Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 10

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 10

E-mail
Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 10

1. When the Queen of Sheba heard of Solomon's fame, because of the name of the Lord, and she came to test him with riddles.   א. וּמַלְכַּת שְׁבָא שֹׁמַעַת אֶת שֵׁמַע שְׁלֹמֹה לְשֵׁם יְהֹוָה וַתָּבֹא לְנַסֹּתוֹ בְּחִידוֹת:
2. And she came to Jerusalem with a very large retinue, with camels bearing spices and very much gold and precious stones; and when she came to Solomon she spoke with him all that was in her heart.   ב. וַתָּבֹא יְרוּשָׁלְַמָה בְּחַיִל כָּבֵד מְאֹד גְּמַלִּים נֹשְׂאִים בְּשָׂמִים וְזָהָב רַב מְאֹד וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה וַתָּבֹא אֶל שְׁלֹמֹה וַתְּדַבֵּר אֵלָיו אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר הָיָה עִם לְבָבָהּ:
3. And Solomon answered all her questions; nothing was hidden from the king that he did not tell her.   ג. וַיַּגֶּד לָהּ שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת כָּל דְּבָרֶיהָ לֹא הָיָה דָּבָר נֶעְלָם מִן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִגִּיד לָהּ:
4. And when the Queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom and the house that he had built.   ד. וַתֵּרֶא מַלְכַּת שְׁבָא אֵת כָּל חָכְמַת שְׁלֹמֹה וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה:
5. And the food of his table, and the seating of his servants and the station of his attendants and their attire and his cupbearers and his ascent by which he would go up to the Temple of the Lord, she was breathless.   ה. וּמַאֲכַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ וּמוֹשַׁב עֲבָדָיו וּמַעֲמַד מְשָׁרְתָיו וּמַלְבֻּשֵׁיהֶם וּמַשְׁקָיו וְעֹלָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה בֵּית יְהֹוָה וְלֹא הָיָה בָהּ עוֹד רוּחַ:
and his ascent by which he would go up to the Temple of the Lord: A passageway that he had prepared from his house to the Temple, by which he would go up to the house of the Lord.  
6. And she said to the king; "It was a true report that I heard in my country of your deeds and of your wisdom.   ו. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּאַרְצִי עַל דְּבָרֶיךָ וְעַל חָכְמָתֶךָ:
7. However, I did not believe the words until I came and saw with my own eyes, and I have beheld that not even a half had been told to me. You have wisdom and goodness in excess of that which I have heard.   ז. וְלֹא הֶאֱמַנְתִּי לַדְּבָרִים עַד אֲשֶׁר בָּאתִי וַתִּרְאֶינָה עֵינַי וְהִנֵּה לֹא הֻגַּד לִי הַחֵצִי הוֹסַפְתָּ חָכְמָה וָטוֹב אֶל הַשְּׁמוּעָה אֲשֶׁר שָׁמָעְתִּי:
8. Fortunate are your men; fortunate are these your servants who always stand before you and listen to your profound wisdom.   ח. אַשְׁרֵי אֲנָשֶׁיךָ אַשְׁרֵי עֲבָדֶיךָ אֵלֶּה הָעֹמְדִים לְפָנֶיךָ תָּמִיד הַשֹּׁמְעִים אֶת חָכְמָתֶךָ:
9. Blessed be the Lord Your God, who preferred to place you on the throne of Israel; because of the Lord's love for Israel forever, He appointed you as king to do justice and righteousness.   ט. יְהִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּרוּךְ אֲשֶׁר חָפֵץ בְּךָ לְתִתְּךָ עַל כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַהֲבַת יְהֹוָה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֹלָם וַיְשִֹימְךָ לְמֶלֶךְ לַעֲשֹוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה:
10. And she gave the king one hundred and twenty talents of gold and very many spices and precious stones; there had never arrived such an abundance of spices as those which the Queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon.   י. וַתִּתֵּן לַמֶּלֶךְ מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים | כִּכַּר זָהָב וּבְשָׂמִים הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה לֹא בָא כַבֹּשֶׂם הַהוּא עוֹד לָרֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתְנָה מַלְכַּת שְׁבָא לַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה:
11. Also Hiram's ships that delivered gold from Ophir, brought from Ophir a huge quantity of almog-wood and precious stones.   יא. וְגַם אֳנִי חִירָם אֲשֶׁר נָשָֹא זָהָב מֵאוֹפִיר הֵבִיא מֵאֹפִיר עֲצֵי אַלְמֻגִּים הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה:
almog wood: corail in French.  
