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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 22

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 22

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Chapter 22

1And David went away from there, and escaped to the cave of Adullam. And his brothers and all his father's household heard, and went down to him there.   אוַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד מִשָּׁם וַיִּמָּלֵט אֶל מְעָרַת עֲדֻלָּם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶחָיו וְכָל בֵּית אָבִיו וַיֵּרְדוּ אֵלָיו שָׁמָּה:
2And every man who was in distress, and every man who had a creditor, and every man of embittered spirit, gathered themselves to him, and he became a chief over them; and there were about four hundred men with him.   בוַיִּתְקַבְּצוּ אֵלָיו כָּל אִישׁ מָצוֹק וְכָל אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לוֹ נשֶׁא וְכָל אִישׁ מַר נֶפֶשׁ וַיְהִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְשָֹר וַיִּהְיוּ עִמּוֹ כְּאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ:
3And David went from there to Mizpeh Moab, and he said to the king of Moab, "Let my father and mother come out now with you, until I know what God will do for me."   גוַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד מִשָּׁם מִצְפֵּה מוֹאָב וַיֹּאמֶר | אֶל מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב יֵצֵא נָא אָבִי וְאִמִּי אִתְּכֶם עַד אֲשֶׁר אֵדַע מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי אֱלֹהִים:
4And he brought them before the king of Moab; and they stayed with him all the time that David was in the stronghold.   דוַיַּנְחֵם אֶת פְּנֵי מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וַיֵּשְׁבוּ עִמּוֹ כָּל יְמֵי הֱיוֹת דָּוִד בַּמְּצוּדָה:
and they stayed with him all the time that David was in the stronghold: near Moab, and when David went away from there to the forest of Heresh, the king of Moab slew his father, mother, and brothers, with the exception of one of them, whom Nahash the Ammonite preserved alive. And that is the kindness which David (meant when he) said, (II Sam. 10:2) “As his father did kindness with me,” as it is stated in the Mid. of Rabbi T. (T. Buber, Vayera 25).  
5And Gad the prophet said to David, "You shall not stay in the stronghold. Go and enter the land of Judah." And David went, and came to the forest of Hereth.   הוַיֹּאמֶר גָּד הַנָּבִיא אֶל דָּוִד לֹא תֵשֵׁב בַּמְּצוּדָה לֵךְ וּבָאתָ לְּךָ אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיָּבֹא יַעַר חָרֶת:
6And Saul heard that David and the men who were with him had become known, and Saul was sitting in Gibeah under the tamarisk tree on a hill, and his spear was in his hand, and all his servants were standing by him.   ווַיִּשְׁמַע שָׁאוּל כִּי נוֹדַע דָּוִד וַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ וְשָׁאוּל יוֹשֵׁב בַּגִּבְעָה תַּחַת הָאֶשֶׁל בָּרָמָה וַחֲנִיתוֹ בְיָדוֹ וְכָל עֲבָדָיו נִצָּבִים עָלָיו:
that David… had become known: for he investigated, to beware of him.  
under the tamarisk tree on a hill: (Heb. ‘b’ramah,’) on one hill, which was in the border of Benjamin. Our Rabbis, however, said: This was Samuel’s Ramah, and since these are two distinct places, it is expounded thus: Saul was sitting in Gibeah through the merit of the great tamarisk tree (Samuel) who was in Ramah, and was praying for him.  
