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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 22

Yeshayahu- Isaiah - Chapter 22

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 22

1. The harsh prophecy of the Valley of Vision: What ails you then that all of you have gone up to the rooftops?   א. מַשָּׂא גֵּיא חִזָּיוֹן מַה לָּךְ אֵפוֹא כִּי עָלִית כֻּלָּךְ לַגַּגּוֹת:
the Valley of Vision: This is Jerusalem, the valley concerning which most prophecies were prophesied.  
that all of you have gone up to the rooftops: When an army comes upon them, they go up to their roofs to see the army and to fight. Our Rabbis, however, explained this concerning the priests who went up to the roof of the Temple with the keys of the forecourt in their hands, as is stated in the Tractate Taanith (29a). The Midrash Aggadah, however, states that they, (the people of Jerusalem,) were haughty. (This is found) in Lamentations Rabbah (Int. 24).  
2. Full of clamor, a tumultuous city, a happy city, your fallen have not fallen by the sword, nor have they died in war.   ב. תְּשֻׁאוֹת | מְלֵאָה עִיר הוֹמִיָּה קִרְיָה עַלִּיזָה חֲלָלַיִךְ לֹא חַלְלֵי חֶרֶב וְלֹא מֵתֵי מִלְחָמָה:
full of clamor: A city that was full of clamor, the voice of many people, tumultuous and happy, now, what ails you that you mourn?  
your fallen have not fallen by the sword: It would have been better had they fallen by the sword than now that they have perished by hunger.  
3. All your officers wandered together, because of the bow they were bound; all those found of you were bound together; from afar they fled.   ג. כָּל קְצִינַיִךְ נָדְדוּ יַחַד מִקֶּשֶׁת אֻסָּרוּ כָּל נִמְצָאַיִךְ אֻסְּרוּ יַחְדָּו מֵרָחוֹק בָּרָחוּ:
All your officers wandered together: Zedekiah and his officers, who went out to flee at night (II Kings 25:4).  
because of the bow they were bound: who, because of fear of the archers, were bound to be confined within the city, and all those found therein were bound together with chains, and the majority of them fled from afar prior to this.  
4. Therefore, I said, "Leave Me alone; let Me cry bitterly; do not hasten to console Me concerning the pillaging of the daughter of My people."   ד. עַל כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי שְׁעוּ מִנִּי אֲמָרֵר בַּבֶּכִי אַל תָּאִיצוּ לְנַחֲמֵנִי עַל שֹׁד בַּת עַמִּי:
Leave Me alone: (שְׁעוּ מִנִּי). Leave Me alone. So says the Holy One, blessed be He, to the ministering angels.  
5. For it is a day of breaking and trampling and confusion to the Lord God of Hosts in the Valley of Vision, destroying the wall and shouting, "To the mountain!"   ה. כִּי יוֹם מְהוּמָה וּמְבוּסָה וּמְבוּכָה לַאדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה צְבָאוֹת בְּגֵי חִזָּיוֹן מְקַרְקַר קִר וְשׁוֹעַ אֶל הָהָר:
trampling: (מְבוּסָה) , trampling. Comp. (Jer. 12:10) “They trampled (בּוֹסְסוּ) My heritage.” Comp. also (Zech. 10:5): “And they shall be like heroes, trampling (בּוֹסִים) in the mire of the streets.”  
destroying the wall: a day of destroying the wall.  
and shouting, “To the mountain!”: (וְשׁוֹע(ַ. And the voice of a shout to flee to the mountains to escape.  
6. And Elam carried a quiver with a chariot of men, riders, and to the wall they attached their shields.   ו. וְעֵילָם נָשָׂא אַשְׁפָּה בְּרֶכֶב אָדָם פָּרָשִׁים וְקִיר עֵרָה מָגֵן:
carried a quiver: a quiver of arrows.  
and to the wall they attached their shields: (עֵרָה). Comp. (above 19: 7) “The well rooted plants (עָרוֹת) by the stream,” (Psalms 37: 35) “Striking roots (מִתְעָרֶה) like a green tree in its native soil.” It is also possible to explain: וְקִיר עֵרָה מָגֵן as follows: Kir is the name of the city. Comp. (II Kings 16:9) “And exiled [its inhabitants] to Kir.” The people of that province exposed their shields toward Jerusalem.  
