave them permission to go, but he cast off all the trouble from upon his neck.  
5. I am the Lord, and there is no other; besides Me there is no God: I will strengthen you although you have not known Me.   ה. אֲנִי יְהֹוָה וְאֵין עוֹד זוּלָתִי אֵין אֱלֹהִים אֲאַזֶּרְךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתָּנִי:
6. In order that they know from the shining of the sun and from the west that there is no one besides Me; I am the Lord and there is no other.   ו. לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ וּמִמַּעֲרָבָה כִּי אֶפֶס בִּלְעָדָי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה וְאֵין עוֹד:
7. Who forms light and creates darkness, Who makes peace and creates evil; I am the Lord, Who makes all these.   ז. יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע אֲנִי יְהֹוָה עֹשֶׂה כָל אֵלֶּה:
Who forms light: for the righteous.  
and creates darkness: for Babylon, and the same applies to “Who makes peace and creates evil.”  
8. Cause the heavens above to drip, and let the skies pour down righteousness; let the earth open, and let salvation and righteousness be fruitful; let it cause them to sprout together; I, the Lord, have created it.   ח. הַרְעִיפוּ שָׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וּשְׁחָקִים יִזְּלוּ צֶדֶק תִּפְתַּח אֶרֶץ וְיִפְרוּ יֶשַׁע וּצְדָקָה תַצְמִיחַ יַחַד אֲנִי יְהֹוָה בְּרָאתִיו:
Cause the heavens to drip: Righteousness, mentioned in the verse, is the object of the dripping and the pouring. Make the heavens drip righteousness and the skies shall pour righteousness, i.e., from Me shall come the righteousness to benefit them from the heavens.  
created it: I created this thing.  
9. Woe to him who contends with his Creator, a potsherd among the potsherds of the earth, shall the clay say to its potter, "What do you make? And your work has no place."   ט. הוֹי רָב אֶת יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין יָדַיִם לוֹ:
Woe to him who contends with his Creator: Isaiah prophesied concerning Habakkuk, who was destined to stand and complain about the length of Nebuchadnezzar’s success (1: 2): “How long, O Lord, have I entreated [You]?…” (v. 14) “And [why] have You made man like the fish of the sea?” And the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Isaiah, Why does this one come to contend with Me? Does he think that I do not give thought to save My people? When the time lapses, “that the land will appease its sabbaths” (Lev. 26:34).  
has no place: [lit. has no hands,] has no place.  
10. Woe to him who says to a father, "What do you beget?" and to a woman, "Why do you experience birth pangs?"   י. הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה תְּחִילִין:
Woe to him who says to a father, “What do you beget?”: He thinks that he has more pity on the son than his father. Another explanation is: Woe is the son who says to his father, “Why have you begotten?” He is analogous to the one who contends with his Creator.  
11. So said the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, and his Creator, "Ask Me about the signs; concerning My children and the work of My hands do you command Me?   יא. כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיוֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל בָּנַי וְעַל פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי:
Ask Me about the signs etc.: Heb. הָאוֹתִיוֹת. The ‘heh’ is voweled with a ‘kamatz.’ This indicates that it is not the interrogative, but this is its explanation: If you have come to ask Me, you and the prophets, ask Me about the signs of the heavens and the wonders that you see coming about on the earth; about them you may ask Me, what they are, but about My children and about the work of My hands, Israel, for whose sake I formed everything, shall you come to command Me and to complain before Me?  
do you command Me?: This is the interrogative. Must you command Me concerning My children? I have already created the salvation for them in the thought that has entered My mind [lit. has come before Me]. How so? I aroused him with righteousness. This is stated regarding Cyrus.  
12. I made the earth, and I created man upon it; as for Me-My hands stretched out the heavens, and I ordained their host.   יב. אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי אֲנִי יָדַי נָטוּ שָׁמַיִם וְכָל צְבָאָם צִוֵּיתִי:
I made the earth: and gave it to whoever pleased Me [lit. was straight in My eyes].  