12. And the king made of the almog-wood a path to the House of the Lord and to the king's palace, harps and psalteries to [accompany] the vocalists, there had come no such almog-wood nor has there been seen to this day.   יב. וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת עֲצֵי הָאַלְמֻגִּים מִסְעָד לְבֵית יְהֹוָה וּלְבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכִנֹּרוֹת וּנְבָלִים לַשָּׁרִים לֹא בָא כֵן עֲצֵי אַלְמֻגִּים וְלֹא נִרְאָה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
a path to the House of the Lord: [lit. a support.] In II Chron. 9:11 it is written, מְסִלּוֹת, paths to the House of the Lord. I, therefore, say that this מִסְעָד, support, is an expression of a pavement.  
to accompany the vocalists: for the Levites.  
13. And King Solomon gave the Queen of Sheba all her wish that she requested, aside from what he gave her, according to king Solomon's ability; and she turned and went to her land, she and her servants.   יג. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה נָתַן לְמַלְכַּת שְׁבָא אֶת כָּל חֶפְצָהּ אֲשֶׁר שָׁאָלָה מִלְּבַד אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָהּ כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה וַתֵּפֶן וַתֵּלֶךְ לְאַרְצָהּ הִיא וַעֲבָדֶיהָ:
And King Solomon gave the queen of Sheba: This giving refers only to the teaching of wisdom.  
all her wish: He cohabited with her and Nebuchadnezzar was born to her. He later destroyed the Temple that had stood 410 years in the territory of the twelve tribes.From the Arizal.  
aside from what he gave her: Gifts and delicacies that are found here and are not in her place.  
14. The weight of gold which came to Solomon in one year was 666 talents of gold.   יד. וַיְהִי מִשְׁקַל הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר בָּא לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְּשָׁנָה אֶחָת שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שִׁשִּׁים וָשֵׁשׁ כִּכַּר זָהָב:
Six hundred sixty-six: Hiram gave him 120 talents (v. 14). The Queen of Sheba, 120 (v. 10), the ships of Tarshish brought from Ophir 420, totaling 660. I do not know from where the other six came. In Chronicles (II 8:18) it stated that the ships brought from Ophir 450 talents, however it does not include the 120 talents of Hiram. We can resolve the contradictions [by saying] that the extra 30 were from the 120 of Hiram. because Hiram’s servants were in Ophir with his [Solomon’s] servants.  
15. Aside from [that which came through] merchants and the commerce of spice-peddlers and all the dependent kings and the regents of the land.   טו. לְבַד מֵאַנְשֵׁי הַתָּרִים וּמִסְחַר הָרֹכְלִים וְכָל מַלְכֵי הָעֶרֶב וּפַחוֹת הָאָרֶץ:
Aside from [that which came through] merchants: the merchants who traversed the land on business would bring to him.  
And the spice peddlers: Dealers of spice would carry them from city to city.  
and all the dependent kings: Heb. וכל מלכי הערב. Jonathan Translates: מלכי סומכותא, and all the dependent kings, an expression of guarantee. Kings who granted support and were dependent on him; garantie in French.  
16. And king Solomon made two hundred body shields of malleable gold; six hundred [dinar of] gold he would put into one body shield.   טז. וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה מָאתַיִם צִנָּה זָהָב שָׁחוּט שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת זָהָב יַעֲלֶה עַל הַצִּנָּה הָאֶחָת:
body shields: Heb. צנה, a body shield that encircles the person from three sides. This is the meaning of the verse in Psalms (5:13), “You shall encompass him with will like a shield (כַּצִנָּה).”  
six hundred [dinar of]: Six manehs, for a piece of gold (זָהָב) is a dinar [and one hundred dinars total one maneh].  
17. And three hundred shields of beaten gold, three manehs (three hundred dinar) of gold he would put into one shield, and the king placed them in the house of the forest of Lebanon.   יז. וּשְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת מָגִנִּים זָהָב שָׁחוּט שְׁלשֶׁת מָנִים זָהָב יַעֲלֶה עַל הַמָּגֵן הָאֶחָת וַיִּתְּנֵם הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית יַעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן:
malleable gold: It is soft and easy to flatten out.  
18. And the king made an immense ivory throne, and overlaid it with glittering gold.   יח. וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּסֵּא שֵׁן גָּדוֹל וַיְצַפֵּהוּ זָהָב מוּפָז:
glittering gold: Heb. זהב מופז, which sparkles like diamonds.  
19. There were six steps to the throne and the top of the throne was circular from behind, and there were arms on both sides by the place of the seat, and two lions standing beside the arms.   יט. שֵׁשׁ מַעֲלוֹת לַכִּסֵּה וְרֹאשׁ עָגוֹל לַכִּסֵּה מֵאַחֲרָיו וְיָדֹת מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה אֶל מְקוֹם הַשָּׁבֶת וּשְׁנַיִם אֲרָיוֹת עֹמְדִים אֵצֶל הַיָּדוֹת:
six steps: steps by which to ascend onto it, and the top of the throne was circular, i.e., the place of the king’s seat.  
from behind: The steps were to the front and to the width. To the back was the seat, a round place, higher than the throne.  
and arms on both sides: on which to support his arms, like two gold rails from corner to corner, extending on the right and on the left.  
and two lions: of gold. The entire plan of the throne is described in the Aggadah of the Book of Esther.  
20. And twelve lions stood there on the six steps on one side and on the other; no such throne was made for any kingdom.   כ. וּשְׁנֵים עָשָֹר אֲרָיִים עֹמְדִים שָׁם עַל שֵׁשׁ הַמַּעֲלוֹת מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה לֹא נַעֲשָֹה כֵן לְכָל מַמְלָכוֹת:
21. And all of the king's drinking vessels were of gold, and all the utensils of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold; none was of silver, [since] it was reckoned with as nothing in the days of Solomon.   כא. וְכֹל כְּלֵי מַשְׁקֵה הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה זָהָב וְכֹל כְּלֵי בֵּית יַעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן זָהָב סָגוּר אֵין כֶּסֶף לֹא נֶחְשָׁב בִּימֵי שְׁלֹמֹה לִמְאוּמָה:
none was of silver, [since] it was reckoned with as nothing: Lit. there was no silver; it was not reckoned… i.e., there was no silver in any of them because it was not reckoned.  
22. For the king had at sea ships of Tarshish with Hiram's ships; once in three years, the ships of Tarshish would come bearing gold and silver, ivory and monkeys and peacocks.   כב. כִּי אֳנִי תַרְשִׁישׁ לַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּם עִם אֳנִי חִירָם אַחַת לְשָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים תָּבוֹא | אֳנִי תַרְשִׁישׁ נֹשְׂאֵת זָהָב וָכֶסֶף שֶׁנְהַבִּים וְקֹפִים וְתֻכִּיִּים:
Ships of Tarshish: Ships of Africa.  
ivory and monkeys and peacocks: Elephant tusks, monkeys and peacocks.  