7. And it came to pass that the choice of your valleys were filled with chariots and the riders laid [siege] to the gate.   ז. וַיְהִי מִבְחַר עֲמָקַיִךְ מָלְאוּ רָכֶב וְהַפָּרָשִׁים שֹׁת שָׁתוּ הַשָּׁעְרָה:
laid [siege] to the gate: (Lit., laid to the gate.) They laid siege to the gates. There is a similar expression in Kings (II 20: 12) in the war with Ben Hadad, “Lay on!” And they laid siege to the city.  
8. And he bared the covert of Judah, and you looked on that day to the weapons of the house of the forest.   ח. וַיְגַל אֵת מָסַךְ יְהוּדָה וַתַּבֵּט בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶל נֶשֶׁק בֵּית הַיָּעַר:
And he bared: (וַיְגַל), an expression of uncovering.  
the covert of Judah: That is the Temple, which shielded, protected, and covered them.  
and you looked on that day: for means of waging war.  
to the weapons of the house of the forest: They are the three hundred shields and two hundred body shields that Solomon made, and the king placed them in the house of the forest of Lebanon (I Kings 10:16).  
9. And the cracks of the city of David you saw that they had increased, and you gathered the water of the lower pool.   ט. וְאֵת בְּקִיעֵי עִיר דָּוִד רְאִיתֶם כִּי רָבּוּ וַתְּקַבְּצוּ אֶת מֵי הַבְּרֵכָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה:
the cracks of the city of David: The cracks of the wall you saw that they had increased.  
and you gathered the water of the lower pool: Jonathan renders: And you gathered the people to the waters of the lower pool, which is near the cracks of the city of David, to fight there, because you saw that Jerusalem had a weak spot there and was vulnerable to conquest from there.  
10. And the houses of Jerusalem you counted, and you demolished the houses to fortify the wall.   י. וְאֶת בָּתֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִַם סְפַרְתֶּם וַתִּתְצוּ הַבָּתִּים לְבַצֵּר הַחוֹמָה:
And the houses of Jerusalem you counted: how many houses each one had, that they give of them proportionally, to take the stones and the wood to fortify the wall.  
to fortify: (לְבַצֵּר) , to strengthen, an expression similar to “fortified cities” (בְּצוּרוֹת) (Num. 13:28).  
11. And a ditch you made between the two walls and the water of the old pool, but you did not look to its Maker, and Him Who fashioned it from afar, you did not see.   יא. וּמִקְוָה | עֲשִׂיתֶם בֵּין הַחֹמֹתַיִם לְמֵי הַבְּרֵכָה הַיְשָׁנָה וְלֹא הִבַּטְתֶּם אֶל עֹשֶׂיהָ וְיֹצְרָהּ מֵרָחוֹק לֹא רְאִיתֶם:
And a ditch you made: A pool of water, to be a defense (lit., strength) for the city.  
between the two walls: the double walls, the low wall and the high wall, and the water of the old pool.  
but you did not look to its Maker: Now, if you ask, Hezekiah, too, did so, as it is stated (in II Chron. 32:5) “And he strengthened himself, and he built up all the broken down wall, and he went up on the towers and outside the other wall, and he strengthened the Millo of the city of David,” the answer is that Hezekiah “trusted in the Lord God of Israel, etc.” (II Kings 18:5), but you, in the days of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah did not look to its Maker.  
and Him Who fashioned it from afar: From the time He created the world, Jerusalem and the Temple were His intention.  
you did not see: You did not think of Him.  
12. And the Lord God of Hosts called on that day, for weeping, and for lamenting and for baldness, and for girding with sackcloth.   יב. וַיִּקְרָא אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה צְבָאוֹת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לִבְכִי וּלְמִסְפֵּד וּלְקָרְחָה וְלַחֲגֹר שָׂק:
13. And behold, joy and happiness, slaying cattle and slaughtering sheep, eating meat and drinking wine; "Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we will die."   יג. וְהִנֵּה | שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה הָרֹג | בָּקָר וְשָׁחֹט צֹאן אָכֹל בָּשָׂר וְשָׁתוֹת יָיִן אָכוֹל וְשָׁתוֹ כִּי מָחָר נָמוּת:
And behold, joy and happiness: The Holy One, blessed be He, so to speak, is mourning, and you are eating and rejoicing.  
for tomorrow we will die: in the World to Come. The prophets tell us in the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, that we will have no share in the World to Come. Let us, therefore, enjoy ourselves during our lifetime.  
14. "And it was revealed in My ears, the Lord of Hosts; [I, therefore, swear] that this iniquity shall not be atoned for you until you die, said the Lord God of Hosts.   יד. וְנִגְלָה בְאָזְנָי יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם יְכֻפַּר הֶעָו‍ֹן הַזֶּה לָכֶם עַד תְּמֻתוּן אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה צְבָאוֹת:
until you die: Jonathan paraphrases a second death in the World to Come.  
15. So said the Lord God of Hosts: Go, come to this voluptuary, to Shebna, who is appointed over the Temple.   טו. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה צְבָאוֹת לֶךְ בֹּא אֶל הַסֹּכֵן הַזֶּה עַל שֶׁבְנָא אֲשֶׁר עַל הַבָּיִת:
voluptuary: (סוֹכֵן) , he was lustful of pleasures. Comp. (I Kings 1:2): “And she shall be to him a warmer (סוֹכֶנֶת) ,” (San. 26b, where Rashi cites exegetes who claim that Shebna had homosexual tendencies.) Midrash Aggadah states: He was from Sichni, and he came to Jerusalem. This is in Lev. Rabbah (5:5).  
appointed over the Temple: (lit., the house.) He was appointed over the entire Temple. Some say he was the High Priest and some say he was a Temple trustee.  
16. What have you here, and whom have you here, that you have hewn for yourself here a grave? He hews his grave on high; he hews a habitation for himself in the rock.   טז. מַה לְּךָ פֹה וּמִי לְךָ פֹה כִּי חָצַבְתָּ לְּךָ פֹּה קָבֶר חֹצְבִי מָרוֹם קִבְרוֹ חֹקְקִי בַסֶּלַע מִשְׁכָּן לוֹ:
What have you here: Scripture denigrates him because he wished to surrender Hezekiah to the king of Assyria, as is stated in San. (26a): He wrote a note and shot it on an arrow, “Shebna and his company wish to make peace; Hezekiah and his company do not wish to make peace.”  
and whom do you have here: Who of your family is buried here?  
he hews his grave on high: For he hewed a grave for himself among the graves of the House of David, to be buried among the kings. Therefore, he says to him, “What right of heritage do you have in these graves?”  
he hews: (חֹצְבִי). The ‘yud’ is superfluous. Comp. (Deut. 33:16): “Who dwells (שׁוֹכְנִי) in the thornbush” ; (Psalms 113:7) “He raises up (מְקִימִי) the poor man from the dust.”  
17. Behold, the Lord shall cast you about with a mighty toss, and cause you to fly.   יז. הִנֵּה יְהֹוָה מְטַלְטֶלְךָ טַלְטֵלָה גָּבֶר וְעֹטְךָ עָטֹה:
Shall cast you about with a mighty toss: (גָבֶר) like a rooster that wanders from place to place (Lev. Rabbah ibid.) The Midrash explains גֶבֶר as a rooster. Our Rabbis, however, stated that the wandering of a man is more trying than that of a woman (San. 26a).  
and cause you to fly.: Heb. (וְעֹטְ עָטֹה). Comp. (I Sam. 25: 14) “And he drove them away (וַיָּעַט),” an expression of עַיִּט, a bird. He will make you fly away like a bird, in exile. Our Rabbis, however, stated that ‘zaraath’ broke out upon him, as is stated: (Leviticus 13:45) “And on his upper lip he shall enwrap himself (יַעְטֶה).”  
18. He shall wind you around like a turban, like a surrounding wall, to a land of ample space; there you shall die, and there shall the chariots of your glory become the shame of the house of your master.   יח. צָנוֹף יִצְנָפְךָ צְנֵפָה כַּדּוּר אֶל אֶרֶץ רַחֲבַת יָדָיִם שָׁמָּה תָמוּת וְשָׁמָּה מַרְכְּבוֹת כְּבוֹדֶךָ קְלוֹן בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ:
He shall wind you around: like a turban that surrounds the head, the enemies and oppressors shall surround you.  
like a surrounding wall.: (כַּדּוּר). Our Rabbis, however, explained it as an expression of a ball, which they call ‘pelote’ in French, which is tossed and caught from hand to hand.  
to a land of ample space: in Casiphia, the name of a place.  
there you shall die: And you shall not be buried in the sepulchre of the House of David, and there the chariots of your glory shall be converted into the shame of the house of your master which you sought.  
