Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!
Contact Us
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 28

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 28

 Email
Rashi's Commentary:
Show content in:

Chapter 28

1And it was in those days that the Philistines gathered their camps together for warfare, to make a war upon Israel. And Achish said to David, "You shall know that you shall go out with me in the camp, you and your men."   אוַיְהִי בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וַיִּקְבְּצוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים אֶת מַחֲנֵיהֶם לַצָּבָא לְהִלָּחֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אָכִישׁ אֶל דָּוִד יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי אִתִּי תֵּצֵא בַמַּחֲנֶה אַתָּה וַאֲנָשֶׁיךָ:
2And David said to Achish, "Therefore, you shall know what your servant will do." And Achish said to David, "Therefore, I shall make you my bodyguard all the time."   בוַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל אָכִישׁ לָכֵן אַתָּה תֵדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶֹה עַבְדֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכִישׁ אֶל דָּוִד לָכֵן שֹׁמֵר לְרֹאשִׁי אֲשִֹימְךָ כָּל הַיָּמִים:
3Now Samuel had died, and all Israel lamented him, and buried him in Ramah, and (each one lamented him) in his own city. Now, Saul had abolished necromancers and those who divine with the Jidoa bone from the land.   גוּשְׁמוּאֵל מֵת וַיִּסְפְּדוּ לוֹ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בָרָמָה וּבְעִירוֹ וְשָׁאוּל הֵסִיר הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת הַיִּדְּעֹנִים מֵהָאָרֶץ:
And Samuel had died: It was already stated: And Samuel died (supra 25:1), but since he came to speak of Saul, that he had to ask of a necromanceress, he commenced by saying: And Samuel had died, for had he been alive, Saul would have inquired of him. And since Saul had abolished the necromancers, he had to seek a necromanceress.  
and all Israel lamented him and buried him in Ramah, and… in his own city.: (The difficulty of the word ‘and’ is explained by Jonathan with the following paraphrase:) And all Israel lamented him and buried him in Ramah, and each one lamented him in his own city. ‘And in his city’ is connected with ‘And they lamented him.’ They lamented him and buried him in Ramah, and each one lamented him in his own city.  
4And the Philistines gathered, and came and encamped in Shunem. And Saul gathered all Israel, and they encamped in Gilboa.   דוַיִּקָּבְצוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְשׁוּנֵם וַיִּקְבֹּץ שָׁאוּל אֶת כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּגִּלְבֹּעַ:
5And Saul saw the camp of the Philistines. And he feared, and his heart trembled greatly.   הוַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל אֶת מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּרָא וַיֶּחֱרַד לִבּוֹ מְאֹד:
6And Saul inquired of the Lord, and the Lord did not answer; neither by dreams, nor by the Urim, nor by the prophets.   ווַיִּשְׁאַל שָׁאוּל בַּיהֹוָה וְלֹא עָנָהוּ יְהֹוָה גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת גַּם בָּאוּרִים גַּם בַּנְּבִיאִם:
nor by the Urim: Since he had slain Nob, the priestly city, he was not answered.  
7And Saul said to his servants, "Seek for me a necromanceress; and I shall go to her, and inquire of her." And his servants said, "Behold, there is a necromanceress in En-dor."   זוַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַעֲבָדָיו בַּקְּשׁוּ לִי אֵשֶׁת בַּעֲלַת אוֹב וְאֵלְכָה אֵלֶיהָ וְאֶדְרְשָׁה בָּהּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אֵשֶׁת בַּעֲלַת אוֹב בְּעֵין דּוֹר:
8And Saul disguised himself, and donned other garments. And he went, he and two men with him. And they came to the woman by night, and he said, "Divine now for me with necromancy, and conjure up for me whom I shall tell you."   חוַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר קָסֳמִי (כתיב קָסֳומִי ) נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלָיִךָ:
And Saul disguised himself: (ויתחפש) , he changed his clothes and similarly, “Disguise yourself and come into the battle” (I Kings 22:30). And similarly, “By the great force (of my disease), is my garment changed” (Job 30:18). And so did Jonathan render: And Saul changed.  
and they came to the woman by night: It was (really) daytime but because of their distress it seemed to them (dark) as night. So did Rabbi Tanhuma expound (this passage).  
9And the woman said to him, "Behold, you know what Saul has done, that he has abolished the necromancers and those who divine by the Jidoa bone, from the land; and why do you lay a snare for my life to cause me to die?"   טוַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָֹה שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הִכְרִית אֶת הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת הַיִּדְּעֹנִי מִן הָאָרֶץ וְלָמָה אַתָּה מִתְנַקֵּשׁ בְּנַפְשִׁי לַהֲמִיתֵנִי:
lay a snare: seek a stumbling block.  
