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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel II - II Samuel - Chapter 1

Shmuel II - II Samuel - Chapter 1

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 1

1. And it was, after Saul's death, and David had returned from beating the Amalekites, that David dwelt in Ziklag two days.   א. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת שָׁאוּל וְדָוִד שָׁב מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת הָעֲמָלֵק וַיֵּשֶׁב דָּוִד בְּצִקְלָג יָמִים שְׁנָיִם:
2. And it was on the third day, and behold, a man came from the camp, from Saul, and his clothes were rent, and there was earth on his head. And it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the ground and prostrated himself.   ב. וַיְהִי | בַּיוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ בָּא מִן הַמַּחֲנֶה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבְגָדָיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וַיְהִי בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל דָּוִד וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ:
and behold, a man came from the camp: It is found in Pesikta (D’Rav Kahana ch. 3:143, Rabb. ch. 12:9) that this was Doeg, but it does not seem plausible to me.  
3. And David said to him, "Where are you coming from?" And he said to him, "From the camp of Israel, I have escaped."   ג. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ דָּוִד אֵי מִזֶּה תָּבוֹא וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מִמַּחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל נִמְלָטְתִּי:
4. And David said to him, "What was the situation? Tell me now." And he said, "That the people fled from the battle, and also many of the people fell and died, and also Saul and his son Jonathan died."   ד. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו דָּוִד מֶה הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַגֶּד נָא לִי וַיֹּאמֶר אֲשֶׁר נָס הָעָם מִן הַמִּלְחָמָה וְגַם הַרְבֵּה נָפַל מִן הָעָם וַיָּמֻתוּ וְגַם שָׁאוּל וִיהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ מֵתוּ:
5. And David said to the youth who told him, "How did you know that Saul and his son Jonathan died?"   ה. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל הַנַּעַר הַמַּגִּיד לוֹ אֵיךְ יָדַעְתָּ כִּי מֵת שָׁאוּל וִיהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ:
6. And the youth who told him said, "I chanced to be on Mt. Gilboa, and behold, Saul was leaning on his spear, and behold, the chariots and the leaders of the cavalry had overtaken him.   ו. וַיֹּאמֶר הַנַּעַר | הַמַּגִּיד לוֹ נִקְרֹא נִקְרֵיתִי בְּהַר הַגִּלְבֹּעַ וְהִנֵּה שָׁאוּל נִשְׁעָן עַל חֲנִיתוֹ וְהִנֵּה הָרֶכֶב וּבַעֲלֵי הַפָּרָשִׁים הִדְבִּקֻהוּ:
7. "And he turned around behind him, and he saw me and called to me, and I said, 'Here I am'.   ז. וַיִּפֶן אַחֲרָיו וַיִּרְאֵנִי וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָי וָאֹמַר הִנֵּנִי:
8. "And he said to me, 'Who are you?' And I said to him, 'I am an Amalekite.'   ח. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי מִי אָתָּה וָאֹמַר אֵלָיו עֲמָלֵקִי אָנֹכִי:
9. "And he said to me, 'Stand over me now, and put me to death, for a shudder has seized me, for as long as my life is within me..'   ט. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עֲמָד נָא עָלַי וּמֹתְתֵנִי כִּי אֲחָזַנִי הַשָּׁבָץ כִּי כָל עוֹד נַפְשִׁי בִּי:
a shudder has seized me: The Midrash Aggadah explains. Because of the iniquity of Nob, the city of priests, which he had slain, concerning whom it is stated: כתנת תשבץ (“a tunic of checkered work”) (Ex. 28:4)  
For as long as my life is within me: Hasten and put me to death. It is better for me that you put me to death than these (men)slay me and mock me.  
10. "And I stood over him and put him to death, for I knew that he would not live after his fall, and I took the crown which was on his head and the armlet which was on his arm, and I have brought them here to my lord."   י. וָאֶעֱמֹד עָלָיו וַאֲמֹתְתֵהוּ כִּי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי לֹא יִחְיֶה אַחֲרֵי נִפְלוֹ וָאֶקַּח הַנֵּזֶר | אֲשֶׁר עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶצְעָדָה אֲשֶׁר עַל זְרֹעוֹ וָאֲבִיאֵם אֶל אֲדֹנִי הֵנָּה:
the crown which was on his head and the armlet which was on his arm: and the phylactery which was on his arm.  
11. And David took hold of his clothes and rent them, and likewise all the men who were with him.   יא. וַיַּחֲזֵק דָּוִד בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם וְגַם כָּל הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ:
12. And they lamented and wept and fasted until evening, for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the House of Israel for they had fallen by the sword.   יב. וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד הָעָרֶב עַל שָׁאוּל וְעַל יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל עַם יְהֹוָה וְעַל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב:
13. And David said to the youth who told him, "From where are you?" And he said, "I am the son of an Amalekite stranger."   יג. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל הַנַּעַר הַמַּגִּיד לוֹ אֵי מִזֶּה אָתָּה וַיֹּאמֶר בֶּן אִישׁ גֵּר עֲמָלֵקִי אָנֹכִי:
14. And David said to him, "How did you not fear to stretch forth your hand to destroy the Lord's anointed?"   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו דָּוִד אֵיךְ לֹא יָרֵאתָ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָדְךָ לְשַׁחֵת אֶת מְשִׁיחַ יְהֹוָה:
