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Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 21

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 21

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Chapter 21

1And he arose and went away; and Jonathan came to the city.   אוַיָּ֖קָם וַיֵּלַ֑ךְ וִיהוֹנָתָ֖ן בָּ֥א הָעִֽיר:
2And David came to Nob, to Ahimelech the priest, and Ahimelech came trembling toward David, and said, "Why are you alone, and no one with you?"   בוַיָּבֹ֚א דָוִד֙ נֹ֔בֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶ֖לֶךְ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וַיֶּחֱרַ֨ד אֲחִימֶ֜לֶךְ לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֗ד וַיֹּ֚אמֶר לוֹ֙ מַדּ֚וּעַ אַתָּה֙ לְבַדֶּ֔ךָ וְאִ֖ישׁ אֵ֥ין אִתָּֽךְ:
3And David said to Ahimelech the priest, "The king charged me with a matter, and said to me, 'Let no man know anything concerning the matter upon which I am sending you, and with which I have charged you.' And I troubled the young men (to advance) to a hidden, secret place.   גוַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד לַאֲחִימֶ֣לֶךְ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן הַמֶּלֶךְ֘ צִוַּ֣נִי דָבָר֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י אִ֣ישׁ אַל־יֵ֧דַע מְא֛וּמָה אֶת־הַדָּבָ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־אָנֹכִ֥י שֹׁלֵֽחֲךָ֖ וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֑ךָ וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִ֣ים יוֹדַ֔עְתִּי אֶל־מְק֥וֹם פְּלֹנִ֖י אַלְמוֹנִֽי:
And I troubled the young men: (Heb. ‘va’yada’) An expression of troubling. The young men who came out with me, I have troubled them to run before me to a hidden, secret place.  
I troubled: similar to, “And with them he broke (va’yoda) the men of Succoth” (Jud. 8:16).  
hidden, secret: (Heb. ‘ploni almoni.’) ‘Almoni’ is derived from ‘almon’ (a widower), bereft of a name, (as a widower is bereft of his spouse), for I do not wish to mention it, since it is a secret matter.  
hidden: (Heb. ‘ploni,’) like: ‘ki yipalei’ (Deut. 17:8), which means ‘will be concealed.’  
4And now, what is there in your possession? Five loaves of bread? Give them into my hand, or whatever is found."   דוְעַתָּ֗ה מַה־יֵּ֧שׁ תַּֽחַת־יָדְךָ֛ חֲמִשָּׁה־לֶ֖חֶם תְּנָ֣ה בְיָדִ֑י א֖וֹ הַנִּמְצָֽא:
or whatever is found.: If there are not five, give me whatever is found in your possession.  
5And the priest answered David, and said, "There is no ordinary bread in my possession, but there is holy bread, if the young men have but kept themselves from women."   הוַיַּ֨עַן הַכֹּהֵ֚ן אֶת־דָּוִד֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר אֵֽין־לֶ֥חֶם חֹ֖ל אֶל־תַּ֣חַת יָדִ֑י כִּֽי־אִם־לֶ֚חֶם קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יֵ֔שׁ אִם־נִשְׁמְר֥וּ הַנְּעָרִ֖ים אַ֥ךְ מֵאִשָּֽׁה:
but… from women: With difficulty, I give them to strangers (non-priests) to eat, but it is impossible to give it to unclean people.  
6And David answered the priest, and said to him, "But, women are withheld from us as of yesterday and the day before yesterday when I left, and the young men's garments are hallowed, and that is in a manner common, and even if today it would be hallowed in the vessel."   ווַיַּעַן֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵ֜ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ כִּ֣י אִם־אִשָּׁ֚ה עֲצֻֽרָה־לָ֙נוּ֙ כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם בְּצֵאתִ֕י וַיִּהְי֥וּ כְלֵֽי־הַנְּעָרִ֖ים קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְהוּא֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ חֹ֔ל וְאַ֕ף כִּ֥י הַיּ֖וֹם יִקְדַּ֥שׁ בַּכֶּֽלִי:
withheld from us.: lit., withheld to us.  
and the young men’s garments are hallowed: i.e., ritually clean.  
and that is in a manner common: and the bread, since it has been removed from the table, and they have burned the spoonfuls (of frankincense), it is almost common, since it has been excluded from the prohibition of ‘me’ilah’ (betrayal) from the time it is permitted for the priests.  
and even if today it would be hallowed in the vessel: and even if today were the commencement of its sanctity on the table, I should (or perhaps it should read, ‘you would’) be obliged to take it from there and feed us, for a ravenous hunger has seized me, and my life is in danger. Thus it is explained in Men. (95b).  
7And the priest gave him hallowed (bread), for there was no bread there, except the showbread, which was removed from before the Lord, to place warm bread on the day it was taken.   זוַיִּתֶּן־ל֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן קֹ֑דֶשׁ כִּי֩ לֹא־הָ֨יָה שָׁ֜ם לֶ֗חֶם כִּֽי־אִם־לֶ֚חֶם הַפָּנִים֙ הַמּֽוּסָרִים֙ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לָשׂוּם֙ לֶ֣חֶם חֹ֔ם בְּי֖וֹם הִלָּקְחֽוֹ:
to place warm bread: i. e., other warm bread on the day this was taken away. And our Rabbis said: Warm on the day it was taken - It was as warm on the day it was taken as it was on the day it was arranged.  
8And there was a man of Saul's servants on that day, detained before the Lord: and his name was Doeg the Edomite, the chief of Saul's shepherds.   חוְשָׁ֡ם אִישׁ֩ מֵעַבְדֵ֨י שָׁא֜וּל בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נֶעְצָר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וּשְׁמ֖וֹ דֹּאֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֑י אַבִּ֥יר הָרֹעִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְשָׁאֽוּל:
detained before the Lord: he tarried before the tent of meeting to engage in Torah.  
the chief of Saul’s shepherds: the head of the tribunal.  
9And David said to Ahimelech, "And if there is here in your possession a spear or a sword, for neither my sword nor my weapons have I taken in my hand, for the king's business was urgent."   טוַיֹּ֚אמֶר דָּוִד֙ לַאֲחִימֶ֔לֶךְ וְאִ֛ין יֶשׁ־פֹּ֥ה תַֽחַת־יָדְךָ֖ חֲנִ֣ית אוֹ־חָ֑רֶב כִּ֣י גַם־חַרְבִּ֚י וְגַם־כֵּלַי֙ לֹֽא־לָקַ֣חְתִּי בְיָדִ֔י כִּֽי־הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ נָחֽוּץ:
ואין יש פה: And if there is here.  
urgent: hurried.  
10And the priest said, "The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom you slew in the valley of the terebinth, behold, it is wrapped in a garment behind the ephod. If you wish to take that for yourself, take it, for there is none besides it here." And David said, "There is none like it; give it to me."   יוַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַכֹּהֵ֗ן חֶרֶב֩ גָּלְיַ֨ת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֜י אֲשֶׁר־הִכִּ֣יתָ | בְּעֵ֣מֶק הָאֵלָ֗ה הִנֵּה־הִ֞יא לוּטָ֣ה בַשִּׂמְלָה֘ אַחֲרֵ֣י הָאֵפוֹד֒ אִם־אֹתָ֚הּ תִּֽקַּח־לְךָ֙ קָ֔ח כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין אַחֶ֛רֶת זוּלָתָ֖הּ בָּזֶ֑ה וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֵ֥ין כָּמ֖וֹהָ תְּנֶ֥נָּה לִּֽי:
wrapped: (Heb (לוטה wrapped, and so: “and be wrapped (וילט) his face in his mantle” (I Kings 19:13).  
behind the ephod: (after the ephod) after he had consulted the Urim and Tummim for him. And so did Jonathan render: after he asked the ephod for him.  
11And David arose, and fled on that day from before Saul; and he came to Achish the king of Gath.   יאוַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּבְרַ֥ח בַּיּוֹם־הַה֖וּא מִפְּנֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וַיָּבֹ֕א אֶל־אָכִ֖ישׁ מֶ֥לֶךְ גַּֽת:
12And the bondsmen of Achish said to him, "Is this not David, the king of the land? Was it not of this one that they would sing out with musical instruments, saying, 'Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands?' "   יבוַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ עַבְדֵ֚י אָכִישׁ֙ אֵלָ֔יו הֲלוֹא־זֶ֥ה דָוִ֖ד מֶ֣לֶךְ הָאָ֑רֶץ הֲל֣וֹא לָזֶ֗ה יַעֲנ֚וּ בַמְּחֹלוֹת֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִכָּ֚ה שָׁאוּל֙ בַּאֲלָפָ֔יו (כתיב בַּאֲלָפָ֔ו) וְדָוִ֖ד בְּרִבְבֹתָֽיו (כתיב בְּרִבְבֹתָֽו) :
Is this not David the king of the land?: They said to Achish, There was a stipulation between us, (supra 17:9) “If he is able to fight with me and kill me, we shall be slaves to you.” You have nothing to do but get off your throne and let him become king of this land.  
13And David took these words to heart, and became very much afraid of Achish the king of Gath.   יגוַיָּ֧שֶׂם דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה בִּלְבָב֑וֹ וַיִּרָ֣א מְאֹ֔ד מִפְּנֵ֖י אָכִ֥ישׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־גַּֽת:
14And he changed his speech before their eyes, and he feigned insanity before them. And he scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down upon his beard.   ידוַיְשַׁנּ֚וֹ אֶת־טַעְמוֹ֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּתְהֹלֵ֖ל בְּיָדָ֑ם וַיְתָיו֙ (כתיב וַיְתָו֙) עַל־דַּלְת֣וֹת הַשַּׁ֔עַר וַיּ֥וֹרֶד רִיר֖וֹ אֶל־זְקָנֽוֹ:
אתטעמו: his speech. ויתהולל and he feigned insanity.  
and he scribbled: he wrote.  
his saliva: (Heb. ‘riro’) his saliva. Anything which drips is called ‘rir,’ and so: “in saliva (b’rir) of health” (Job 6:7), and so: “whether his flesh run (rar)” (Lev. 15:3).  
15And Achish said to his bondsmen, "Behold, you see a man who is mad. Why do you bring him to me?   טווַיֹּ֥אמֶר אָכִ֖ישׁ אֶל־עֲבָדָ֑יו הִנֵּ֚ה תִרְאוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִשְׁתַּגֵּ֔עַ לָ֛מָה תָּבִ֥יאוּ אֹת֖וֹ אֵלָֽי:
16Do I lack lunatics, that you have brought this one to rave in my presence? Will this one come into my house?"   טזחֲסַ֚ר מְשֻׁגָּעִים֙ אָ֔נִי כִּי־הֲבֵאתֶ֣ם אֶת־זֶ֔ה לְהִשְׁתַּגֵּ֖עַ עָלָ֑י הֲזֶ֖ה יָב֥וֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִֽי:
Will this one: (הזה)  
come into my house?: This is a question form. It is therefore punctuated by a “hataf patah” (under the ‘heh’), and (the ‘zain’) is not punctuated by a ‘dagesh.’  
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