10And Saul swore to her by the Lord, saying, "As the Lord lives, no punishment will happen to you for this thing."   יוַיִּשָּׁבַע לָהּ שָׁאוּל בַּיהֹוָה לֵאמֹר חַי יְהֹוָה אִם יִקְּרֵךְ עָוֹן בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה:
11And the woman said, "Whom shall I conjure up for you?" And he said, "Conjure up Samuel for me."   יאוַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶת מִי אַעֲלֶה לָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת שְׁמוּאֵל הַעֲלִי לִי:
12And the woman saw Samuel, and she cried aloud. And the woman said to Saul, saying, "Why have you deceived me? for you are Saul!"   יבוַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה אֶת שְׁמוּאֵל וַתִּזְעַק בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל שָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה רִמִּיתָנִי וְאַתָּה שָׁאוּל:
and she cried aloud: for she saw him ascending not in the usual manner of those who ascend through necromancy, for when one conjures up (the dead) through necromancy, they ascend with their feet upward, while this one was ascending with his head upward, in honor of Saul.  
13And the king said to her, "Fear not, for what have you seen?" And the woman said to Saul, "I have seen angels ascending from the earth."   יגוַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל תִּירְאִי כִּי מָה רָאִית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל שָׁאוּל אֱלֹהִים רָאִיתִי עֹלִים מִן הָאָרֶץ:
I have seen angels ascending from the earth.: Two angels (righteous men as holy as angels), viz., Moses and Samuel, for Samuel feared, “Perhaps I am being summoned for judgment,” and brought Moses up with him, as it is stated in Hag. 4b (and in Taan.).  
14And he said to her, "What is his form?" And she said, "An old man is coming up, and he is wrapped in a cloak." And Saul knew that he was Samuel; and he bowed down with his face to the ground, and prostrated himself.   ידוַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה תָּאֳרוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אִישׁ זָקֵן עֹלֶה וְהוּא עֹטֶה מְעִיל וַיֵּדַע שָׁאוּל כִּי שְׁמוּאֵל הוּא וַיִּקֹּד אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ:
What is his form?: Three things were said concerning necromancy, viz., (1) The one who conjures him (the dead) up sees him, but does not hear his voice. (2) The one who inquires of him hears him, but does not see him. Therefore, he asked, ‘What is his form?’ (3) Others neither see nor hear him.  
and he is wrapped in a cloak: for he was accustomed to wear a cloak, as it is stated: And his mother would make him a small cloak (supra 2:19). He was buried with it, and so he arose. And so in the future, will the dead rise with their garments.  
15And Samuel said to Saul, "Why have you roused me, to bring me up?" And Saul said, "I am greatly distressed, and the Philistines are battling against me, and God has turned away from me, and has not answered me anymore, neither through the prophets, nor through dreams. And I have called you to let me know what I shall do."   טווַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל שָׁאוּל לָמָּה הִרְגַּזְתַּנִי לְהַעֲלוֹת אֹתִי וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל צַר לִי מְאֹד וּפְלִשְׁתִּים | נִלְחָמִים בִּי וֵאלֹהִים סָר מֵעָלַי וְלֹא עָנָנִי עוֹד גַּם בְּיַד הַנְּבִיאִים גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת וָאֶקְרָאֶה לְךָ לְהוֹדִיעֵנִי מָה אֶעֱשֶֹה:
… have you roused me: You have caused me to shudder.  
neither through the prophets nor through dreams: But he did not tell him of the Urim and Tummim, even though he had inquired of them, as it is stated above (v. 6), for he was ashamed of it, since he had slain Nob the priestly city.  
And I have called you: (ואקראה) An expression meaning: And I have been summoned after you, similar to: I was summoned (נקרא נקראתי) on Mt. Gilboa (II Sam. 1:6), and similar to: “And there chanced an unscrupulous man” (II Sam. 20:1). (The reference is ambiguous.) It was necessary for me to be summoned after you, that you let me know what I am to do.  
