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Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 23

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 23

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Chapter 23

1And they told David, saying, "Behold, the Philistines are waging war against Keilah, and they are pillaging the threshing- floors."   אוַיַּגִּ֥דוּ לְדָוִ֖ד לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֚ה פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ נִלְחָמִ֣ים בִּקְעִילָ֔ה וְהֵ֖מָּה שֹׁסִ֥ים אֶת־הַגֳּרָנֽוֹת:
2And David inquired of the Lord, saying, "Shall I go and smite these Philistines?" And the Lord said to David, "Go, and you shall smite the Philistines, and save Keilah."   בוַיִּשְׁאַ֨ל דָּוִ֚ד בַּֽיהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַאֵלֵ֣ךְ וְהִכֵּ֔יתִי בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה ס וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד ֤לֵךְ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְהוֹשַׁעְתָּ֖ אֶת־קְעִילָֽה:
3And David's men said to him, "Behold, we are afraid here in Judah; how much more if we go to Keilah, to the battle array of the Philistines?"   גוַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ אַנְשֵׁ֚י דָוִד֙ אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּ֨ה אֲנַ֥חְנוּ פֹ֛ה בִּֽיהוּדָ֖ה יְרֵאִ֑ים וְאַף֙ כִּֽי־נֵלֵ֣ךְ קְעִלָ֔ה אֶל־מַֽעַרְכ֖וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים:
4And David continued further to inquire of the Lord, and the Lord answered him and said, "Arise, go down to Keilah, for I am giving the Philistines into your hand."   דוַיּ֨וֹסֶף ע֚וֹד דָּוִד֙ לִשְׁא֣וֹל בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה ס וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֖הוּ יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר ֤קוּם רֵ֣ד קְעִילָ֔ה כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י נֹתֵ֛ן אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים בְּיָדֶֽךָ:
5And David and his men went to Keilah, and battled the Philistines, and he led away their cattle, and struck them a great blow, and David saved the inhabitants of Keilah.   הוַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד֩ וַאֲנָשָׁ֨יו (כתיב וַאֲנָשָׁ֨ו) קְעִילָ֜ה וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיִּנְהַג֙ אֶת־מִקְנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיַּ֥ךְ בָּהֶ֖ם מַכָּ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וַיּ֣שַׁע דָּוִ֔ד אֵ֖ת ישְׁבֵ֥י קְעִילָֽה:
6And it was that when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David, to Keilah, the ephod came down in his hand.   ווַיְהִ֗י בִּ֠בְרֹחַ אֶבְיָתָ֧ר בֶּן־אֲחִימֶ֛לֶךְ אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד קְעִילָ֑ה אֵפ֖וֹד יָרַ֥ד בְּיָדֽוֹ:
7And it was related to Saul that David had come to Keilah, and Saul said, "God has delivered him into my hand, for he has been shut in by coming into a city with doors and bars."   זוַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְשָׁא֔וּל כִּי־בָ֥א דָוִ֖ד קְעִילָ֑ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל נִכַּ֨ר אֹת֚וֹ אֱלֹהִים֙ בְּיָדִ֔י ֤כִּי נִסְגַּ֣ר לָב֔וֹא בְּעִ֖יר דְּלָתַ֥יִם וּבְרִֽיחַ:
God has delivered him into my hand: (נכר) delivered, and so, “And do not look on, on the day of your brother, on the day of his being delivered” (Ob. 1:12). This is the conjugation of the strong verbs (piel, being punctuated by a dagesh in the middle letter of the root), like בריחיה אבד ושבר“He destroyed and broke her bars” (Lam. 21:9). (These words are punctuated in like manner.) If he desired to speak in the conjugation of the weak verbs, (Kal), it would have been punctuated thus: נכר.  
for he has been shut in by coming into a city with doors and bars: and he will rely on that, and will not take care to flee from me.  
8And Saul summoned all the people to war, to go down to Keilah, to besiege David and his men.   חוַיְשַׁמַּ֥ע שָׁא֛וּל אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לַמִּלְחָ֑מָה לָרֶ֣דֶת קְעִילָ֔ה לָצ֥וּר אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד וְאֶל־אֲנָשָֽׁיו:
9And David knew that upon him, Saul was plotting the evil; and he said to Abiathar the priest, "Bring near the ephod."   טוַיֵּ֣דַע דָּוִ֔ד כִּ֣י עָלָ֔יו שָׁא֖וּל מַחֲרִ֣ישׁ הָרָעָ֑ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־אֶבְיָתָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֔ן הַגִּ֖ישָׁה הָאֵפֽוֹד:
מחריש הרעה: plotting the evil (from Jonathan).  
