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Yeshayahu - Isaiah - Chapter 8

Yeshayahu - Isaiah - Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

1And the Lord said to me, "Take for yourself a large scroll, and write on it in common script, to hasten loot, speed the spoils.   אוַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י קַח־לְךָ֖ גִּלָּי֣וֹן גָּד֑וֹל וּכְתֹ֚ב עָלָיו֙ בְּחֶ֣רֶט אֱנ֔וֹשׁ לְמַהֵ֥ר שָׁלָ֖ל חָ֥שׁ בַּֽז:
scroll: Heb. גִּלְיוֹן, like מְגִלָה. ([Mss. add:] Or a tablet.)  
in common script: In script which any man who reads it can skim through quickly, even a very common man, even if he is not intelligent. In this manner Jonathan renders: in a distinct script.  
to hasten loot, speed the spoils: For Sennacherib to come and to loot all the possessions of the ten tribes and to speed Nebuchadnezzar to pillage Zedekiah and his generation.  
2And I will call to testify for Myself trustworthy witnesses, Uriah the priest and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah."   בוְאָעִ֣ידָה לִּ֔י עֵדִ֖ים נֶֽאֱמָנִ֑ים אֵת אֽוּרִיָּ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְאֶת־זְכַרְיָ֖הוּ בֶּ֥ן יְבֶֽרֶכְיָֽהוּ:
And I will call to testify for Myself: also in those days, in the days of Jehoiakim, concerning that calamity, destined to befall them, two trustworthy witnesses, one to foretell for them the evil that was destined to come upon them, viz. Uriah the priest, whom Jehoiakim dispatched, as it is said (Jer. 26: 20): “And also a man was prophesying in the name of the Lord, Uriah the son of Shemaiah from Kiriath-jearim, and he prophesied concerning this city and concerning this land, according to all the words of Jeremiah.”  
and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah: who prophesied in the second year of Darius (Zech. 8:4): “Old men and old women will again sit in the streets of Jerusalem.” Uriah is a sign for Zechariah. If you see that Uriah’s prophecy is fulfilled, you can expect that Zechariah’s will likewise be fulfilled, just as I have called to testify concerning Sennacherib, Amos and Isaiah; Amos for the calamity of the ten tribes (Amos 7:11): “And Israel shall surely be exiled,” and Isaiah for his promise to Hezekiah (Isaiah 32, 33) [when he would reign].  
3And I was intimate with the prophetess, and she conceived, and she bore a son, and the Lord said to me, "Call his name Maher-shalal-hash-baz.   גוָֽאֶקְרַב֙ אֶל־הַנְּבִיאָ֔ה וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י קְרָ֣א שְׁמ֔וֹ מַהֵ֥ר שָׁלָ֖ל חָ֥שׁ בַּֽז:
and she bore a son: He is the very son whom the prophetess called Immanuel, since the Holy One, blessed be He, would be at the aid of Hezekiah when he would reign. [It is impossible to say that it was another son, for we learned [in Seder Olam ch. 22] that in the fourth year of Ahaz, this prophecy was said, and in the fourth year of Ahaz, Pekah was assassinated, and it is impossible for two children to be born in one year, one after the other.] And Isaiah his father called him Maher- shalal-hash-baz, because of the calamity destined to befall Rezin and the son of Remaliah, who were coming to wrest the kingdom from the House of David and to curtail the kingdom of Hezekiah.  
4For, when the lad does not yet know to call, 'Father' and 'mother,' the wealth of Damascus and the plunder of Samaria shall be carried off before the king of Assyria."   דכִּ֗י בְּטֶ֙רֶם֙ יֵדַ֣ע הַנַּ֔עַר קְרֹ֖א אָבִ֣י וְאִמִּ֑י יִשָּׂ֣א | אֶת־חֵ֣יל דַּמֶּ֗שֶׂק וְאֵת֙ שְׁלַ֣ל שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן לִפְנֵ֖י מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר:
the wealth of Damascus… shall be carried off: And [the] king of Assyria went up to Damascus and seized it (II Kings 16:9).  
and the plunder of Samaria: After Pekah was assassinated, and Hoshea reigned, Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, went up against him, and Hoshea became his vassal, and gave him tribute and a bribe (ibid. 17:3). That is the plunder of Samaria. All this took place in the fourth year of Ahaz.  