16And Samuel said, "And why do you ask me, when the Lord has turned away from you, and has become (the supporter of) your adversary?   טזוַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל וְלָמָּה תִּשְׁאָלֵנִי וַיהֹוָה סָר מֵעָלֶיךָ וַיְהִי עָרֶךָ:
And why do you ask me: Since you have asked of the live prophets.  
and has become your adversary: (Jonathan paraphrases) and has become the supporter of the man whose adversary you are.  
your adversary: (Heb. ‘orecha,’) an expression meaning an enemy. There are many (examples) in the Scriptures, e. g.: “And they will fill the face of the earth with adversaries” (Is. 14:21); “And I shall destroy your adversaries” (Mic. 5:13); “The dream be to your enemies and its interpretation to your adversaries” (Dan. 3:49. In our editions 4:16, Christian editions 4:19).  
17And the Lord has done to him as He spoke by me; and the Lord has torn the kingdom from your hand, and has given it to your fellow-to David.   יזוַיַּעַשׂ יְהֹוָה לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיָדִי וַיִּקְרַע יְהֹוָה אֶת הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיָּדֶךָ וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְרֵעֲךָ לְדָוִד:
to your fellow to David: But during his lifetime, he did not mention his name to him, only “and gave it to your fellow who is better than you” (supra 15:28) because he feared him lest he kill him, since he (Samuel) had anointed him (David) as king.  
18Because you did not listen to the Lord's voice, and you did not execute the fierceness of His wrath against Amalek; therefore, the Lord has done this thing to you this day.   יחכַּאֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה וְלֹא עָשִֹיתָ חֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ בַּעֲמָלֵק עַל כֵּן הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה עָשָֹה לְךָ יְהֹוָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
19And the Lord will also deliver Israel with you into the hand of the Philistines; and tomorrow, you and your sons will be with me. Also, the Lord will deliver the camp of Israel into the hand of the Philistines."   יטוְיִתֵּן יְהֹוָה גַּם אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמְּךָ בְּיַד פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמָחָר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ עִמִּי גַּם אֶת מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתֵּן יְהֹוָה בְּיַד פְּלִשְׁתִּים:
you and your sons will be with me: in my abode.  
20And Saul hastened and fell his full length to the ground; and he was very frightened because of Samuel's words. Furthermore, he had no strength, for he had not eaten bread all that day and all that night.   כוַיְמַהֵר שָׁאוּל וַיִּפֹּל מְלֹא קוֹמָתוֹ אַרְצָה וַיִּרָא מְאֹד מִדִּבְרֵי שְׁמוּאֵל גַּם כֹּחַ לֹא הָיָה בוֹ כִּי לֹא אָכַל לֶחֶם כָּל הַיּוֹם וְכָל הַלָּיְלָה:
21And the woman came to Saul, and saw that he was very much terror-stricken. And she said to him, "Behold, your handmaid listened to your voice; and I have put my life in my hand, and obeyed your words which you spoke to me.   כאוַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל שָׁאוּל וַתֵּרֶא כִּי נִבְהַל מְאֹד וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה שָׁמְעָה שִׁפְחָתְךָ בְּקוֹלֶךָ וָאָשִֹים נַפְשִׁי בְּכַפִּי וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֵלָי:
22And now, I pray you, you also listen to the voice of your handmaid, and let me place before you a morsel of bread and eat; and you will have strength when you go on the way."   כבוְעַתָּה שְׁמַע נָא גַם אַתָּה בְּקוֹל שִׁפְחָתֶךָ וְאָשִֹמָה לְפָנֶיךָ פַּת לֶחֶם וֶאֱכוֹל וִיהִי בְךָ כֹּחַ כִּי תֵלֵךְ בַּדָּרֶךְ:
23And he refused, and said, "I shall not eat." And his servants and also the woman urged him: and he listened to their voice. And he arose from the ground and sat upon the couch.   כגוַיְּמָאֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֹכַל וַיִּפְרְצוּ בוֹ עֲבָדָיו וְגַם הָאִשָּׁה וַיִּשְׁמַע לְקֹלָם וַיָּקָם מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיֵּשֶׁב אֶל הַמִּטָּה:
24And the woman had a fatted calf in the house; and she hastened and slaughtered it. And she took flour and kneaded it and baked from it unleavened cakes.   כדוְלָאִשָּׁה עֵגֶל מַרְבֵּק בַּבַּיִת וַתְּמַהֵר וַתִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וַתִּקַּח קֶמַח וַתָּלָשׁ וַתֹּפֵהוּ מַצּוֹת:
עגל מרבק: a fatted calf (from Jonathan).  
25And she set it before Saul and before his servants, and they ate. And they rose and went away on that night.   כהוַתַּגֵּשׁ לִפְנֵי שָׁאוּל וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא:
 Email
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.