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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 21

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 21

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 21

1. And it was after these happenings, that Naboth the Jezreelite had a vineyard, which was in Jezreel, next to the palace of Ahab, the king of Samaria.   א. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כֶּרֶם הָיָה לְנָבוֹת הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִי אֲשֶׁר בְּיִזְרְעֶאל אֵצֶל הֵיכַל אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ שֹׁמְרוֹן:
And it was after these happenings: [lit. after these things,] still another incident to bring his death close.  
2. And Ahab spoke to Naboth saying, "Give me your vineyard and I will have it for a vegetable garden since it is near my house, and I will give you instead of it a vineyard which is better than it-if it pleases you, I will give you money, its worth."   ב. וַיְדַבֵּר אַחְאָב אֶל נָבוֹת | לֵאמֹר | תְּנָה לִּי אֶת כַּרְמְךָ וִיהִי לִי לְגַן יָרָק כִּי הוּא קָרוֹב אֵצֶל בֵּיתִי וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ תַּחְתָּיו כֶּרֶם טוֹב מִמֶּנּוּ אִם טוֹב בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֶתְּנָה לְךָ כֶסֶף מְחִיר זֶה:
its worth: [lit. the worth of this, i.e.,] the worth of this vineyard.  
3. And Naboth said to Ahab, "The Lord forbid me to give the inheritance of my forefathers to you."   ג. וַיֹּאמֶר נָבוֹת אֶל אַחְאָב חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהֹוָה מִתִּתִּי אֶת נַחֲלַת אֲבֹתַי לָךְ:
4. And Ahab came to his house sad and upset because of the matter that Naboth the Jezreelite had spoken to him and said, "I will not give you the inheritance of my forefathers." He lay on his bed, turned away his face, and did not eat bread.   ד. וַיָּבֹא אַחְאָב אֶל בֵּיתוֹ סַר וְזָעֵף עַל הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו נָבוֹת הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִי וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶתֵּן לְךָ אֶת נַחֲלַת אֲבוֹתָי וַיִּשְׁכַּב עַל מִטָּתוֹ וַיַּסֵּב אֶת פָּנָיו וְלֹא אָכַל לָחֶם:
5. And Jezebel his wife came to him, and spoke to him, "For what is this that your spirit has left you and you do not eat bread?"   ה. וַתָּבֹא אֵלָיו אִיזֶבֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתְּדַבֵּר אֵלָיו מַה זֶּה רוּחֲךָ סָרָה וְאֵינְךָ אֹכֵל לָחֶם:
6. He spoke to her, "For I have spoken to Naboth the Jezreelite and I have said to him, 'Give me your vineyard for money or if you wish I will give you a vineyard instead of it. And he said, 'I will not give you my vineyard.' "   ו. וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיהָ כִּי אֲדַבֵּר אֶל נָבוֹת הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִי וָאֹמַר לוֹ תְּנָה לִּי אֶת כַּרְמְךָ בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ אִם חָפֵץ אַתָּה אֶתְּנָה לְךָ כֶרֶם תַּחְתָּיו וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶתֵּן לְךָ אֶת כַּרְמִי:
7. And Jezebel his wife said to him, "Do you now exercise kingly power over Israel? Arise, and eat bread and let your heart be merry, I will give you Naboth the Jezreelite's vineyard."   ז. וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אִיזֶבֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ אַתָּה עַתָּה תַּעֲשֶֹה מְלוּכָה עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל קוּם אֱכָל לֶחֶם וְיִטַב לִבֶּךָ אֲנִי אֶתֵּן לְךָ אֶת כֶּרֶם נָבוֹת הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִי:
8. And she wrote letters in Ahab's name and sealed [them] with his seal, and she sent the letters to the elders and the officials who were in his city, who sat with Naboth.   ח. וַתִּכְתֹּב סְפָרִים בְּשֵׁם אַחְאָב וַתַּחְתֹּם בְּחֹתָמוֹ וַתִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל הַזְּקֵנִים וְאֶל הַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר בְּעִירוֹ הַיּשְׁבִים אֶת נָבוֹת:
to the elders: wicked and ignorant elders, elders of shame.  
9. And she wrote letters saying, "Proclaim a fast and place Naboth in the forefront of the people.   ט. וַתִּכְתֹּב בַּסְּפָרִים לֵאמֹר קִרְאוּ צוֹם וְהֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת נָבוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ הָעָם:
Proclaim a fast: On a fast day it was their custom to search for the sins in their hands.  