7And Saul said to his servants who were standing by him, "Hearken now, O Benjamites, will the son of Jesse also give all of you fields and vineyards? Will he appoint all of you captains of thousands and captains of hundreds?   זוַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַעֲבָדָיו הַנִּצָּבִים עָלָיו שִׁמְעוּ נָא בְּנֵי יְמִינִי גַּם לְכֻלְּכֶם יִתֵּן בֶּן יִשַׁי שָׂדוֹת וּכְרָמִים לְכֻלְּכֶם יָשִֹים שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת:
8For all of you have rebelled against me, and no one reveals to me when my son made a covenant with the son of Jesse, and no one of you feels sorry for me, or reveals to me that my son has incited my servant to rise up against me, to lie in wait as of this day."   חכִּי קְשַׁרְתֶּם כֻּלְּכֶם עָלַי וְאֵין גֹּלֶה אֶת אָזְנִי בִּכְרָת בְּנִי עִם בֶּן יִשַׁי וְאֵין חֹלֶה מִכֶּם עָלַי וְגֹלֶה אֶת אָזְנִי כִּי הֵקִים בְּנִי אֶת עַבְדִּי עָלַי לְאֹרֵב כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
9Then Doeg the Edomite, who was appointed over Saul's servants, answered and said, "I saw the son of Jesse come to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub.   טוַיַּעַן דֹּאֵג הָאֲדֹמִי וְהוּא נִצָּב עַל עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמַר רָאִיתִי אֶת בֶּן יִשַׁי בָּא נֹבֶה אֶל אֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן אֲחִטוּב:
10And he inquired of the Lord on his behalf, and gave him provisions, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine."   יוַיִּשְׁאַל לוֹ בַּיהֹוָה וְצֵידָה נָתַן לוֹ וְאֵת חֶרֶב גָּלְיַת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי נָתַן לוֹ:
11And the king sent to call Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, the priest, and all of his father's household, the priests who were in Nob; and they all came to the king.   יאוַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹא אֶת אֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן אֲחִיטוּב הַכֹּהֵן וְאֵת כָּל בֵּית אָבִיו הַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר בְּנֹב וַיָּבֹאוּ כֻלָּם אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ:
12And Saul said, "Listen now, O son of Ahitub." And he said, "Here I am, my lord."   יבוַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל שְׁמַע נָא בֶּן אֲחִיטוּב וַיֹּאמֶר הִנְנִי אֲדֹנִי:
13And Saul said to him, "Why have you rebelled against me, you and the son of Jesse, by your giving him food and a sword, and by inquiring of God on his behalf, to rise up against me as one who lies in wait as of this day?"   יגוַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו (כתיב אֵלָו) שָׁאוּל לָמָּה קְשַׁרְתֶּם עָלַי אַתָּה וּבֶן יִשָׁי בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ לֶחֶם וְחֶרֶב וְשָׁאוֹל לוֹ בֵּאלֹהִים לָקוּם אֵלַי לְאֹרֵב כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
and by inquiring of the Lord on his behalf: You made him a king (by inquiring of the Urim and Tummim for him), since we may not inquire of the Urim and Tummim for a commoner.  
14And Ahimelech answered the king, and said, "Now, who among all your servants is as faithful as David, who is the king's son-in-law, and who goes to do your service, and is honored in your house?   ידוַיַּעַן אֲחִימֶלֶךְ אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמַר וּמִי בְכָל עֲבָדֶיךָ כְּדָוִד נֶאֱמָן וַחֲתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ וְסָר אֶל מִשְׁמַעְתֶּךָ וְנִכְבָּד בְּבֵיתֶךָ:
and goes to do your service: (וסר) like “And they turned to him (ויסורו)” (Gen. 19:6), meaning that he comes near to do your service and to do your commands. (The root סור, which usually means ‘to turn away,’ is used here to mean ‘to come near.’) Was I able to understand that he was not going on your mission?  
15Have I begun today to inquire of God on his behalf? Far be it from me. Let not the king impute anything to his servant nor to all my father's household, for your servant knew nothing of all this, less, or more."   טוהַיּוֹם הַחִלֹּתִי לִשְׁאָל (כתיב לִשְׁאָול ) לוֹ בֵאלֹהִים חָלִילָה לִּי אַל יָשֵׂם הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעַבְדּוֹ דָבָר בְּכָל בֵית אָבִי כִּי לֹא יָדַע עַבְדְּךָ בְּכָל זֹאת דָּבָר קָטֹן אוֹ גָדוֹל:
Have I begun today to inquire: This is a question, inferring as follows: It is already a long time that the community has need for him for he (i.e., the king) appointed him as the one who leads Israel to and from battle, and since then, I inquire of God on his behalf.  
Far be it from me: to have done this thing with the intent of rebellion or treason.  