23. Now King Solomon transcended all the kings of the earth in affluence and wisdom.   כג. וַיִּגְדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה מִכֹּל מַלְכֵי הָאָרֶץ לְעשֶׁר וּלְחָכְמָה:
24. And all the [inhabitants of] the earth sought Solomon's presence to hear the wisdom with which God had endowed him.   כד. וְכָל הָאָרֶץ מְבַקְשִׁים אֶת פְּנֵי שְׁלֹמֹה לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת חָכְמָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אֱלֹהִים בְּלִבּוֹ:
25. And each one would bring his gift, vessels of silver and vessels of gold, garments, weapons, spices, horses, and mules, the tribute due each year in its year.   כה. וְהֵמָּה מְבִיאִים אִישׁ מִנְחָתוֹ כְּלֵי כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב וּשְׂלָמוֹת וְנֵשֶׁק וּבְשָׂמִים סוּסִים וּפְרָדִים דְּבַר שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה:
26. Solomon assembled chariots and horsemen, and he had a thousand and four hundred chariots and twelve thousand horsemen; he led them in the chariot cities and with the king in Jerusalem.   כו. וַיֶּאֱסֹף שְׁלֹמֹה רֶכֶב וּפָרָשִׁים וַיְהִי לוֹ אֶלֶף וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת רֶכֶב וּשְׁנֵים עָשָֹר אֶלֶף פָּרָשִׁים וַיַּנְחֵם בְּעָרֵי הָרֶכֶב וְעִם הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּירוּשָׁלָםִ:
one thousand seven hundred chariots: It is stated [that Solomon had] one thousand four hundred [chariots]. I say that one thousand four hundred were in the chariot cities and [the remaining] three hundred were with the king in Jerusalem. And this is the explanation [of the verse] in Chron.: “And he stationed them (i.e., the 1,400) in the chariot cities and with the king”; [i.e., with the king] there were other chariots in Jerusalem. While here this is the explanation: And he led them (i.e., the 1,400) in the chariot cities, and with the king; i.e., with the king were some of them in Jerusalem.  
27. And the king made silver as common in Jerusalem as stones, and cedars as common as sycamores, that are in the low lands in abundance.   כז. וַיִּתֵּן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת הַכֶּסֶף בִּירוּשָׁלַםִ כַּאֲבָנִים וְאֵת הָאֲרָזִים נָתַן כַּשִּׁקְמִים אֲשֶׁר בַּשְּׁפֵלָה לָרֹב:
as stones: Our Rabbis explained that one refers to the time before Solomon wedded Pharaoh’s daughter, and one refers to the time after Solomon wedded Pharaoh’s daughter.  
28. And the source of Solomon's horses was from Egypt and an assemblage. The agents of the king, would buy the assemblage privileges for a price.   כח. וּמוֹצָא הַסּוּסִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה מִמִּצְרָיִם וּמִקְוֵה סֹחֲרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ יִקְחוּ מִקְוֵה בִּמְחִיר:
The source of Solomon’s horses: [was] from Egypt. The assemblage of horse merchants was in Egypt. Solomon’s merchants bid and bought the rights from the king of Egypt, that no person could export horses from there except through them. Therefore, there is a ‘Zakef Gadol’ on the word ‘Mikvei,’ to denote that the word ‘Mikvei’ [stands by itself, and] is not connected with the following words.  
29. A chariot that went up and left Egypt went for a price of six hundred silver [pieces], and a horse for one hundred fifty, and so for all the kings of the Hittites and for the kings of Aram did they export them through them.   כט. וַתַּעֲלֶה וַתֵּצֵא מֶרְכָּבָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת כֶּסֶף וְסוּס בַּחֲמִשִּׁים וּמֵאָה וְכֵן לְכָל מַלְכֵי הַחִתִּים וּלְמַלְכֵי אֲרָם בְּיָדָם יֹצִאוּ:
and a horse for one hundred fifty: We deduce that a chariot consisted of four horses. And so for these prices to all the kings of the Hittites and to the kings of Aram.  
through them: Through Solomon’s merchants did they export them from Egypt.  
E-mail
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG