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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Melachim II - II Kings - Chapter 25

Melachim II - II Kings - Chapter 25

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 25

1. And it was in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylonia came, he and his entire army, against Jerusalem and encamped against it, and they built works of siege around it.   א. וַיְהִי בִשְׁנַת הַתְּשִׁיעִית לְמָלְכוֹ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂירִי בֶּעָשֹוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּא נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל הוּא וְכָל חֵילוֹ עַל יְרוּשָׁלַםִ וַיִּחַן עָלֶיהָ וַיִּבְנוּ עָלֶיהָ דָּיֵק סָבִיב:
in the ninth year of his reign: [i.e., the reign] of Zedekiah.  
works of siege: Jonathan renders: Karkom [which is the Aramaic term for works of siege].  
2. And the city came under siege until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah.   ב. וַתָּבֹא הָעִיר בַּמָּצוֹר עַד עַשְׁתֵּי עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ:
3. On the ninth of the month, the famine became severe in the city, and the people of the land had no food.   ג. בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ וַיֶּחֱזַק הָרָעָב בָּעִיר וְלֹא הָיָה לֶחֶם לְעַם הָאָרֶץ:
4. The city was broken into, and all the men of war [fled] at night by way of the gate between the two walls that was near the king's garden, and the Chaldees were surrounding the city, and he went by way of the Arabah.   ד. וַתִּבָּקַע הָעִיר וְכָל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה | הַלַּיְלָה דֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר | בֵּין הַחֹמֹתַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל גַּן הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַשְׂדִּים עַל הָעִיר סָבִיב וַיֵּלֶךְ דֶּרֶךְ הָעֲרָבָה:
by way of the gate between the two walls: A cave went from his house until the plains of Jericho, and he fled through the cave. The Holy One, Blessed be He, ordained a deer walking on the roof of the cave. The Chaldeans pursued the deer, and when they reached the entrance of the cave in the plains of Jericho, they saw him and captured him. This is what Ezekiel said, (12: 13) “And I will spread My net over him, and he shall be caught in My net…”  
5. And the army of the Chaldees pursued the king, and they overtook him on the plains of Jericho, and all his army had scattered and deserted him.   ה. וַיִּרְדְּפוּ חֵיל כַּשְׂדִּים אַחַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּשִֹגוּ אֹתוֹ בְּעַרְבוֹת יְרֵחוֹ וְכָל חֵילוֹ נָפֹצוּ מֵעָלָיו:
6. And they seized the king and brought him up to the king of Babylonia, to Riblah, and called him to account.   ו. וַיִּתְפְּשׂוּ אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲלוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל רִבְלָתָה וַיְדַבְּרוּ אִתּוֹ מִשְׁפָּט:
and called him to account: He debated with him concerning the oath.  
7. And they slaughtered Zedekiah's sons before his eyes, and they blinded Zedekiah's eyes, and he bound him with copper chains and brought him to Babylon.   ז. וְאֶת בְּנֵי צִדְקִיָּהוּ שָׁחֲטוּ לְעֵינָיו וְאֶת עֵינֵי צִדְקִיָּהוּ עִוֵּר וַיַּאַסְרֵהוּ בַנְחֻשְׁתַּיִם וַיְבִאֵהוּ בָּבֶל:
8. And in the fifth month, on the seventh of the month (that was the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylonia) Nebuzaradan, chief executioner, servant of the king of Babylonia, came to Jerusalem.   ח. וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי בְּשִׁבְעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הִיא שְׁנַת תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל בָּא נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב טַבָּחִים עֶבֶד מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל יְרוּשָׁלָםִ:
9. And he burnt the house of the Lord and the king's palace, and all the houses of Jerusalem and all the houses of the dignitaries he burnt with fire.   ט. וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת בֵּית יְהֹוָה וְאֶת בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵת כָּל בָּתֵּי יְרוּשָׁלַםִ וְאֶת כָּל בֵּית גָּדוֹל שָׂרַף בָּאֵשׁ:
and all the houses of the dignitaries: [lit. the house of every great one.] Synagogues wherein Torah and prayer are aggrandized, and the houses of the princes.  
10. The entire army of the Chaldeans that was [with] the chief executioner demolished the walls of Jerusalem around.   י. וְאֶת חוֹמֹת יְרוּשָׁלַםִ סָבִיב נָתְצוּ כָּל חֵיל כַּשְׂדִּים אֲשֶׁר רַב טַבָּחִים:
11. And Nebuzaradan the chief executioner exiled the remnant of the people who remained in the city, and the defectors who defected to the king of Babylonia, and the rest of the populace.   יא. וְאֵת יֶתֶר הַעָם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּעִיר וְאֶת הַנֹּפְלִים אֲשֶׁר נָפְלוּ עַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאֵת יֶתֶר הֶהָמוֹן הֶגְלָה נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב טַבָּחִים:
and the defectors: who obeyed Nebuchadnezzar and went out to him from the city, like (I Chron. 12:20) “When he went to Ziklag, of Manasseh… defected to him.”  
and farmers: Heb. יגבים, diggers of the earth, an expression of wine vats (יְקָבִים).  
12. Now the chief executioner left over some of the poorest of the land as vine-dressers and farmers.   יב. וּמִדַּלַּת הָאָרֶץ הִשְׁאִיר רַב טַבָּחִים לְכֹרְמִים וּלְיֹגְבִים:
13. And the Chaldeans broke the copper pillars that were in the house of the Lord and the bases and the copper sea that was in the house of the Lord, and they carried off their copper to Babylon.   יג. וְאֵת עַמּוּדֵי הַנְּחשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר בֵּית יְהֹוָה וְאֶת הַמְּכֹנוֹת וְאֶת יָם הַנְּחשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית יְהֹוָה שִׁבְּרוּ כַשְׂדִּים וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת נְחֻשְּׁתָּם בָּבֶלָה:
14. And they took the pots and the shovels and the musical instruments and the spoons and all the copper vessels with which they served.   יד. וְאֶת הַסִּירֹת וְאֶת הַיָּעִים וְאֶת הַמְזַמְּרוֹת וְאֶת הַכַּפּוֹת וְאֵת כָּל כְּלֵי הַנְּחשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ בָם לָקָחוּ:
15. And the chief executioner took the censers and the basins, both of gold and of silver.   טו. וְאֶת הַמַּחְתּוֹת וְאֶת הַמִּזְרָקוֹת אֲשֶׁר זָהָב זָהָב וַאֲשֶׁר כֶּסֶף כָּסֶף לָקַח רַב טַבָּחִים:
16. The two pillars, the one sea, and the bases that Solomon had made for the house of the Lord: there was no weight for the copper of all these vessels.   טז. הָעַמּוּדִים | שְׁנַיִם הַיָּם הָאֶחָד וְהַמְּכֹנוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשָֹה שְׁלֹמֹה לְבֵית יְהֹוָה לֹא הָיָה מִשְׁקָל לִנְחשֶׁת כָּל הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה:
17. The height of one pillar was eighteen cubits and there was a capital of copper upon it, and the height of the capital was three cubits, and a net and pomegranates on the capital around, all was copper. And such did the second pillar have on the net.   יז. שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה קוֹמַת | הָעַמּוּד הָאֶחָד וְכֹתֶרֶת עָלָיו | נְחשֶׁת וְקוֹמַת הַכֹּתֶרֶת שָׁלשׁ אַמּוֹת וּשְׂבָכָה וְרִמֹּנִים עַל הַכֹּתֶרֶת סָבִיב הַכֹּל נְחשֶׁת וְכָאֵלֶּה לַעַמּוּד הַשֵּׁנִי עַל הַשְּׁבָכָה:
and the height of the capital was three cubits: and in the beginning of the book (I Kings 7:16) he says, “five cubits.” There I reconciled the verses.  
and a net: [coffe in French] like a sort of hat.  
18. And the chief executioner took Seraiah the head priest and Zephaniah the priest of second rank, and the three keepers of the utensils.   יח. וַיִּקַּח רַב טַבָּחִים אֶת שְׂרָיָה כֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ וְאֶת צְפַנְיָהוּ כֹּהֵן מִשְׁנֶה וְאֶת שְׁלשֶׁת שֹׁמְרֵי הַסַּף:
19. And from the city he took one eunuch who was appointed over the men of war, and five men of those who saw the king's face, who were found in the city, and the scribe of the general of the army, who would muster out the people of the land, and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city.   יט. וּמִן הָעִיר לָקַח סָרִיס אֶחָד אֲשֶׁר הוּא פָקִיד | עַל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה אֲנָשִׁים מֵרֹאֵי פְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר נִמְצְאוּ בָעִיר וְאֵת הַסֹּפֵר שַֹר הַצָּבָא הַמַּצְבִּא אֶת עַם הָאָרֶץ וְשִׁשִּׁים אִישׁ מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ הַנִּמְצְאִים בָּעִיר:
the scribe of the general of the army: who knew the number of every city, how many men it sends forth to the army.  