10And David said, "O Lord God of Israel, Your bondsman has heard that Saul seeks to come to Keilah to destroy the city because of me.   יוַיֹּאמֶר֘ דָּוִד֒ יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שָׁמֹ֚עַ שָׁמַע֙ עַבְדְּךָ֔ כִּֽי־מְבַקֵּ֥שׁ שָׁא֖וּל לָב֣וֹא אֶל־קְעִילָ֑ה לְשַׁחֵ֥ת לָעִ֖יר בַּעֲבוּרִֽי:
11Will the citizens of Keilah deliver me into his hand? Will Saul come down, as Your bondsman has heard? O Lord God of Israel, tell now Your bondsman!" And the Lord said, "He will come down."   יאהֲיַסְגִּרֻ֣נִי בַעֲלֵי֩ קְעִילָ֨ה בְיָד֜וֹ הֲיֵרֵ֣ד שָׁא֗וּל כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ שָׁמַ֣ע עַבְדֶּ֔ךָ יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַגֶּד־נָ֖א לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ ס וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה יֵרֵֽד:
Will the citizens of Keilah deliver me: We derive from here that one who inquires concerning two matters, receives a reply concerning one only, and he is only answered concerning the first one. And here, David asked in an inverted order, since he should have first asked, Will Saul come down? Will the citizens of Keilah deliver me? He was answered according to the order (in which he should have asked).  
12And David said, "Will the citizens of Keilah deliver me and my men into Saul's hands?" And the Lord said, "They will deliver."   יבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד הֲיַסְגִּ֜רוּ בַּעֲלֵ֧י קְעִילָ֛ה אֹתִ֥י וְאֶת־אֲנָשַׁ֖י בְּיַד־שָׁא֑וּל וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה יַסְגִּֽירוּ:
13And David and his men, about six hundred men, arose and left Keilah, and they went wherever they would go, and it was told to Saul that David had escaped from Keilah, and he refrained from going forth.   יגוַיָּקָם֩ דָּוִ֨ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֜יו כְּשֵׁשׁ־מֵא֣וֹת אִ֗ישׁ וַיֵּצְאוּ֙ מִקְּעִלָ֔ה וַיִּֽתְהַלְּכ֖וּ בַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתְהַלָּ֑כוּ וּלְשָׁא֣וּל הֻגַּ֗ד כִּֽי־נִמְלַ֚ט דָּוִד֙ מִקְּעִילָ֔ה וַיֶּחְדַּ֖ל לָצֵֽאת:
wherever they would go: (Jonathan renders:) in a place where it is proper to go, in a place where they would be saved.  
14And David dwelt in the desert, in the strongholds, and he dwelt in the mountain in the Desert of Ziph, and Saul sought him all the days, but God did not deliver him into his hand.   ידוַיֵּ֨שֶׁב דָּוִ֚ד בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ בַּמְּצָד֔וֹת וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בָּהָ֖ר בְּמִדְבַּר־זִ֑יף וַיְבַקְשֵׁ֚הוּ שָׁאוּל֙ כָּל־הַיָּמִ֔ים וְלֹֽא־נְתָנ֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיָדֽוֹ:
15And David saw that Saul had gone forth to seek his soul, and David was in the Desert of Ziph, in the forest.   טווַיַּ֣רְא דָּוִ֔ד כִּֽי־יָצָ֥א שָׁא֖וּל לְבַקֵּ֣שׁ אֶת־נַפְשׁ֑וֹ וְדָוִ֥ד בְּמִדְבַּר־זִ֖יף בַּחֹֽרְשָׁה:
16And Jonathan, Saul's son, arose and went to David to the forest, and he strengthened his hand through God.   טזוַיָּ֙קָם֙ יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד חֹ֑רְשָׁה וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק אֶת־יָד֖וֹ בֵּאלֹהִֽים:
and he strengthened his hand: He renewed the covenant which was between them.  
17And he said to him, "Fear not, for the hand of my father Saul will not find you, and you shall reign over Israel, and may I be to you as a viceroy, and my father Saul too, knows (that this is) so."   יזוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו אַל־תִּירָ֗א כִּ֠י לֹ֚א תִֽמְצָאֲךָ֙ ֤יַד שָׁא֣וּל אָבִ֔י וְאַתָּה֙ תִּמְלֹ֣ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָנֹכִ֖י אֶֽהְיֶה־לְּךָ֣ לְמִשְׁנֶ֑ה וְגַם־שָׁא֥וּל אָבִ֖י יֹדֵ֥עַ כֵּֽן:
18And the two of them made a covenant before the Lord; and David stayed in the forest, and Jonathan went to his home.   יחוַיִּכְרְת֧וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֛ם בְּרִ֖ית לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיֵּ֚שֶׁב דָּוִד֙ בַּחֹ֔רְשָׁה וִיהוֹנָתָ֖ן הָלַ֥ךְ לְבֵיתֽוֹ:
19And the Ziphites went up to Saul, to Gibeah, saying, "Is David not hiding with us in the strongholds, in the forest, in the hill of Hachilah, which is from the south of the Desolate Wasteland?   יטוַיַּעֲל֚וּ זִפִים֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הַגִּבְעָ֖תָה לֵאמֹ֑ר הֲל֣וֹא דָ֠וִד מִסְתַּתֵּ֨ר עִמָּ֚נוּ בַמְּצָדוֹת֙ בַּחֹ֔רְשָׁה בְּגִבְעַת֙ הַֽחֲכִילָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר מִימִ֥ין הַיְשִׁימֽוֹן:
20And now, according to all the desires of your heart to come down, come down, and it is incumbent upon us to deliver him into the king's hand."   כוְ֠עַתָּה לְכָל־אַוַּ֨ת נַפְשְׁךָ֥ הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לָרֶ֖דֶת רֵ֑ד וְלָ֥נוּ הַסְגִּיר֖וֹ בְּיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
ולא הסגירו: and it is incumbent upon us to deliver him.  