5And the Lord continued to speak to me further, saying:   הוַיֹּ֣סֶף יְהֹוָ֔ה דַּבֵּ֥ר אֵלַ֛י ע֖וֹד לֵאמֹֽר:
6"Since this people has rejected the waters of the Shiloah that flow gently, and rejoice in Rezin and the son of Remaliah,   ויַ֗עַן כִּ֚י מָאַס֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֵת מֵ֣י הַשִּׁלֹ֔חַ הַהֹֽלְכִ֖ים לְאַ֑ט וּמְשׂ֥וֹשׂ אֶת־רְצִ֖ין וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָֽהוּ:
the waters of the Shiloah that flow gently: [i.e., they rejected] the kingdom of the House of David, which leads them gently, like the waters of the Shiloah that flow gently [Jonathan]. Shiloah is a spring, known as Gihon and Shiloah. Here he prophesied concerning Shebna and his company who wanted to rebel against Hezekiah, for they rejected him since they saw that he did not choose a regal table, but would eat a litre of vegetables and engage in the Torah. Concerning him, it is stated (Prov. 13:25): “A righteous man eats to satiate his body.” They saw Pekah son of Remaliah eat forty seahs of pigeons for dessert. They would ridicule Hezekiah and say, Is this one fit to be a king? There is no king but Rezin and the son of Remaliah. They were fit to rule in their lifetimes. And this is the meaning of: “And rejoice in Rezin and the son of Remaliah.” The Holy One, blessed be He, said to them, Do you desire eaters? I will bring many eaters upon you. “Behold the Lord brings upon them the mighty… waters of the river” instead of the weak and gentle waters of the Shiloah.  
7Therefore, behold the Lord is bringing up on them the mighty and massive waters of the river-the king of Assyria and all his wealth, and it will overflow all its distributaries and go over all its banks.   זוְלָכֵ֡ן הִנֵּ֣ה אֲדֹנָי֩ מַֽעֲלֶ֨ה עֲלֵיהֶ֜ם אֶת־מֵ֣י הַנָּהָ֗ר הָֽעֲצוּמִים֙ וְהָ֣רַבִּ֔ים אֶת־מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּׁ֖וּר וְאֶת־כָּל־כְּבוֹד֑וֹ וְעָלָה֙ עַל־כָּל־אֲפִיקָ֔יו וְהָלַ֖ךְ עַל־כָּל־גְּדוֹתָֽיו:
and it will overflow: [i.e.,] the river [will overflow].  
and all its distributaries: Its waters will surge to rise over all the distributaries of the outflow of its waters.  
and go over: the swelling river [will go over].  
over all its banks: its high banks. Those are its upright banks in the place where the river flows between its upright banks, and it is like within a gutter.  
8And it will penetrate into Judah, overflowing as it passes through, up to the neck it will reach; and the tips of his wings will fill the breadth of your land, Immanuel.   חוְחָלַ֚ף בִּֽיהוּדָה֙ שָׁטַ֣ף וְעָבַ֔ר עַד־צַוָּ֖אר יַגִּ֑יע וְהָיָה֙ מֻטּ֣וֹת כְּנָפָ֔יו מְלֹא־רֹ֥חַב אַרְצְךָ֖ עִמָּֽנוּאֵֽל:
into Judah: into the land of Judah.  
overflowing: with might.  
up to the neck: up to the main part of the strength of their neck. And Jonathan renders: Up to Jerusalem he will reach.  
the neck: their strength.  
the tips of his wings: A small joint at the end of the wing is called מֻטּוֹת, and I saw in Tanhuma (Tazria 8, Buber 10): How big are the wing tips of the rooster? [One sixtieth of his wings, symbolizing] one sixtieth of Sennacherib’s forces.  
will fill the breadth of: the land of Judah.  
Immanuel: This is the tribe of Judah, whom the Holy One, blessed be He, promised to be with in the days of Hezekiah, as the words of the prophetess, who named her son Immanuel.  
9Join together, O peoples, and be broken, hearken, all you of distant countries. Gird yourselves and be broken, gird yourselves and be broken.   טרֹ֚עוּ עַמִּים֙ וָחֹ֔תּוּ וְהַֽאֲזִ֔ינוּ כֹּ֖ל מֶרְחַקֵּי־אָ֑רֶץ הִתְאַזְּר֣וּ וָחֹ֔תּוּ הִתְאַזְּר֖וּ וָחֹֽתּוּ:
Join together: Heb. (רֹעוּ) , an expression similar to (Prov. 27:10): "Your friend and your father’s friend (רֵעֲ וְרֵע ַאָבִי), as Jonathan renders: Join together. Join together, armies of Sennacherib.  
and be broken: Heb. וָחֹתּוּ i.e., you shall be broken.  
Gird yourselves and be broken: You may gird yourselves with all sorts of might, but, eventually, you shall be broken.  
10Take counsel and it will be foiled; speak a word and it will not succeed, for God is with us.   יעֻ֥צוּ עֵצָ֖ה וְתֻפָ֑ר דַּבְּר֚וּ דָבָר֙ וְלֹ֣א יָק֔וּם כִּ֥י עִמָּ֖נוּ אֵֽל:
Take counsel: [This is] the imperative form.  
11So has the Lord spoken to me with the overwhelming power of prophecy, and He admonished me from going in the way of this people, saying:   יאכִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אָמַ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י בְּחֶזְקַ֣ת הַיָּ֑ד וְיִסְּרֵ֕נִי מִלֶּ֛כֶת בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
with the overwhelming power of prophecy: [Lit., with strength of the hand.] When the prophecy became more intensive over me, when He continued to speak concerning this matter, as it is written above (v. 5): “And the Lord continued to speak to me.” And in this language, Ezekiel said, (3:14): “And the hand of the Lord became strong over me.” This is an expression of prophecy.  
and admonished me from going…: He warned me not to participate in the counsel of Shebna the scribe and his company, who conspired to rebel against Hezekiah, as is related in Sanhedrin (26a), to which there is an allusion in this Book (below 22:15): “Go, come to this voluptuary, to Shebna who is appointed over the Temple.”  
and He admonished me: like “and to admonish me.”  
12'You shall not call a band everything that this people calls a band; and you shall not fear what it fears nor attribute strength to it.   יבלֹֽא־תֹֽאמְר֣וּן קֶ֔שֶׁר לְכֹ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמַ֛ר הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּ֖ה קָ֑שֶׁר וְאֶת־מֽוֹרָא֥וֹ לֹֽא־תִֽירְא֖וּ וְלֹ֥א תַֽעֲרִֽיצוּ:
‘You shall not call a band: You of Hezekiah’s company, even though they (sic) are fewer than Shebna’s company, you shall not say: We decide according to the majority (Exodus 23:2. See Rashi ad loc.), to all that this people that is with Shebna, says, for this is a band of the wicked and is not counted, and so it is as regards the ten tribes, who formed an alliance with the kings of Egypt.  
and you shall not fear what it fears: [i.e.,] what this people fears, for they say to you to fear Sennacherib and to make peace with him.  
you shall not fear… nor attribute strength: You shall not say that he is strong. So did Jonathan translate: You shall not say strong.  
13The Lord of Hosts-Him shall you fear, and He is your fear, and He gives you strength.   יגאֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֹת֣וֹ תַקְדִּ֑ישׁוּ וְה֥וּא מוֹרַֽאֲכֶ֖ם וְה֥וּא מַֽעֲרִיצְכֶֽם:
He gives you strength: Heb. (מַעֲרִיצְכֶם).  
14And it shall be for a portent and a stone upon which to dash oneself and for a rock upon which to stumble for the two houses of Israel, who came to be for a snare and a trap for the inhabitants of Jerusalem.   ידוְהָיָ֖ה לְמִקְדָּ֑שׁ וּלְאֶ֣בֶן נֶ֠גֶף וּלְצ֨וּר מִכְשׁ֜וֹל לִשְׁנֵ֨י בָתֵּ֚י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְפַ֣ח וּלְמוֹקֵ֔שׁ לְיוֹשֵׁ֖ב יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
And it shall be for a portent: That plan that Shebna plotted and that Pekah plotted to overthrow the kingdom of the House of David, shall be an omen [a preparationmss.] of the disaster destined to befall them.  
for a portent: Heb. לְמִקְדָשׁ, comp. (Num. 12:18) “Prepare yourself (הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ) for the morrow.”  
and for a stone upon which to dash oneself: upon which the feet are dashed. This is an expression of stumbling, as (in Jeremiah 13:16): “[Before] your feet are dashed (יִתְנַגְּפוּ) ,” (Psalms 91:12), “Lest you dash (תִּגֹּף) your foot on a stone.”  
and for a rock upon which to stumble: This is synonymous with “a stone upon which to dash oneself,” for a rock is a stone.  
for the two houses of Israel: who came to be for a snare and a trap for the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Now who are the two houses? Pekah son of Remaliah and his company and Shebna and his company.  
15And many shall stumble upon them, and fall and be broken, and be trapped and caught.   טווְכָ֥שְׁלוּ בָ֖ם רַבִּ֑ים וְנָֽפְל֣וּ וְנִשְׁבָּ֔רוּ וְנֽוֹקְשׁ֖וּ וְנִלְכָּֽדוּ:
And many shall stumble upon them: Upon those stones, these two and their companies shall fall into the hands of their enemies; Pekah was assassinated, for Hoshea assassinated him, and the ten tribes fell into the hands of Sennacherib; and Shebna went out of Jerusalem when Sennacherib abandoned it to march on Tirhakah, king of Cush. He took along Shebna and his company and went away.  
16Bind this warning, seal the Torah in My disciples.'   טזצ֖וֹר תְּעוּדָ֑ה חֲת֥וֹם תּוֹרָ֖ה בְּלִמֻּדָֽי:
Bind this warning: All this is part of the prophecy stated above (v. 11): “For so has the Lord said to me,” and He said further to me, “Bind this warning (תְּעוּדָה) ,” an expression similar to (Deut. 8:19): “I warn (הַעִדֹּתִי) you today,” an expression of warning. Bind My warning and seal the Torah on the heart of My disciples. Your disciples who fear My Name are called “disciples of the Lord.” And if you say that the expression of binding does not apply to the study of the Torah, it does indeed apply, as it is said (Prov. 6:21): “Bind them upon your heart always.”  
17And I will wait for the Lord, Who hides His countenance from the House of Jacobs and I will hope for Him.   יזוְחִכִּ֙יתִי֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה הַמַּסְתִּ֥יר פָּנָ֖יו מִבֵּ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְקִוֵּ֖יתִי־לֽוֹ:
And I will wait for the Lord: Said Isaiah: I wait for the Lord, Who hides His countenance from the ten tribes. I hope for Him to fulfill these my words, and to save the House of David.  
18Behold, I and the children whom the Lord gave me for signs and for tokens in Israel, from the Lord of Hosts, Who dwells on Mount Zion.   יחהִנֵּ֣ה אָֽנֹכִ֗י וְהַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָֽתַן־לִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְאֹת֥וֹת וּלְמֽוֹפְתִ֖ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מֵעִם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הַשֹּׁכֵ֖ן בְּהַ֥ר צִיּֽוֹן:
Behold, I and the children… for signs: For two signs: the disaster in store for Pekah, as the child was called Maher-shalal-hash-baz, and the salvation of the House of David, as the child was called Immanuel. This is the solution of the matter according to its simple meaning. According to Midrash Aggadah in Genesis Rabbah (4:2), however, [it deals with Ahaz, who locked (lit. held, אָחַז in Heb.)] the synagogues and the study-halls, lest the children of the schools study Torah. He said, “If there are kids, there are no bucks. If there are no bucks, there are no flocks. If there are no flocks, there is no Shepherd. I will cause Him to remove His presence.” The prophet said to him: “No matter how much you bind the testimony and seal the Torah to close it up, so that it shall not be found in Israel, it shall not avail you.” [17]  
And I will wait for the Lord, Who hides His countenance…: There is no harsher prophecy than that time when Moses said (Deut. 31: 18): “And I will surely hide My countenance on that day.” And even on that very day, He promised them, “And this song shall testify before him as a witness, for it shall not be forgotten from the mouth of his seed” (ibid.). [18]  
Behold, I and the children etc.: They are the disciples, who are as dear to me as children; they shall be for signs and wonders that the Torah will survive [in Israel through them].  
19And when they say to you, "Inquire of the necromancers and those who divine by Jidoa bone, who chirp and who mutter." "Does not this people inquire of its God? For the living, shall we inquire of the dead   יטוְכִֽי־יֹֽאמְר֣וּ אֲלֵיכֶ֗ם דִּרְשׁ֚וּ אֶל־הָֽאֹבוֹת֙ וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֔ים הַֽמְצַפְצְפִ֖ים וְהַמַּהְגִּ֑ים הֲלוֹא־עַם֙ אֶל־אֱלֹהָ֣יו יִדְרֹ֔שׁ בְּעַ֥ד הַֽחַיִּ֖ים אֶל־הַמֵּתִֽים:
And when they say to you: Said Rabbi Simon: Beeri, the father of Hosea son of Beeri, prophesied these two verses, but, since they were not enough for a Book, they were attached to “Isaiah.” And he prophesied them concerning the exile of the ten tribes, when Sennacherib exiled the Reubenites and the Gadites, and he exiled him with them, as it is said (I Chron. 5: 6): “Beerah his son, whom Tilgathpilneser exiled; he was the prince of the Reubenites.”  
