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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 19

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 19

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 19

1. And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and all that he had killed all of the prophets with the sword.   א. וַיַּגֵּד אַחְאָב לְאִיזֶבֶל אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָֹה אֵלִיָּהוּ וְאֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר הָרַג אֶת כָּל הַנְּבִיאִים בֶּחָרֶב:
2. Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah saying, "So may the gods do and so may they continue unless at this time tomorrow, I will make your life like the life of one of them.   ב. וַתִּשְׁלַח אִיזֶבֶל מַלְאָךְ אֶל אֵלִיָּהוּ לֵאמֹר כֹּה יַעֲשֹוּן אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה יוֹסִפוּן כִּי כָעֵת מָחָר אָשִֹים אֶת נַפְשְׁךָ כְּנֶפֶשׁ אַחַד מֵהֶם:
So may the gods do: as you have done to the prophets of the Baal.  
3. And he saw, and he arose and went for his life, and he came to Beer Sheba which belonged to Judah. And he left his servant there.   ג. וַיַּרְא וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל נַפְשׁוֹ וַיָּבֹא בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע אֲשֶׁר לִיהוּדָה וַיַּנַּח אֶת נַעֲרוֹ שָׁם:
4. He went to the desert, a distance of one day's travel, and he came and sat under a juniper and requested that his soul die, He said, "Enough, now Lord take my soul as I am not better than my forefathers."   ד. וְהוּא הָלַךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר דֶּרֶךְ יוֹם וַיָּבֹא וַיֵּשֶׁב תַּחַת רֹתֶם אֶחָד וַיִּשְׁאַל אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ לָמוּת וַיֹּאמֶר | רַב עַתָּה יְהֹוָה קַח נַפְשִׁי כִּי לֹא טוֹב אָנֹכִי מֵאֲבֹתָי:
genevrier: or genievre in French, a juniper tree.  
and requested that his soul die: He said, EnoughMy long life is enough. Until when will I be confused like this?  
5. He lay and slept underneath one juniper, and behold! an angel touched him and said to him: "Rise and eat."   ה. וַיִּשְׁכַּב וַיִּישַׁן תַּחַת רֹתֶם אֶחָד וְהִנֵּה זֶה מַלְאָךְ נֹגֵעַ בּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ קוּם אֱכוֹל:
6. And he looked, and at his head there was a cake baked on hot coals, and a flask of water. He ate and drank and again he lay down.   ו. וַיַּבֵּט וְהִנֵּה מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו עֻגַת רְצָפִים וְצַפַּחַת מָיִם וַיֹּאכַל וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיָּשָׁב וַיִּשְׁכָּב:
coals: Heb. רצפים, charcoal, and similarly, (Isaiah 6: 6) “and in his hand was a coal (רצפה).”  
7. And the angel of the Lord returned to him again and touched him and said, "Arise and eat as the journey is too much for you."   ז. וַיָּשָׁב מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה | שֵׁנִית וַיִּגַּע בּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר קוּם אֱכֹל כִּי רַב מִמְּךָ הַדָּרֶךְ:
8. And he arose and ate and drank, and he went with the strength of this meal forty days and forty nights up to the mountain of the Lord, Horeb.   ח. וַיָּקָם וַיֹּאכַל וַיִּשְׁתֶּה וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּכֹחַ | הָאֲכִילָה הַהִיא אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה עַד הַר הָאֱלֹהִים חֹרֵב:
9. And he came there to the cave, and he lodged there. And behold! The word of the Lord came to him. And He said to him: "What are you doing here, Elijah?"   ט. וַיָּבֹא שָׁם אֶל הַמְּעָרָה וַיָּלֶן שָׁם וְהִנֵּה דְבַר יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מַה לְּךָ פֹה אֵלִיָּהוּ:
to the cave: That is the cleft of the rock where Moses stood (Ex. 33:22).  
10. And he said: "I have been zealous for the Lord, the God of Hosts, for the children of Israel have forsaken Your covenant. They have torn down Your altars and they have killed Your prophets by the sword, and I have remained alone, and they seek my life to take it.   י. וַיֹּאמֶר קַנֹּא קִנֵּאתִי לַיהֹוָה | אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת כִּי עָזְבוּ בְרִיתְךָ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת מִזְבְּחֹתֶיךָ הָרָסוּ וְאֶת נְבִיאֶיךָ הָרְגוּ בֶחָרֶב וָאִוָּתֵר אֲנִי לְבַדִּי וַיְבַקְשׁוּ אֶת נַפְשִׁי לְקַחְתָּהּ:
They have torn down Your altars: The private high places that were built in the Name of Heaven, for the altar of the Temple was in Jerusalem.  
11. And He said: "Go out and stand in the mountain before the Lord, Behold! the Lord passes, and a great and strong wind splitting mountains and shattering boulders before the Lord, but the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind an earthquake-not in the earthquake was the Lord.   יא. וַיֹּאמֶר צֵא וְעָמַדְתָּ בָהָר לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וְהִנֵּה יְהֹוָה עֹבֵר וְרוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה וְחָזָק מְפָרֵק הָרִים וּמְשַׁבֵּר סְלָעִים לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה לֹא בָרוּחַ יְהֹוָה וְאַחַר הָרוּחַ רַעַשׁ לֹא בָרַעַשׁ יְהֹוָה:
and a great… wind: A camp of angels of the wind.  
an earthquake: A camp of angels of earthquake.  
12. After the earthquake fire, not in the fire was the Lord, and after the fire a still small sound.   יב. וְאַחַר הָרַעַשׁ אֵשׁ לֹא בָאֵשׁ יְהֹוָה וְאַחַר הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּמָמָה דַקָּה:
a fire: A camp of angels of fire.  
a still small sound: A voice of those praising quietly, but concerning the prophets of the nations, Scripture states: (Job 4:16) “Silence and a voice I hear”; there was silence to the praising, but I heard the voice coming out of the silence, retentissement in O.F., resounding, but no one heard the voice itself.  
13. And as Elijah heard, he wrapped his face in his mantle, and he went out and stood at the entrance to the cave, and behold a voice came to him and said: "What are you doing here, Elijah?"   יג. וַיְהִי | כִּשְׁמֹעַ אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיָּלֶט פָּנָיו בְּאַדַּרְתּוֹ וַיֵּצֵא וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הַמְּעָרָה וְהִנֵּה אֵלָיו קוֹל וַיֹּאמֶר מַה לְּךָ פֹה אֵלִיָּהוּ:
he wrapped his face: Jonathan renders: כריך אפוהי, and so Scripture says: “wrapped in a garment (לוטה בשמלה)” (I Sam. 21:10).  
14. And he said, "I have been zealous for the Lord, the God of Hosts, for the Children of Israel have forsaken Your covenant, they have torn down Your altars, and they have killed Your prophets by the sword, and I alone remain, and they seek my soul to take it."   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר קַנֹּא קִנֵּאתִי לַיהֹוָה | אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת כִּי עָזְבוּ בְרִיתְךָ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת מִזְבְּחֹתֶיךָ הָרָסוּ וְאֶת נְבִיאֶיךָ הָרְגוּ בֶחָרֶב וָאִוָּתֵר אֲנִי לְבַדִּי וַיְבַקְשׁוּ אֶת נַפְשִׁי לְקַחְתָּהּ:
15. And the Lord said to him: "Go, return to your way to the desert of Damascus and you shall come and anoint Hazael to be king over Aram.   טו. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו לֵךְ שׁוּב לְדַרְכְּךָ מִדְבַּרָה דַמָּשֶׂק וּבָאתָ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת חֲזָאֵל לְמֶלֶךְ עַל אֲרָם:
16. And Jehu, the son of Nimshi, you shall anoint as king over Israel, and Elisha, the son of Shafat from Abel Meholah you shall anoint to be prophet in your stead."   טז. וְאֵת יֵהוּא בֶן נִמְשִׁי תִּמְשַׁח לְמֶלֶךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן שָׁפָט מֵאָבֵל מְחוֹלָה תִּמְשַׁח לְנָבִיא תַּחְתֶּיךָ:
you shall anoint to be prophet in your stead: I do not want your prophecy since you plead for the prosecution of My children.  
17. And it will be, those who escape the sword of Hazael, Jehu will kill, and those who escape the sword of Jehu, Elisha will kill.   יז. וְהָיָה הַנִּמְלָט מֵחֶרֶב חֲזָאֵל יָמִית יֵהוּא וְהַנִּמְלָט מֵחֶרֶב יֵהוּא יָמִית אֱלִישָׁע:
Elisha will kill: We do not find that Elisha killed anyone except the forty-two children through the bears in Jericho (II Kings 2:24).  
18. And I will leave over in Israel seven thousand, all the knees that did not kneel to the Baal and every mouth that did not kiss him."   יח. וְהִשְׁאַרְתִּי בְיִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים כָּל הַבִּרְכַּיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא כָרְעוּ לַבַּעַל וְכָל הַפֶּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא נָשַׁק לוֹ:
19. And he went from there, and he found Elisha, the son of Shafat, as he was plowing; twelve yoke were before him and he was with the twelfth, and Elijah went over to him and threw his mantle over him.   יט. וַיֵּלֶךְ מִשָּׁם וַיִּמְצָא אֶת אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן שָׁפָט וְהוּא חֹרֵשׁ שְׁנֵים עָשָֹר צְמָדִים לְפָנָיו וְהוּא בִּשְׁנֵים הֶעָשָֹר וַיַּעֲבֹר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֵלָיו וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַדַּרְתּוֹ אֵלָיו:
20. And he left the oxen and ran after Elijah and said: "Let me, please, kiss my father and my mother, and I will go after you," and he said to him, "Go, return, for what have I done to you?"   כ. וַיַּעֲזֹב אֶת הַבָּקָר וַיָּרָץ אַחֲרֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶשְּׁקָה נָּא לְאָבִי וּלְאִמִּי וְאֵלְכָה אַחֲרֶיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֵךְ שׁוּב כִּי מֶה עָשִֹיתִי לָךְ:
Go, return: from following me.  
for what have I done to you: that you should follow me.  
21. And he returned from after him, and he took the yoke of oxen and slaughtered them, and with the gear of the oxen he cooked the meat for them, and he gave the people and they ate, and he rose and followed Elijah and ministered to him.   כא. וַיָּשָׁב מֵאַחֲרָיו וַיִּקַּח אֶת צֶמֶד הַבָּקָר וַיִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וּבִכְלִי הַבָּקָר בִּשְּׁלָם הַבָּשָֹר וַיִּתֵּן לָעָם וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיְשָׁרְתֵהוּ:
he cooked the meat for them: Heb. בִּשְׁלָם הַבָּשָׂר. The mem of bishelam [is usually indicative of the direct object, to be rendered,] he cooked them. [In this case, however, since the object is] habassar, [the meat, we render:] he cooked for them the meat, so Dunash and Menahem (Machbereth Menahem, p. 48) explain, and so did Jonathan render this in two words. [‘bashilu lehon,’ he cooked for them.] I say, however, that it is unnecessary to divide it into two words [i.e., to add the preposition to]. Now what is the meaning of בִּשְׁלָם הַבָּשָׂר ? He cooked the two oxen, their flesh; [i.e., he cooked them, viz. their flesh.] For the yoke is no fewer than two. [Therefore the plural suffix is used.]  
and he gave the people: Out of great joy, he made a feast.  
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