13. I aroused him with righteousness, and all his ways I will straighten out. He shall build My city and free My exiles, neither for a price nor for a bribe," said the Lord of Hosts.   יג. אָנֹכִי הַעִירֹתִהוּ בְצֶדֶק וְכָל דְּרָכָיו אֲיַשֵּׁר הוּא יִבְנֶה עִירִי וְגָלוּתִי יְשַׁלֵּחַ לֹא בִמְחִיר וְלֹא בְשֹׁחַד אָמַר יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת:
14. So said the Lord, "The toil of Egypt and the merchandise of Cush and the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to you and shall be yours; they shall follow you; they shall come over in chains, and they shall prostrate themselves before you, they shall pray to you, "Only in you is God and there is no other god.   יד. כֹּה | אָמַר יְהֹוָה יְגִיעַ מִצְרַיִם וּסֲחַר כּוּשׁ וּסְבָאִים אַנְשֵׁי מִדָּה עָלַיִךְ יַעֲבֹרוּ וְלָךְ יִהְיוּ אַחֲרַיִךְ יֵלֵכוּ בַּזִּקִּים יַעֲבֹרוּ וְאֵלַיִךְ יִשְׁתַּחֲווּ אֵלַיִךְ יִתְפַּלָּלוּ אַךְ בָּךְ אֵל וְאֵין עוֹד אֶפֶס אֱלֹהִים:
The toil of Egypt etc.: I have informed how I will save My children from the hand of Babylon, for I have aroused Cyrus for that purpose with My righteousness. I further inform you of the salvation from Sennacherib that will take place in the days of Hezekiah. When he returns (supra 36:36) from marching upon Tirhaka, king of Cush, he will return to Jerusalem with all the valuable treasures of Cush, and Egypt, who will go to aid Cush, in his possession, and he will come with those spoils and fall in Jerusalem, and Hezekiah and his people will plunder everything. So is it delineated in Seder Olam (ch. 23) that it is stated concerning Sennacherib.  
men of stature: Tall people.  
over to you: Jerusalem.  
they shall come over in chains: For Sennacherib brought them there, with neck-irons fastened to them, and after his defeat, Hezekiah stood and released all those captives, who became converted to Judaism and recognized the kingdom of Heaven.  
Only in you is God: They will acknowledge that there is no God but the Lord alone. ([Mss. and K’li Paz read:] but to Israel.)  
15. Indeed, You are a God Who conceals Himself, the God of Israel, the Savior.   טו. אָכֵן אַתָּה אֵל מִסְתַּתֵּר אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹשִׁיעַ:
Indeed, You are a God Who conceals Himself: And so they shall say to the Holy One, blessed be He, “Indeed, You have given us to understand (we understand [Mss. and K’li Paz]) that to collect the debts of Your people, You conceal yourself from showing Your victory. So to speak, You have not the ability, and when Your mercy is aroused, You are the God of Israel, the Savior.” So it is explained in Mechilta (Ex. 14:4).  
16. They shall be ashamed, yea disgraced, all of them the master painters shall go together in disgrace.   טז. בּוֹשׁוּ וְגַם נִכְלְמוּ כֻּלָּם יַחְדָּו הָלְכוּ בַכְּלִמָּה חָרָשֵׁי צִירִים:
master painters: Heb. צִירִים חָרָשֵׁי, the master painters of the idols, from among the pagans.  
17. Israel shall be saved by the Lord [with] an everlasting salvation; you shall neither be ashamed nor disgraced to all eternity.   יז. יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹשַׁע בַּיהֹוָה תְּשׁוּעַת עוֹלָמִים לֹא תֵבשׁוּ וְלֹא תִכָּלְמוּ עַד עוֹלְמֵי עַד:
18. For so said the Lord, the Creator of heaven, Who is God, Who formed the earth and made it, He established it; He did not create it for a waste, He formed it to be inhabited, "I am the Lord and there is no other.   יח. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהֹוָה בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים יֹצֵר הָאָרֶץ וְעֹשָׂהּ הוּא כוֹנְנָהּ לֹא תֹהוּ בְרָאָהּ לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ אֲנִי יְהֹוָה וְאֵין עוֹד:
He did not create it for a waste: but He formed it to be inhabited.  
19. Not in secret did I speak, in a place of a land of darkness; I did not say to the seed of Jacob, Seek Me, in vain; I am the Lord, Who speaks righteousness, declares things that are right.   יט. לֹא בַסֵּתֶר דִּבַּרְתִּי בִּמְקוֹם אֶרֶץ חֹשֶׁךְ לֹא אָמַרְתִּי לְזֶרַע יַעֲקֹב תֹּהוּ בַקְּשׁוּנִי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה דֹּבֵר צֶדֶק מַגִּיד מֵישָׁרִים:
Not in secret did I speak: When I gave the Torah, and I did not say for naught and in vain to the seed of Jacob, Seek Me, but to receive great reward.  
I am the Lord Who speaks righteousness: Since I commenced to speak to them concerning My righteousness, to inform them of the giving of their reward, afterwards I told them things that are right, My statutes and My laws, for before the giving of the Torah it was said to them, “And now, if you heed, etc., you shall be for Me a treasure… a kingdom of priests, etc.” (Ex. 19:5f.).  
20. Assemble and come, approach together, you survivors of the nations; those who carry their graven wooden image and pray to a god who does not save, do not know.   כ. הִקָּבְצוּ וָבֹאוּ הִתְנַגְּשׁוּ יַחְדָּו פְּלִיטֵי הַגּוֹיִם לֹא יָדְעוּ הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת עֵץ פִּסְלָם וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים אֶל אֵל לֹא יוֹשִׁיעַ:
approach: Heb. הִתְנַגְּשׁוּ, an expression of approaching (הַגָּשָׁה) and the ‘nun’ is attached to it, as one says “they were struck (הִתְנַגְּפוּ) ”; “they will be struck (יִתְנַגְּפוּ).”  
you survivors of the nations: who survived the sword of Nebuchadnezzar.  
who carry their graven wooden image… do not know: to understand knowledge.  
21. Declare and present, let them even take counsel together; who announced this from before, [who] declared it from then? Is it not I, the Lord, and there are no other gods besides Me, a just and saving God there is not besides Me.   כא. הַגִּידוּ וְהַגִּישׁוּ אַף יִוָּעֲצוּ יַחְדָּו מִי הִשְׁמִיעַ זֹאת מִקֶּדֶם מֵאָז הִגִּידָהּ הֲלוֹא אֲנִי יְהֹוָה וְאֵין עוֹד אֱלֹהִים מִבַּלְעָדַי אֵל צַדִּיק וּמוֹשִׁיעַ אַיִן זוּלָתִי:
who announced this from before: Who of your idols is it that announced from before that your God brought salvation, each one to its worshipers?  
Is it not I, the Lord, and there are no other: For I announce what I am destined to do for My people, and I fulfill My words.  
22. Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth, for I am God, and there is no other.   כב. פְּנוּ אֵלַי וְהִוָּשְׁעוּ כָּל אַפְסֵי אָרֶץ כִּי אֲנִי אֵל וְאֵין עוֹד:
Turn to Me: and abandon your graven images, all the ends of the earth, and, thereby, you shall be saved.  
23. By Myself I swore, righteousness emanated from My mouth, a word, and it shall not be retracted, that to Me shall every knee kneel, every tongue shall swear."   כג. בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי יָצָא מִפִּי צְדָקָה דָּבָר וְלֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי לִי תִּכְרַע כָּל בֶּרֶךְ תִּשָּׁבַע כָּל לָשׁוֹן:
By Myself I swore: and righteousness emanated from My mouth to accept all those who return to Me. I spoke a word, and it will not be retracted. What is the righteousness that emanated from My mouth? That to Me shall every knee kneel, and I will accept them, as the matter is stated (Zeph. 3:9): “For then will I change for the people a pure language, to call all of them in the name of the Lord…”  
24. But to me did He say by the Lord righteousness and strength, to Him shall come and be ashamed all who are incensed against Him.   כד. אַךְ בַּיהֹוָה לִי אָמַר צְדָקוֹת וָעֹז עָדָיו יָבוֹא וְיֵבֹשׁוּ כֹּל הַנֶּחֱרִים בּוֹ:
But to me did He say by the Lord: Heb. אַ בַה׳ לִי אָמַר [lit. but by the Lord to me He said]. This verse is inverted, and thus is its interpretation: But to me did He say by the Lord righteousness and strength. Although all the nations shall prostrate themselves before Him [correct reading according to Warsaw edition, K’li Paz, and mss.], but to me alone, the congregation of Israel, has been promised by the Lord righteousness and strength, and other nations shall not be included in my glory.  
to Him shall come and be ashamed etc.: All who were incensed against the Holy One, blessed be He, shall come to Him to regret what they did in their lifetimes and be ashamed.  
all who are incensed: Heb. כֹּל הַנֶּחֱרִים בּוֹ, all who are incensed.  
25. Through the Lord shall all the seed of Israel find righteousness and boast.   כה. בַּיהֹוָה יִצְדְּקוּ וְיִתְהַלְלוּ כָּל זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Through the Lord… find righteousness and boast: Through the promise of the support of His love they shall find righteousness and boast of His strength.  
boast: Heb. וְיִתְהַלְלוּ, porvantir in O.F.  
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