16And the king said, "You shall surely die, Ahimelech, you and all your father's household."   טזוַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ מוֹת תָּמוּת אֲחִימֶלֶךְ אַתָּה וְכָל בֵּית אָבִיךָ:
17And the king said to the footmen who were standing beside him, "Turn and put the priests of the Lord to death, for their hand is also with David, and because they knew that he was fleeing, and they did not inform me." And the king's servants would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the Lord.   יזוַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לָרָצִים הַנִּצָּבִים עָלָיו סֹבּוּ וְהָמִיתוּ | כֹּהֲנֵי יְהֹוָה כִּי גַם יָדָם עִם דָּוִד וְכִי יָדְעוּ כִּי בֹרֵחַ הוּא וְלֹא גָלוּ אֶת אָזְנִי (כתיב אָזְנִו) וְלֹא אָבוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ לִשְׁלֹחַ אֶת יָדָם לִפְגֹעַ בְּכֹהֲנֵי יְהֹוָה:
who were standing beside him: They were Abner and Amassa.  
And… would not: They expounded ‘buts’ and ‘onlys.’ The Scripture states: “Every man who rebels against your command shall be put to death” (Jos. 1:18). One may think that this means even to commit a sin. The Scripture, therefore, states: Only (be strong and of good courage).  
18And the king said to Doeg, "You turn, and fall upon the priests." And Doeg turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day eighty-five men, wearers of the linen ephod.   יחוַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְדוֹאֵג (כתיב לְדוֹיֵג) סֹב אַתָּה וּפְגַע בַּכֹּהֲנִים וַיִּסֹּב דּוֹאֵג (כתיב דּוֹיֵג) הָאֲדֹמִי וַיִּפְגַּע הוּא בַּכֹּהֲנִים וַיָּמֶת | בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שְׁמֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ נֹשֵֹא אֵפוֹד בָּד:
to Doeg: (the ‘kethib’ is דויג, upon which our Rabbis comment:) His name was changed (from דואג to דויג). He said to him, “You are caught like a fish. You informed on them. You slay them.”  
19And Nob, the city of the priests, he smote with the sharp edge of the sword, both man and woman, infant and suckling, and ox and ass, and lamb, with the sharp edge of the sword.   יטוְאֵת נֹב עִיר הַכֹּהֲנִים הִכָּה לְפִי חֶרֶב מֵאִישׁ וְעַד אִשָּׁה מֵעוֹלֵל וְעַד יוֹנֵק וְשׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר וָשֶֹה לְפִי חָרֶב:
20And one son of Ahimelech, whose name was Abiathar, escaped and fled after David.   כוַיִּמָּלֵט בֵּן אֶחָד לַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן אֲחִטוּב וּשְׁמוֹ אֶבְיָתָר וַיִּבְרַח אַחֲרֵי דָוִד:
21And Abiathar told David that Saul had slain the priests of the Lord.   כאוַיַּגֵּד אֶבְיָתָר לְדָוִד כִּי הָרַג שָׁאוּל אֵת כֹּהֲנֵי יְהֹוָה:
22And David said to Abiathar, "I knew on that day that Doeg the Edomite was there, (and) that he would tell Saul. I brought about the death of every person of your father's household!   כבוַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לְאֶבְיָתָר יָדַעְתִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי שָׁם דּוֹאֵג (כתיב דּוֹיֵג) הָאֲדֹמִי כִּי הַגֵּד יַגִּיד לְשָׁאוּל אָנֹכִי סַבֹּתִי בְּכָל נֶפֶשׁ בֵּית אָבִיךָ:
I brought about: I brought about the matter until it came to this.  
23Stay with me; fear not, for he who seeks my soul seeks your soul, for you shall be in safeguard with me."   כגשְׁבָה אִתִּי אַל תִּירָא כִּי אֲשֶׁר יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נַפְשִׁי יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ כִּי מִשְׁמֶרֶת אַתָּה עִמָּדִי:
for he who seeks my soul: One man is pursuing both of us. Wherever I shall escape, you shall escape, for you will always be in my safeguard. Jonathan renders: for he who seeks to kill me, seeks to kill you. It may also be interpreted: for he who will love me, will love you, and he who will guard my soul, will guard your soul. There is another instance of this in the Scriptures: “Men of blood hate him that is sincere, but the upright seek his soul” (Prov. 29:10). Here is (an instance of) seeking a soul for good.  
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