Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3

Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 3

E-mail
Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 3

1. And Solomon became allied by marriage to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had completed building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.   א. וַיִתְחַתֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ מִצְרָיִם וַיִּקַּח אֶת בַּת פַּרְעֹה וַיְבִיאֶהָ אֶל עִיר דָּוִד עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ לִבְנוֹת אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת בֵּית יְהֹוָה וְאֶת חוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלַםִ סָבִיב:
And Solomon became allied by marriage: as long as Shimei was alive he did not become allied to him in marriage. As a result, our Sages declare, a person should always live in the vicinity of his teacher where his influence and guidance are ever present.  
Until he completed building: and afterward built a house for her.  
2. Only the people sacrificed in the high places, because there was no house built unto the name of the Lord, until those days.   ב. רַק הָעָם מְזַבְּחִים בַּבָּמוֹת כִּי לֹא נִבְנָה בַיִת לְשֵׁם יְהֹוָה עַד הַיָּמִים הָהֵם:
Only the people sacrificed in the high places: In the name of Heaven, each who so desired would build an altar at the top of his roof or in his yard [and offer his sacrifices there].  
3. And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father; only he sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places.   ג. וַיֶּאֱהַב שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת יְהֹוָה לָלֶכֶת בְּחֻקּוֹת דָּוִד אָבִיו רַק בַּבָּמוֹת הוּא מְזַבֵּחַ וּמַקְטִיר:
And Solomon loved the Lord, walking in the statutes of David his father: The first four years, as long as he did not begin to build the Temple. But from the time he began to build and he became allied in marriage to the daughter of Pharaoh this was no longer true. Consequently, the prophet declares “for this city has been to me as a provocation of my anger and of my fury from the day that they built it and until this day” (Jeremiah 32:31). Thus have we learned in Seder Olam (Chap. 15). We learn from this the passages are not written in chronological order.  
Only he sacrificed… in the high places: The text has discussed his dishonor. Since he delayed the construction of the Temple four years.  
4. And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that (was) the great high place; a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar.   ד. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ גִּבְעֹנָה לִזְבֹּחַ שָׁם כִּי הִיא הַבָּמָה הַגְּדוֹלָה אֶלֶף עֹלוֹת יַעֲלֶה שְׁלֹמֹה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַהוּא:
That was the great high place: That was the copper altar which Moses made in the desert and was instituted in Shilo. Shilo was destroyed in the days of Eli, and they came to Nob. Nob was destroyed in the days of Saul, and they came to Gibeon.  
Upon that altar: in one day.  
5. In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said, "Ask what I shall give you."   ה. בְּגִבְעוֹן נִרְאָה יְהֹוָה אֶל שְׁלֹמֹה בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים שְׁאַל מָה אֶתֶּן לָךְ:
6. And Solomon said, "You have done Your servant David my father great kindness, as he walked before you in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with You; and You have kept for him this great kindness, that You have given him a son to sit on his throne, as (it is) this day.   ו. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁלֹמֹה אַתָּה עָשִֹיתָ עִם עַבְדְּךָ דָוִד אָבִי חֶסֶד גָּדוֹל כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ בֶּאֱמֶת וּבִצְדָקָה וּבְיִשְׁרַת לֵבָב עִמָּךְ וַתִּשְׁמָר לוֹ אֶת הַחֶסֶד הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה וַתִּתֶּן לוֹ בֵן יֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסְאוֹ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
And You have kept for him: an expression of authentication of his words as, “And the Lord your God shall keep for you the covenant” [means] You have authenticated your words to fulfill to him the kindness which You promised him through Nathan the prophet.  
7. And now, O Lord my God, You have made Your servant king instead of David my father; and I (am but) a little child; I do not know (how) to go out or come in.   ז. וְעַתָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהָי אַתָּה הִמְלַכְתָּ אֶת עַבְדְּךָ תַּחַת דָּוִד אָבִי וְאָנֹכִי נַעַר קָטֹן לֹא אֵדַע צֵאת וָבֹא:
A little child: He was twelve years old. And this is your figuring. And he called his name Jedidjah [Solomon] (Samuel II 12:25). At the same time Amnon violated Tamar, as it says “And it was after this, and Absalom had a sister, etc.” At the end of two years “And Absalom had sheepshearers, etc.,” and he killed Amnon. And Absalom fled and went to Geshur, and was there three years, so we have five years. And Absalom returned to Jerusalem, “and dwelt in Jerusalem two years” (Samuel II 14:28) so we have seven years in Solomon’s life. And he [Absalom] rebelled against his father and was killed. After this (Samuel II 21:1) “And there was famine in the days of David three years,” so we have ten. In the eleventh year he counted the Israelites and they scattered in all the land nine months (Samuel II 24:8). In the year of his death he instituted divisions [among the priests and Levites] as it says “In the fortieth year of David’s reign they were sought for” [Chronicles I 26:31, see Rashi there] so we have twelve years in the life of King Solomon.  
8. And your servant (is) in the midst of Your people which you have chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.   ח. וְעַבְדְּךָ בְּתוֹךְ עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתָּ עַם רָב אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִמָּנֶה וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב:
9. Give (therefore) Your servant an understanding heart to judge Your people, that I may discern between good and bad; for who is able to judge this Your great people?"   ט. וְנָתַתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לֵב שֹׁמֵעַ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת עַמְּךָ לְהָבִין בֵּין טוֹב לְרָע כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה:
For who is able to judge this Your great people: Since they are many there are many transactions, and they come to be judged and I have no time to deliberate over their arguments. Another interpretation of “for who is able to judge this your great people” their decisions are very difficult to make. If a lawsuit comes before me and I take from one and give to the other unjustly, I shall be punished for it with capital punishment, as it says “And He takes the lives of those that steal from them” (Proverbs 22:23).  
10. And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.   י. וַיִּיטַב הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנָי כִּי שָׁאַל שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה:
11. And God said to him, "Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked for yourself long life; neither have you asked riches for yourself, nor have you asked the life of your enemies; but have asked for yourself understanding to discern judgment.   יא. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֵלָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתָּ אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ עשֶׁר וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ הָבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט:
12. Behold, I have done according to your word; behold, I have given you a wise and understanding heart; so that there was none like you before you, nor after you shall any arise like you.   יב. הִנֵּה עָשִֹיתִי כִּדְבָרֶיךָ הִנֵּה | נָתַתִּי לְךָ לֵב חָכָם וְנָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר כָּמוֹךָ לֹא הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְאַחֲרֶיךָ לֹא יָקוּם כָּמוֹךָ:
13. And I have also given you that which you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there shall not be any among the kings like you all your days.   יג. וְגַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נָתַתִּי לָךְ גַּם עשֶׁר גַּם כָּבוֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָיָה כָמוֹךָ אִישׁ בַּמְּלָכִים כָּל יָמֶיךָ:
14. And if you walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as your father David did walk, then I will lengthen your days."   יד. וְאִם | תֵּלֵךְ בִּדְרָכַי לִשְׁמֹר חֻקַּי וּמִצְו‍ֹתַי כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ דָּוִיד אָבִיךָ וְהַאֲרַכְתִּי אֶת יָמֶיךָ:
And if you walk in My ways… I will lengthen your days: The riches and the honor for which I imposed no conditions in my Torah to give to the king, I shall grant you whether deserving or not. However, longevity and a hereditary monarchy I already imposed conditions in my Torah “that he shall not turn aside from the commandment that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, etc.” (Deut. 17:20) and that stipulation I shall not alter. “And if you will walk in My ways… then I will lengthen your days.” And likewise concerning the continuation of the monarchy to his descendants after him God said to him “And if you shall go before me… there shall not cease to be from you a man, etc.” (9:4, 5). Thus is it learned in Sifrei (Deut. 17:20) Rabbi Chanina the son of Gamliel says, “Behold he has said also riches also honor, etc.”  
15. And Solomon awoke, and behold (it was) a dream. And he came to Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and offered up burnt offerings, and offered peace offerings, and made a feast for all his servants.   טו. וַיִּקַץ שְׁלֹמֹה וְהִנֵּה חֲלוֹם וַיָּבוֹא יְרוּשָׁלַםִ וַיַּעֲמֹד | לִפְנֵי | אֲרוֹן בְּרִית אֲדֹנָי וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלָמִים וַיַּעַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל עֲבָדָיו:
And Solomon awoke, and behold it was a dream: and behold he understood that his dream was true. He would hear a bird chirp and understand its language, a dog would bark and he would understand its language.  
And he came to Jerusalem… and made a feast for all his servants: out of the gladness of his heart since he understood that his dream was true.  
16. Then came two women, harlots, to the king, and stood before him.   טז. אָז תָּבֹאנָה שְׁתַּיִם נָשִׁים זֹנוֹת אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לְפָנָיו:
17. And the one woman said, "Oh, my lord, I and this woman dwell in one house; and I gave birth to a child with her in the house.   יז. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הָאַחַת בִּי אֲדֹנִי אֲנִי וְהָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת יֹשְׁבֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד וָאֵלֵד עִמָּהּ בַּבָּיִת:
18. And it came to pass the third day after I had given birth, that this woman gave birth also; and we (were) together, (there was) no stranger with us in the house, besides us two in the house.   יח. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְלִדְתִּי וַתֵּלֶד גַּם הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת וַאֲנַחְנוּ יַחְדָּו אֵין זָר אִתָּנוּ בַּבַּיִת זוּלָתִי שְׁתַּיִם אֲנַחְנוּ בַּבָּיִת:
19. And this woman's son died at night; because she had lain on him.   יט. וַיָּמָת בֶּן הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת לָיְלָה אֲשֶׁר שָׁכְבָה עָלָיו:
20. And she arose in the middle of the night and took my son from beside me, while your handmaid slept, and laid him in her bosom, and laid her dead son in my bosom.   כ. וַתָּקָם בְּתוֹךְ הַלַּיְלָה וַתִּקַּח אֶת בְּנִי מֵאֶצְלִי וַאֲמָתְךָ יְשֵׁנָה וַתַּשְׁכִּיבֵהוּ בְּחֵיקָהּ וְאֶת בְּנָהּ הַמֵּת הִשְׁכִּיבָה בְחֵיקִי:
21. And I rose in the morning to nurse my son, and behold he was dead, but I looked closely at him in the morning, and behold, it was not my son whom I had borne."   כא. וָאָקֻם בַּבֹּקֶר לְהֵינִיק אֶת בְּנִי וְהִנֵּה מֵת וָאֶתְבּוֹנֵן אֵלָיו בַּבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה לֹא הָיָה בְנִי אֲשֶׁר יָלָדְתִּי:
But when I looked closely at him: I gave my complete attention to scrutinize him.  
22. And the other woman said, "Not so, the living (is) my son, and the dead (is) your son," and this one said, "Not so, the dead (is) your son, and the living (is) my son." Thus they spoke before the king.   כב. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הָאַחֶרֶת לֹא כִי בְּנִי הַחַי וּבְנֵךְ הַמֵּת וְזֹאת אֹמֶרֶת לֹא כִי בְּנֵךְ הַמֵּת וּבְנִי הֶחָי וַתְּדַבֵּרְנָה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
23. And the king said, "This one says, 'This (is) my son that lives, and your son (is) the dead, and the other says, 'Not so, your son (is) the dead, and my son (is) the living.' "   כג. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ זֹאת אֹמֶרֶת זֶה בְּנִי הַחַי וּבְנֵךְ הַמֵּת וְזֹאת אֹמֶרֶת לֹא כִי בְּנֵךְ הַמֵּת וּבְנִי הֶחָי:
24. And the king said, "Fetch me a sword." And they brought a sword before the king.   כד. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ קְחוּ לִי חָרֶב וַיָּבִאוּ הַחֶרֶב לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ:
25. And the king said, "Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other.   כה. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ גִּזְרוּ אֶת הַיֶּלֶד הַחַי לִשְׁנָיִם וּתְנוּ אֶת הַחֲצִי לְאַחַת וְאֶת הַחֲצִי לְאֶחָת:
26. And the woman whose son (was) the live one, said to the king, for her compassion was aroused for her son, and she said, "O my lord, give her the living child, and by no means slay him." But the other said, "Let it be neither mine nor yours, divide (it)."   כו. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר בְּנָהּ הַחַי אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי נִכְמְרוּ רַחֲמֶיהָ עַל בְּנָהּ וַתֹּאמֶר | בִּי אֲדֹנִי תְּנוּ לָהּ אֶת הַיָּלוּד הַחַי וְהָמֵת אַל תְּמִיתֻהוּ וְזֹאת אֹמֶרֶת גַּם לִי גַם לָךְ לֹא יִהְיֶה גְּזֹרוּ:
27. And the king answered and said, "Give her the living child, and by no means slay him: she (is) his mother."   כז. וַיַּעַן הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר תְּנוּ לָהּ אֶת הַיָּלוּד הַחַי וְהָמֵת לֹא תְמִיתֻהוּ הִיא אִמּוֹ:
She is its mother: a divine voice which appeared and said ‘She is its mother.’  
28. And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king; for they saw that the wisdom of God (was) in him to do judgment.   כח. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כָל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר שָׁפַט הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּרְאוּ מִפְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי רָאוּ כִּי חָכְמַת אֱלֹהִים בְּקִרְבּוֹ לַעֲשֹוֹת מִשְׁפָּט:
E-mail
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG