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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel II - II Samuel - Chapter 11

Shmuel II - II Samuel - Chapter 11

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 11

1. And it was, at the return of the year, at the time of the going out of kings [to battle], and David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and beseiged Rabbah. But David stayed in Jerusalem.   א. וַיְהִי לִתְשׁוּבַת הַשָּׁנָה לְעֵת | צֵאת הַמְּלָאכִים וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶת יוֹאָב וְאֶת עֲבָדָיו עִמּוֹ וְאֶת כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּשְׁחִתוּ אֶת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַיָּצֻרוּ עַל רַבָּה וְדָוִד יוֹשֵׁב בִּירוּשָׁלָםִ:
going out of kings to battle: There is a time of year that it is customary for the armies to go out; when the land is filled with stalks and the horses find grain in the field to eat.  
2. And it came to pass, at the time of evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king's house, and he saw a woman bathing, from the roof; and the woman was very beautiful.   ב. וַיְהִי | לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל גַּג בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד:
3. And David sent, and inquired about the woman. And he said: 'Is this not Bath-sheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?'   ג. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא זֹאת בַּת שֶׁבַע בַּת אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי:
4. And David sent messengers, and he took her and she came to him and he lay with her: and she was purified from her uncleanliness; and she returned to her house.   ד. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ וְהִיא מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת מִטֻּמְאָתָהּ וַתָּשָׁב אֶל בֵּיתָהּ:
from her uncleanliness: from her menstrual impurity.  
5. And the woman conceived; and she sent, and she told David, and she said: "I am pregnant."   ה. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתַּגֵּד לְדָוִד וַתֹּאמֶר הָרָה אָנֹכִי:
6. And David sent to Joab, "Send me Uriah the Hittite." And Joab sent Uriah to David.   ו. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶל יוֹאָב שְׁלַח אֵלַי אֶת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב אֶת אוּרִיָּה אֶל דָּוִד:
send me Uriah: He intended that he lie with his wife so that it be assumed that she had conceived from him.  
7. And Uriah came to him, and David inquired concerning the welfare of Joab, and the peace of the people, and the welfare of the war.   ז. וַיָּבֹא אוּרִיָּה אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד לִשְׁלוֹם יוֹאָב וְלִשְׁלוֹם הָעָם וְלִשְׁלוֹם הַמִּלְחָמָה:
8. And David said to Uriah: "Go down to your house, and wash your feet." And Uriah departed from the king's house, and there followed him the king's food.   ח. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לְאוּרִיָּה רֵד לְבֵיתְךָ וּרְחַץ רַגְלֶיךָ וַיֵּצֵא אוּרִיָּה מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתֵּצֵא אַחֲרָיו מַשְׂאַת הַמֶּלֶךְ:
the king’s food: a king’s feast.  
9. And Uriah slept at the entrance of the king's house with all the servants of his lord, and did not go down to his house.   ט. וַיִּשְׁכַּב אוּרִיָּה פֶּתַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת כָּל עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנָיו וְלֹא יָרַד אֶל בֵּיתוֹ:
10. And they told David saying: "Uriah did not go down to his house. " And David said to Uriah, "Have you not come from a journey? Why did you not go down to your house?"   י. וַיַּגִּדוּ לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר לֹא יָרַד אוּרִיָּה אֶל בֵּיתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל אוּרִיָּה הֲלוֹא מִדֶּרֶךְ אַתָּה בָא מַדּוּעַ לֹא יָרַדְתָּ אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ:
11. And Uriah said to David: "The ark and Israel and Judah dwell in booths, and my lord Joab and the servants of my lord are encamped in the open field; and shall I come to my house to eat and to drink and to live with my wife? By your life and by the life of my soul, if I will do this thing."   יא. וַיֹּאמֶר אוּרִיָּה אֶל דָּוִד הָאָרוֹן וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה ישְׁבִים בַּסֻּכּוֹת וַאדֹנִי יוֹאָב וְעַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי עַל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה חֹנִים וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אֶל בֵּיתִי לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׁכַּב עִם אִשְׁתִּי חַיֶּךָ וְחֵי נַפְשֶׁךָ אִם אֶעֱשֶֹה אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה:
12. And David said to Uriah: "Remain here today also, and tomorrow I will send you off." And Uriah stayed in Jerusalem that day and the morrow.   יב. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל אוּרִיָּה שֵׁב בָּזֶה גַּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר אֲשַׁלְּחֶךָּ וַיֵּשֶׁב אוּרִיָּה בִירוּשָׁלַםִ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמִמָּחֳרָת:
13. And David called him, and he ate before him, and he drank, and he made him drunk; and he went out in the evening to lie on his bed with the servants of his lord, but to his house he did not go down.   יג. וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ דָוִד וַיֹּאכַל לְפָנָיו וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיְשַׁכְּרֵהוּ וַיֵּצֵא בָעֶרֶב לִשְׁכַּב בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ עִם עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנָיו וְאֶל בֵּיתוֹ לֹא יָרָד:
14. And it came to pass, in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Joab, and he sent it by the hand of Uriah.   יד. וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּכְתֹּב דָּוִד סֵפֶר אֶל יוֹאָב וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד אוּרִיָּה:
15. And he wrote in the letter saying: "Place Uriah at the forefront of the fiercest battle, and go away from him, so that he will be hit and will die."   טו. וַיִּכְתֹּב בַּסֵּפֶר לֵאמֹר הָבוּ אֶת אוּרִיָּה אֶל מוּל פְּנֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַחֲזָקָה וְשַׁבְתֶּם מֵאַחֲרָיו וְנִכָּה וָמֵת:
so that he will be smitten and die: in order that she should be retroactively divorced and, consequently he would not have had relations with a married woman; for anyone who departs to war writes his wife a divorce on the condition that he die in battle.  
16. And it came to pass, when Joab kept watch upon the city that he assigned Uriah to the place where he knew that there were valiant men.   טז. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁמוֹר יוֹאָב אֶל הָעִיר וַיִּתֵּן אֶת אוּרִיָּה אֶל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָדַע כִּי אַנְשֵׁי חַיִל שָׁם:
17. And the men of the city went out, and fought with Joab and some of the people of the servants of David fell; and Uriah the Hittite also died.   יז. וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ אֶת יוֹאָב וַיִּפֹל מִן הָעָם מֵעַבְדֵי דָוִד וַיָּמָת גַּם אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי:
18. And Joab sent and told David all the facts concerning the war.   יח. וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב וַיַּגֵּד לְדָוִד אֶת כָּל דִּבְרֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה:
19. And he charged the messenger saying: 'When you have finished telling the king all the facts concerning the war.   יט. וַיְצַו אֶת הַמַּלְאָךְ לֵאמֹר כְּכַלּוֹתְךָ אֵת כָּל דִּבְרֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה לְדַבֵּר אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ:
20. And it shall be if the king's anger is aroused, and he says to you: "Why did you approach [so near] the city to wage battle? Did you not know that they would shoot from upon the wall?   כ. וְהָיָה אִם תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה:
21. Who smote Abimelech the son of Jerubesheth? Did not a woman throw an upper millstone upon him from upon the wall, and he died [there] at Thebez? Why did you approach the wall?" And you shall say: "Also your servant Uriah the Hittite is dead".   כא. מִי הִכָּה אֶת אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן יְרֻבֶּשֶׁת הֲלוֹא אִשָּׁה הִשְׁלִיכָה עָלָיו פֶּלַח רֶכֶב מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמָת בְּתֵבֵץ לָמָּה נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל הַחוֹמָה וְאָמַרְתָּ גַּם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת:
Jerubesbeth: This is Gideon who made strife with the shameful one, which is the Baal.  
22. And the messenger went, and he came and told David all that Joab had sent him for.   כב. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמַּלְאָךְ וַיָּבֹא וַיַּגֵּד לְדָוִד אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יוֹאָב:
23. And the messenger said to David, "When the men prevailed over us and came out against us to the field, then we came upon them as far as the entrance of the gate.   כג. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמַּלְאָךְ אֶל דָּוִד כִּי גָבְרוּ עָלֵינוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּצְאוּ אֵלֵינוּ הַשָּׂדֶה וַנִּהְיֶה עֲלֵיהֶם עַד פֶּתַח הַשָׁעַר:
24. And the shooters shot at your servants from upon the wall, and some of the king's servants died, and also your servant Uriah the Hittite is dead."   כד. וַיֹּרוּ הַמּוֹרִים אֶל עֲבָדֶיךָ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמוּתוּ מֵעַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְגַם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת:
25. And David said to the messenger, "So shall you say to Joab; Let not this thing displease you, for the sword devours many time this number; strengthen your battle against the city, and destroy it, and encourage him."   כה. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל הַמַּלְאָךְ כֹּה תֹאמַר אֶל יוֹאָב אַל יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה כִּי כָזֹה וְכָזֶה תֹּאכַל הֶחָרֶב הַחֲזֵק מִלְחַמְתְּךָ אֶל הָעִיר וְהָרְסָהּ וְחַזְּקֵהוּ:
strengthen your battle against the city and destroy it: Until here are the words of the message.  
and encourage him: David said to the messenger: and encourage him, meaning Joab, with words of consolation lest his heart become faint.  
26. And the wife of Uriah the Hittite heard that Uriah her husband was dead, and she mourned over her husband.   כו. וַתִּשְׁמַע אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה כִּי מֵת אוּרִיָּה אִישָׁהּ וַתִּסְפֹּד עַל בַּעְלָהּ:
27. And the mourning [period] passed, and David sent and gathered her to his house. And she became his wife, and she bore him a son. And the thing that David did was displeasing to the Lord.   כז. וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָֹה דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה:
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