20. And Nebuzaradan the chief executioner took them and brought them to the king of Babylonia, to Riblah.   כ. וַיִּקַּח אֹתָם נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב טַבָּחִים וַיֹּלֶךְ אֹתָם עַל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל רִבְלָתָה:
21. And the king of Babylonia struck them down and killed them in Riblah in the land of Hamath, and Judah went in to exile off its land.   כא. וַיַּךְ אֹתָם מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיְמִיתֵם בְּרִבְלָה בְּאֶרֶץ חֲמָת וַיִּגֶל יְהוּדָה מֵעַל אַדְמָתוֹ:
22. And [as for] the people who remained in the land of Judah whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylonia had left over, he appointed over them Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan.   כב. וְהָעָם הַנִּשְׁאָר בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁאִיר נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיַּפְקֵד עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת גְּדַלְיָהוּ בֶּן אֲחִיקָם בֶּן שָׁפָן:
23. And all the officers of the armies, they and the men, heard that the king of Babylonia had appointed Gedaliah, and they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah and Johanan the son of Kareach and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of the Maachathite, they and their men.   כג. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כָל שָׂרֵי הַחֲיָלִים הֵמָּה וְהָאֲנָשִׁים כִּי הִפְקִיד מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל אֶת גְּדַלְיָהוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל גְּדַלְיָהוּ הַמִּצְפָּה וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן נְתַנְיָה וְיוֹחָנָן בֶּן קָרֵחַ וּשְׂרָיָה בֶן תַּנְחֻמֶת הַנְּטֹפָתִי וְיַאֲזַנְיָהוּ בֶּן הַמַּעֲכָתִי הֵמָּה וְאַנְשֵׁיהֶם:
all the officers of the armies: who had vacated the city to hide in the strongholds and in the boulders and in the rocks (sic) and in the forests.  
24. And Gedaliah swore to them and to their men, and said to them, "Fear not the servants of the Chaldeans; dwell in the land and serve the king of Babylonia, and it will go well with you."   כד. וַיִּשָּׁבַע לָהֶם גְּדַלְיָהוּ וּלְאַנְשֵׁיהֶם וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אַל תִּירְאוּ מֵעַבְדֵי הַכַּשְׂדִּים שְׁבוּ בָאָרֶץ וְעִבְדוּ אֶת מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְיִטַב לָכֶם:
25. And it was in the seventh month that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama of the royal descent, came with ten men with him, and they struck down Gedaliah and he died, and the Judeans and the Chaldeans who were with him at Mizpah.   כה. וַיְהִי | בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בָּא יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן נְתַנְיָה בֶּן אֱלִישָׁמָע מִזֶּרַע הַמְּלוּכָה וַעֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים אִתּוֹ וַיַּכּוּ אֶת גְּדַלְיָהוּ וַיָּמֹת וְאֶת הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶת הַכַּשְׂדִּים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ אִתּוֹ בַּמִּצְפָּה:
26. And all the people, young and old, and the officers of the armies, got up and came to Egypt, because they were afraid of the Chaldeans.   כו. וַיָּקֻמוּ כָל הָעָם מִקָּטֹן וְעַד גָּדוֹל וְשָׂרֵי הַחֲיָלִים וַיָּבֹאוּ מִצְרָיִם כִּי יָרְאוּ מִפְּנֵי כַשְׂדִּים:
27. And it was in the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-merodach, king of Babylonia, in the year of his coronation, lifted up the head of Jehoiachin, king of Judah and released him from prison.   כז. וַיְהִי בִשְׁלשִׁים וָשֶׁבַע שָׁנָה לְגָלוּת יְהוֹיָכִין מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה בִּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ נָשָֹא אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל בִּשְׁנַת מָלְכוֹ אֶת רֹאשׁ יְהוֹיָכִין מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה מִבֵּית כֶּלֶא:
Evil-Merodach… lived: for Nebuchadnezzar died, and Evil-Merodach reigned in his stead.  
On the twenty-seventh day of the month: In Jeremiah (52:31), Scripture states, “On the twenty- fifth.” Rather, on the twenty-fifth Nebuchadnezzar died. He was buried on the twenty-sixth. On the twenty-seventh, Evil- Merodach removed him from his grave and dragged him about, in order to nullify his decrees, as it is said, “and you have been cast out of your grave like a despised sapling…” (Is. 14:19).  
28. And he spoke with him kindly and placed his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babylon.   כח. וַיְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ טֹבוֹת וַיִּתֵּן אֶת כִּסְאוֹ מֵעַל כִּסֵּא הַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בְּבָבֶל:
And he spoke with him kindly: words of consolation.  
29. And he changed his prison garb, and he ate meals before him regularly all the days of his life.   כט. וְשִׁנָּא אֵת בִּגְדֵי כִלְאוֹ וְאָכַל לֶחֶם תָּמִיד לְפָנָיו כָּל יְמֵי חַיָּיו:
30. And his meals, regular meals were given him from the king, each day's need in its day, all the days of his life.   ל. וַאֲרֻחָתוֹ אֲרֻחַת תָּמִיד נִתְּנָה לּוֹ מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיָּו:
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