10. And set up two wicked men opposite him and they will testify against him saying, 'You have cursed God and the king,' and they shall remove him and stone him, and he will die."   י. וְהוֹשִׁיבוּ שְׁנַיִם אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל נֶגְדּוֹ וִיעִדֻהוּ לֵאמֹר בֵּרַכְתָּ אֱלֹהִים וָמֶלֶךְ וְהוֹצִיאֻהוּ וְסִקְלֻהוּ וְיָמֹת:
11. And the men of his city did, the elders and the officials that dwelled in his city, as Jezebel sent to them, as it was written in the letters that she had sent to them.   יא. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ הַזְּקֵנִים וְהַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר הַיּשְׁבִים בְּעִירוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁלְחָה אֲלֵיהֶם אִיזָבֶל כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בַּסְּפָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלְחָה אֲלֵיהֶם:
12. They proclaimed a fast, and they set Naboth at the head of the people.   יב. קָרְאוּ צוֹם וְהֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת נָבוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ הָעָם:
13. And the two wicked men came and sat opposite him, and the wicked men testified against Naboth in front of the people saying, "Naboth cursed God and the king." And they took him out of the city and stoned him with stones, and he died.   יג. וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ נֶגְדּוֹ וַיְעִדֻהוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַבְּלִיַּעַל אֶת נָבוֹת נֶגֶד הָעָם לֵאמֹר בֵּרַךְ נָבוֹת אֱלֹהִים וָמֶלֶךְ וַיֹּצִאֻהוּ מִחוּץ לָעִיר וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָאֲבָנִים וַיָּמֹת:
Naboth cursed: Heb. ברך, [lit. blessed, a euphemism for קללה,] curse. The Targum renders: Naboth blasphemed against God and cursed the king.  
14. And they sent to Jezebel saying: "Naboth has been stoned and has died."   יד. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ אֶל אִיזֶבֶל לֵאמֹר סֻקַּל נָבוֹת וַיָּמֹת:
15. And it was when Jezebel heard that Naboth was stoned and that he died, that Jezebel said to Ahab, "Get up, and take possession of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, which he refused to give you for money, for Naboth is not living but dead."   טו. וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ אִיזֶבֶל כִּי סֻקַּל נָבוֹת וַיָּמֹת וַתֹּאמֶר אִיזֶבֶל אֶל אַחְאָב קוּם רֵשׁ אֶת כֶּרֶם | נָבוֹת הַיִזְרְעֵאלִי אֲשֶׁר מֵאֵן לָתֶת לְךָ בְכֶסֶף כִּי אֵין נָבוֹת חַי כִּי מֵת:
Get up and take possession: Some of our Sages say that the property of those executed by the king belong to the king. And some of them say that he [Ahab] was the son of his [Naboth’s] father’s brother. He killed him and his children [as well], and was therefore fit to inherit his [property].  
16. And it was as Ahab heard that Naboth had died, that Ahab got up to go down to the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite to take possession of it.   טז. וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ אַחְאָב כִּי מֵת נָבוֹת וַיָּקָם אַחְאָב לָרֶדֶת אֶל כֶּרֶם נָבוֹת הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִי לְרִשְׁתּוֹ:
17. And the word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite saying,   יז. וַיְהִי דְּבַר יְהֹוָה אֶל אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי לֵאמֹר:
18. "Arise and go down toward Ahab the king of Israel, who is in Samaria. Behold! he is in Naboth's vineyard where he has gone down to take possession of it.   יח. קוּם רֵד לִקְרַאת אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן הִנֵּה בְּכֶרֶם נָבוֹת אֲשֶׁר יָרַד שָׁם לְרִשְׁתּוֹ:
19. And you shall speak to him saying, 'So said the Lord, "Have you murdered and also inherited?" And you shall speak to him saying, 'Thus said the Lord; "In the place that the dogs have licked the blood of Naboth, shall the dogs lick your blood, even yours!"'   יט. וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה הֲרָצַחְתָּ וְגַם יָרָשְׁתָּ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר לָקְקוּ הַכְּלָבִים אֶת דַּם נָבוֹת יָלֹקּוּ הַכְּלָבִים אֶת דָּמְךָ גַּם אָתָּה:
20. And Ahab said to Elijah, "Have you found me, my enemy?" And he said, "I have found [you] because you have sold yourself to do what is bad in the eyes of the Lord.   כ. וַיֹּאמֶר אַחְאָב אֶל אֵלִיָּהוּ הַמְצָאתַנִי אֹיְבִי וַיֹּאמֶר מָצָאתִי יַעַן הִתְמַכֶּרְךָ לַעֲשֹוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה:
you sold yourself: You sold yourself to anger your Creator. Heb. התמכרך, you sold yourself [reflexive form] like (Deut. 28:68) והתמכרתם, “and you will sell yourselves there to your enemies.”  
21. I will bring disaster upon you and I will expunge after you and I will cut off from Ahab every male child and those that are restrained and those that are free in Israel.   כא. הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֵלֶיךָ רָעָה וּבִעַרְתִּי אַחֲרֶיךָ וְהִכְרַתִּי לְאַחְאָב מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר וְעָצוּר וְעָזוּב בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
22. And I will make your house as the house of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat and the house of Baasha the son of Ahijah, because of the anger which you have angered [Me] and you have caused Israel to sin.   כב. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת בֵּיתְךָ כְּבֵית יָרָבְעָם בֶּן נְבָט וּכְבֵית בַּעְשָׁא בֶן אֲחִיָּה אֶל הַכַּעַס אֲשֶׁר הִכְעַסְתָּ וַתַּחֲטִא אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל:
23. And also concerning Jezebel, the Lord spoke saying, 'The dogs will eat Jezebel in the valley of Jezreel.   כג. וְגַם לְאִיזֶבֶל דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה לֵאמֹר הַכְּלָבִים יֹאכְלוּ אֶת אִיזֶבֶל בְּחֵל יִזְרְעֶאל:
in the valley of Jezreel: Heb. חל, the Aramaic translation of valley.  
24. The dead of Ahab in the city will be eaten by the dogs, and the dead in the fields the fowl of the sky will eat.' "   כד. הַמֵּת לְאַחְאָב בָּעִיר יֹאכְלוּ הַכְּלָבִים וְהַמֵּת בַּשָּׂדֶה יֹאכְלוּ עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם:
25. But there was none like Ahab who had sold himself to do bad in the eyes of the Lord, that Jezebel his wife instigated him.   כה. רַק לֹא הָיָה כְאַחְאָב אֲשֶׁר הִתְמַכֵּר לַעֲשֹוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר הֵסַתָּה אֹתוֹ אִיזֶבֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ:
But there was none like Ahab: The Scripture testifies concerning him that there was none among the kings like him, for Jeroboam and all those after him worshipped the calves out of fear that if the people would go up to Jerusalem, the kingdom would return to the house of David, but this one [Ahab] added the Baal and the Asherah to anger God.  
sold himself: was sold to idolatry. I saw in Yerushalmi that Hiel was his counselor, and every day he [Hiel] would estimate his [Ahab’s] value and he [Ahab] would give it to the pagan deities.  
26. And he very abominably went after idols, like all that the Amorites had done, whom the Lord had expelled from before the children of Israel.   כו. וַיַּתְעֵב מְאֹד לָלֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי הַגִּלֻּלִים כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשֹוּ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִישׁ יְהֹוָה מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
27. And it was when Ahab heard these words, that he tore his garments and put sackcloth on his flesh and he fasted, and he lay in the sackcloth and walked slowly.   כז. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ אַחְאָב אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּקְרַע בְּגָדָיו וַיָּשֶׂם שַֹק עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ וַיָּצוֹם וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּשָּׂק וַיְהַלֵּךְ אַט:
and put sackcloth on his flesh, and he fasted: he walked barefoot.  
28. And it was the word of the Lord to Elijah the Tishbite saying:   כח. וַיְהִי דְּבַר יְהֹוָה אֶל אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי לֵאמֹר:
29. "Have you seen that Ahab is submissive to me? Because he has humbled himself before Me, I will not bring the disaster in his days; in the days of his son I will bring the disaster on his house."   כט. הֲרָאִיתָ כִּי נִכְנַע אַחְאָב מִלְּפָנָי יַעַן כִּי נִכְנַע מִפָּנַי לֹא אָבִיא הָרָעָה בְּיָמָיו בִּימֵי בְנוֹ אָבִיא הָרָעָה עַל בֵּיתוֹ:
I will not bring the disaster: i.e., the disaster of his house I will not bring in his days, but the decree that the dogs will lick his blood is impossible to come in the days of his son, but upon him.  
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