21And Saul said, "Blessed shall you be to the Lord, for you have taken pity upon me.   כאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל בְּרוּכִ֥ים אַתֶּ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֥י חֲמַלְתֶּ֖ם עָלָֽי:
22Go now, prepare yet, and know and see his place where his foot will be. Who saw him there? for (one) told me that he deals cunningly.   כבלְכוּ־נָ֞א הָכִ֣ינוּ ע֗וֹד וּדְע֚וּ וּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־מְקוֹמוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה רַגְל֔וֹ מִ֥י רָאָ֖הוּ שָׁ֑ם ֤כִּי אָמַ֣ר אֵלַ֔י עָר֥וֹם יַעְרִ֖ם הֽוּא:
for one told me: (lit., for he told me.) The one who told.  
that he deals cunningly: He acts with cunning; today he is here and tomorrow in another place, so that no one should know where he is.  
23And see and know of all the hiding places where he hides, and you shall return to me with the certainty, and I shall go with you, and it shall be that if he is in the land, I shall search him out among the thousands of Judah."   כגוּרְא֣וּ וּדְע֗וּ מִכֹּ֚ל הַמַּֽחֲבֹאִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתְחַבֵּ֣א שָׁ֔ם וְשַׁבְתֶּ֚ם אֵלַי֙ אֶל־נָכ֔וֹן וְהָלַכְתִּ֖י אִתְּכֶ֑ם וְהָיָה֙ אִם־יֶשְׁנ֣וֹ בָאָ֔רֶץ וְחִפַּשְׂתִּ֣י אֹת֔וֹ בְּכֹ֖ל אַלְפֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה:
with the certainty: with an exact and true statement.  
24And they arose and went to Ziph before Saul, and David and his men were in the Desert of Maon, in the plain which is to the south of the Desolate Wasteland.   כדוַיָּק֛וּמוּ וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ זִ֖יפָה לִפְנֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וְדָוִ֨ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֜יו בְּמִדְבַּ֚ר מָעוֹן֙ בָּעֲרָבָ֔ה אֶ֖ל יְמִ֥ין הַיְשִׁימֽוֹן:
before Saul: for Saul was destined to go after them, and they went before him, to search (and find out) exactly (where David was).  
25And Saul and his men went to search, and they told David, and he went down to the rock, and stayed in the Desert of Maon, and Saul heard and pursued David in the Desert of Maon.   כהוַיֵּ֨לֶךְ שָׁא֣וּל וַאֲנָשָׁיו֘ לְבַקֵּשׁ֒ וַיַגִּ֣דוּ לְדָוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֣רֶד הַסֶּ֔לַע וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר מָע֑וֹן וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע שָׁא֔וּל וַיִּרְדֹּ֥ף אַחֲרֵֽי־דָוִ֖ד מִדְבַּ֥ר מָעֽוֹן:
26And Saul went from this side of the mountain, and David and his men were on that side of the mountain; and David was hastening to get away from before Saul, but Saul and his men were encircling to David and his men, to seize them.   כווַיֵּ֨לֶךְ שָׁא֜וּל מִצַּ֚ד הָהָר֙ מִזֶּ֔ה וְדָוִ֧ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֛יו מִצַּ֥ד הָהָ֖ר מִזֶּ֑ה וַיְהִ֨י דָוִ֜ד נֶחְפָּ֚ז לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל וְשָׁא֣וּל וַאֲנָשָׁ֗יו עֹֽטְרִ֛ים אֶל־דָּוִ֥ד וְאֶל־אֲנָשָׁ֖יו לְתָפְשָֹֽם:
were encircling: (עטרים, from עטרה, a crown;) i.e., encircling and surrounding from side to side, like a crown which encircles the head.  
27And a messenger came to Saul, saying, "Make haste and go, for the Philistines have spread out over the land!"   כזוּמַלְאָ֣ךְ בָּ֔א אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל לֵאמֹ֑ר מַהֲרָ֣ה וְלֵ֔כָה כִּֽי־פָשְׁט֥וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
And a messenger came: (Heb. ‘malach’) a real angel, in order to save David.  
28And Saul returned from pursuing David, and he went toward the Philistines. Therefore, they called that place the Rock of the Divisions.   כחוַיָּ֣שָׁב שָׁא֗וּל מִרְדֹף֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ לִקְרַ֣את פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים עַל־כֵּ֗ן קָֽרְאוּ֙ לַמָּק֣וֹם הַה֔וּא סֶ֖לַע הַֽמַּחְלְקֽוֹת:
the Rock of the Divisions: that Saul’s heart was divided by two thoughts, whether to return to save his country from the Philistines, or to pursue David. Thus Jonathan renders.  
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