15. And David called one of the youths and said, "Go near, fall upon him," and he struck him and he died.   טו. וַיִּקְרָא דָוִד לְאַחַד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר גַּשׁ פְּגַע בּוֹ וַיַּכֵּהוּ וַיָּמֹת:
16. And David said to him, "Your blood be upon your head, for your mouth has testified against you, saying, "I have slain the Lord's anointed."   טז. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו דָּוִד דָּמְךָ עַל רֹאשֶׁךָ כִּי פִיךָ עָנָה בְךָ לֵאמֹר אָנֹכִי מֹתַתִּי אֶת מְשִׁיחַ יְהֹוָה:
Your blood be upon your head: There is no penalty for your death except to yourself.  
17. And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son.   יז. וַיְקֹנֵן דָּוִד אֶת הַקִּינָה הַזֹּאת עַל שָׁאוּל וְעַל יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ:
18. And he said to teach the sons of Judah the bow. Behold it is written in the book of the just.   יח. וַיֹּאמֶר לְלַמֵּד בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה קָשֶׁת הִנֵּה כְתוּבָה עַל סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר:
And he said to teach the sons of Judah the bow: And David said, Since the heroes of Israel have fallen, the sons of Judah must teach them (to wage) war and to draw the bow.  
Behold, it is written in the book of the just: In the Book of Gen., which is the book of the just: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Now, where is it implied?“Your hand be on the nape of your enemies.” (Gen. 49:8) What type of warfare is it wherein one directs his hand against his forehead which is opposite his nape? We must say that this is the bow.  
19. O beauty of Israel! On your high places shall lie the slain? How have the heroes fallen?   יט. הַצְּבִי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל בָּמוֹתֶיךָ חָלָל אֵיךְ נָפְלוּ גִבּוֹרִים:
O beauty of Israel! On your high places shall lie the slain?: O support of Israel (Saul and Jonathan)! At the peak of your strength you have fallen slain! So did I render this.  
20. Tell it not in Gath. Announce it not in the streets of Ashkelon, lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph.   כ. אַל תַּגִּידוּ בְגַת אַל תְּבַשְּׂרוּ בְּחוּצֹת אַשְׁקְלוֹן פֶּן תִּשְׂמַחְנָה בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן תַּעֲלֹזְנָה בְּנוֹת הָעֲרֵלִים:
21. O mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor shall you be fields of heave offerings, for there the shield of the mighty was rejected, Saul's shield was as though not anointed with oil.   כא. הָרֵי בַגִּלְבֹּעַ אַל טַל וְאַל מָטָר עֲלֵיכֶם וּשְׂדֵי תְרוּמֹת כִּי שָׁם נִגְעַל מָגֵן גִּבּוֹרִים מָגֵן שָׁאוּל בְּלִי מָשִׁיחַ בַּשָּׁמֶן:
O mountains of Gilboa: The mountains which are in Gilboa.  
nor shall you be fields of heave offerings: Let there not be in you enough grain from which to separate a cake (חלה).  
for there the shield of the mighty was rejected: They had leather shields, which, upon departure to battle, they would anoint with oil, to that the weapon which would strike it would glide off, as it is stated: “Arise, O princes, anoint the shields” (Is. 21:5). And here, with this lamentation, he lamented this: There the shield of the mighty was purged. It rejected its oil and it did not adhere to it. Hence, it became as though not anointed with oil. Every הגלה is an expression of something which casts off that which is placed therein, like: “His bull impregnates and does not cast off (his semen)” (Job 21:10).  
22. From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, Jonathan's bow did not turn back, nor did Saul's sword return empty.   כב. מִדַּם חֲלָלִים מֵחֵלֶב גִּבּוֹרִים קֶשֶׁת יְהוֹנָתָן לֹא נָשֹוֹג אָחוֹר וְחֶרֶב שָׁאוּל לֹא תָשׁוּב רֵיקָם:
did not turn back: was not accustomed to turn back.  
23. Saul and Jonathan, his son, who were beloved and pleasant in their lifetime, and in their death they were not separated. They were swifter than eagles, and mightier than lions.   כג. שָׁאוּל וִיהוֹנָתָן הַנֶּאֱהָבִים וְהַנְּעִימִם בְּחַיֵּיהֶם וּבְמוֹתָם לֹא נִפְרָדוּ מִנְּשָׁרִים קַלּוּ מֵאֲרָיוֹת גָּבֵרוּ:
they were swifter than eagles: To perform the will of their Creator.  
24. O daughters of Israel, weep over Saul who dressed you in crimson with delights, who put golden ornaments on your clothes.   כד. בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל שָׁאוּל בְּכֶינָה הַמַּלְבִּשְׁכֶם שָׁנִי עִם עֲדָנִים הַמַּעֲלֶה עֲדִי זָהָב עַל לְבוּשְׁכֶן:
who dressed you in crimson with delights: who would dress you in colorful clothing and bring you delights.  
25. How did the mighty fall in the midst of the battle? Jonathan, on your high places you were slain!   כה. אֵיךְ נָפְלוּ גִבֹּרִים בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּלְחָמָה יְהוֹנָתָן עַל בָּמוֹתֶיךָ חָלָל:
on your high places you were slain!: At the peak of your strength you were slain (explaining ‘high places’ figuratively).  
26. I am distressed for you, my brother Jonathan, you were very pleasant to me. Your love was more wonderful to me than the love of women!   כו. צַר לִי עָלֶיךָ אָחִי יְהוֹנָתָן נָעַמְתָּ לִּי מְאֹד נִפְלְאַתָה אַהֲבָתְךָ לִי מֵאַהֲבַת נָשִׁים:
27. How have the mighty fallen and the weapons of war perished!   כז. אֵיךְ נָפְלוּ גִבּוֹרִים וַיֹּאבְדוּ כְּלֵי מִלְחָמָה:
How have the mighty fallen and the weapons of war perished!: Saul and Jonathan who were Israel’s weapons of war (perished).  
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