19. And I will cast you off your position, and from your station He shall tear you down.   יט. וַהֲדַפְתִּיךָ מִמַּצָּבֶךָ וּמִמַּעֲמָדְךָ יֶהֶרְסֶךָ:
and from your station: (Lit., your stand. The Temple service was performed in a standing position.) And from your service in the Temple, He shall tear you down.  
20. And it shall come to pass on that day, that I will call My servant, Eliakim son of Hilkiah.   כ. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְקָרָאתִי לְעַבְדִּי לְאֶלְיָקִים בֶּן חִלְקִיָּהוּ:
to Eliakim: He was appointed over the house when Sennacherib took him, (i.e., Shebna,) as we find, when they went out to Rabshakeh, and he revealed to him Shebna and his company, and they dragged him with their horses’ tails, as is related in San. (26b). When Sennacherib went to Tirhakah, king of Cush, he swept away Shebna and his company and went away. We learned this in Seder Olam (ch. 23).  
21. And I will dress him [with] your tunic, and [with] your girdle I will gird him, and your authority will I place into his hand, and he shall become a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah.   כא. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתִּיו כֻּתָּנְתֶּךָ וְאַבְנֵטְךָ אֲחַזְּקֶנּוּ וּמֶמְשַׁלְתְּךָ אֶתֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְהָיָה לְאָב לְיוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּלְבֵית יְהוּדָה:
22. And I will give the key of the House of David on his shoulder, and he shall open and no one shall close; and he shall close and no one shall open.   כב. וְנָתַתִּי מַפְתֵּחַ בֵּית דָּוִד עַל שִׁכְמוֹ וּפָתַח וְאֵין סֹגֵר וְסָגַר וְאֵין פֹּתֵחַ:
the key of the House of David: Jonathan paraphrases: The key of the Temple and the government of the House of David.  
23. And I will thrust him like a peg in a sure place, and it shall become a throne of glory for his father's house.   כג. וּתְקַעְתִּיו יָתֵד בְּמָקוֹם נֶאֱמָן וְהָיָה לְכִסֵּא כָבוֹד לְבֵית אָבִיו:
And I will thrust him like a peg in a sure place: (Jonathan renders:) And I will appoint him a faithful trustee, serving in a sure place. Jonathan renders נֶאֱמָן as sure, i.e., a place that is faithful to those who lean on it, for it shall not move. Another explanation is to reverse the word order of the verse: And I will thrust him a sure peg in a place.  
24. And they shall hang upon him all the honor of his father's house, the children and the grandchildren, all the small vessels, from the vessels of basins to all the vessels of the lyres.   כד. וְתָלוּ עָלָיו כֹּל | כְּבוֹד בֵּית אָבִיו הַצֶּאֱצָאִים וְהַצְּפִעוֹת כֹּל כְּלֵי הַקָּטָן מִכְּלֵי הָאַגָּנוֹת וְעַד כָּל כְּלֵי הַנְּבָלִים:
the children and the grandchildren: (צֶאֱצָאִים וּצְפִיעוֹת). Jonathan renders: the children and the children’s children. Menachem (Machbereth p. 151) associates it with, (Ezekiel 4:15) “Cattle dung (צְפִיעֵי).” This teaches us that it is an expression of tiny infants that issue forth from their mother’s womb. making צְפִיעוֹת an expression of coming out, i.e., a thing that comes out.  
all the small vessels: the smallest of their families shall take pride in him and rely on him.  
from the vessels of basins to the vessels of the lyres: Jonathan paraphrases: From the priests who wear the ephod to the Levites who hold the lyres. Accordingly, it is an expression of the ministration vessels with which the priests perform the service in the Temple.  
the lyres: with which the Levites recite the song during the offering of the sacrifices.  
25. On that day, says the Lord of Hosts, shall the peg, thrust in a permanent place, move, and it shall be cut off and fall, and the burden which is upon it shall be cut off, for the Lord has spoken.   כה. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת תָּמוּשׁ הַיָּתֵד הַתְּקוּעָה בְּמָקוֹם נֶאֱמָן וְנִגְדְּעָה וְנָפְלָה וְנִכְרַת הַמַּשָּׂא אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ כִּי יְהֹוָה דִּבֵּר:
shall the peg… move: (This alludes to) the greatness of Shebna.  
and the burden which is upon it shall be cut off: His family members and his company who depend on him and who hang upon him the vessels of their glory. And since he likened him to a peg, he likened those who boast about him and rely on him, to a burden loaded on the peg. Some interpret it: And the prophecy prophesied about him shall be fulfilled.  
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