And when they say to you: [i.e., when] the nations [say to you].  
Inquire of the necromancers… who chirp and who moan: This is a derogatory expression, for they have not even any speech, but like these birds who chirp with their voice. The expression of chirping and moaning applies to birds, as below (48:14): “Like a swift or a crane I chirp, I moan like a dove.” Similarly, we find the expression of chirping in regards to a low voice, as it is said (infra 29:4): “And your voice shall be like a necromancer from the earth, and from the dust shall your speech chirp.”  
Does not this people inquire of its God?: This shall be your reply: Does not a people like us, who has a God like our God, inquire of its God? Would you tell us to be like you, to inquire of the needs of the living from the dead?  
20For the Torah and for the warning?" If they will not say the likes of the thing, that it has no light.   כלְתוֹרָ֖ה וְלִתְעוּדָ֑ה אִם־לֹ֚א יֹֽאמְרוּ֙ כַּדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵין־ל֖וֹ שָֽׁחַר:
For the Torah and the warning: This is related to the above: Shall we inquire of the dead for the Torah and for the warning for the living, to instruct us what to do? All this is according to the Midrash. According to the simple meaning, however, we can interpret: And when they say to you… This is the end of his prophecy, for he said (v. 11), “and admonished me from going in the way of this people,” and the Holy One, blessed be He, admonished the prophet and Hezekiah’s company, that when Shebna and his company, who will see Hezekiah condemning idolatry, say to you, Inquire of the necromancers and those who divine by the Jidoa bone, and select idolatry as the early forefathers did, and switch the kingdom over to Sennacherib. Does not every people inquire of its god, they worship idols and inquire for the living of the dead? You too should do this.  
for the Torah and for the warning: This shall be your reply, that you shall observe the Torah, as it is said above, “Bind the warning, seal the Torah, and do not believe their words.”  
if they will not say the likes of this that it has no light: Heb. אֵין לו ֹשַׁחַר. Since you will reply to him [to themms.] this answer, you will see and hear whether the honest people among them will not concur with your statement, and say, The likes of this thing is true, that the god, the necromancer, and the diviner by the Jidoa bone, have no request “; i.e., it is not proper to request of him, [explaining שַׁחַר as ” request."] In this manner, Jonathan rendered it. The Midrash Aggadah (Lev. Rabbah 6:6) explains: For himself, he cannot make the dawn shine, for he has no eyes and cannot see. How can he make it shine upon others? Another explanation is:  
If they do not say to you the likes of this thing: Now you will see whether they will not say the likes of this thing, namely, “Inquire of the necromancers and of those who divine by the Jidoa bone.” Even though there is no “light” and no substance in this thing, they will not be ashamed.  
21And the one who passes therein shall suffer hardships and hunger, and it shall come to pass, when he is hungry and wroth, that he shall curse his king and his god and face upwards.   כאוְעָ֥בַר בָּ֖הּ נִקְשֶׁ֣ה וְרָעֵ֑ב וְהָיָ֨ה כִֽי־יִרְעַ֜ב וְהִתְקַצַּ֗ף וְקִלֵּ֧ל בְּמַלְכּ֛וֹ וּבֵֽאלֹהָ֖יו וּפָנָ֥ה לְמָֽעְלָה:
And the one who passes therein shall suffer hardships and hunger: This refers to the above. What is mentioned at the beginning of the section? “And He admonished me from going in the way of this people.” And he explained what that way is, viz. “You shall not call a band…” the union of the ten tribes, who will unite with the kings of Egypt, and he delineated their punishment: “And it shall be for a portent, and they shall stumble on them,” and the entire section.  
and shall pass therein: [i.e.,] the one who passes on that way in abandoning the Holy One, blessed be He and relying upon the kings of Egypt.  
shall suffer hardships: Difficult circumstances.  
He shall be wearied by hardships and hunger: For the harshness of the siege and the oppression shall come upon them during the siege, the three years that Sennacherib besieged Samaria.  
and it shall come to pass, when he is hungry and wroth, he shall curse: the calves and the baalim that they worshipped.  
and he will turn to Heaven: to beseech the Holy One, blessed be He, and He will not listen, for the verdict will have been sealed. Jonathan, too, rendered it in this manner.  
22And he shall look to the land, and behold, distress and darkness, weariness of oppression, and to the darkness he is lost.   כבוְאֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ יַבִּ֑יט וְהִנֵּ֨ה צָרָ֚ה וַֽחֲשֵׁכָה֙ מְע֣וּף צוּקָ֔ה וַֽאֲפֵלָ֖ה מְנֻדָּֽח:
And he shall look to the land: perhaps he will find aid. [This refers to the incident] that Hoshea son of Elah sent messengers to So the king of Egypt (II Kings 17:4).  
and behold distress: For they will not aid him, and also Shebna defected to Sennacherib, to his detriment.  
weariness of oppression: Heb. מְעוּף צוּקָה, weariness of oppression.  
and to the darkness he is lost: And through the darkness he is lost, for the expression of נִדּוּחַ [applies to darkness], as (Jer. 23: 12): “Therefore, their way shall be to them like slippery land in the darkness; they shall be lost and fall upon it.” And to the darkness they shall be lost.  
23For there is no weariness to the one who oppresses her; like the first time, he dealt mildly, [exiling only] the land of Zebulun and the land of Naftali, and the last one he dealt harshly, the way of the sea, and the other side of the Jordan, the attraction of the nations.   כגכִּ֣י לֹ֣א מוּעָף֘ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר מוּצָ֣ק לָהּ֒ כָּעֵ֣ת הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן הֵקַ֞ל אַ֚רְצָה זְבֻלוּן֙ וְאַ֣רְצָה נַפְתָּלִ֔י וְהָאַֽחֲר֖וֹן הִכְבִּ֑יד דֶּ֚רֶךְ הַיָּם֙ עֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן גְּלִ֖יל הַגּוֹיִֽם:
For there is no weariness for the one who oppresses her: For the king of Assyria, who was given the mission to oppress and to besiege her and their land [(var.) your land], is neither weary nor slothful to come upon them as many as three times: one in the days of Pekah, when he took Ijon, Abel-beth- maacah,… and Kedesh,… and Galilee, the entire land of Naphtali (II Kings 15:29). And that exile took place in the fourth year of Ahaz, and in the twelfth year, “the Lord incited Pul, the king of Assyria… and exiled the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh.” This verse is in Chronicles (I 5:26). This exile took place in the twelfth year of Ahaz, at the beginning of Hoshea’s revolt, as is stated (II Kings 17:4): “And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea,” after he had subordinated himself to him for eight years. Although the calculation is not explicit in the Bible, it is, nevertheless, possible to deduce it from the Baraitha of Seder Olam (Ch. 22). The third exile took place in the sixth year of Hezekiah, the ninth year of Hoshea’s revolt, when Samaria that is the capitalwas captured, and everyone was exiled. That is what is stated here, for there is no weariness for the adversary, who will oppress her, [i.e.,] the land of Israel mentioned in the passage, “And he shall look to the land.”  
like the first time, he dealt mildly, [exiling only] the land of Zebulun: This middle exile will be like the one of the first time, when he dealt mildly to exile the land of Zebulun and Naphtali, for also in the second one, he exiled but the two and a half tribes who were on the other side of the Jordan, but the last one was the third removal.  
he dealt harshly: Heb. הכביד. He swept (מכבד) everything away, like one who sweeps (מְכַבֵּד) a house. This can also be interpreted as an expression of harshness according to the context of the verse, which commences first with an expression of “dealt mildly, [exiling only] the land of Zebulun,” he said, “He dealt harshly.” When Isaiah said this prophecy, the first ones had already been exiled.  
the way of the sea: [Those dwelling by the Sea of Tiberias] (Kinnereth): that is the land of Naphtali, concerning whom it was said (Deut. 33:23): “The sea and the southland you shall inherit.”  
the other side of the Jordan: That is the second exile, that of Reuben and Gad.  
the attraction of the nations: Heb. (גְּלִיל הַגּוֹיִם). That is the entire land of Israel, which would roll (גּוֹלֶלֶת) to it all the nations, for all longed for it and came to it for commerce, like the matter that is stated (Jer. 3: 19): “A heritage desired by hosts of nations.” Jonathan, however, rendered this differently.  
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