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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 19

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 19

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Rashi's Commentary:
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Chapter 19

1And Saul spoke to Jonathan his son and to all his servants to put David to death. But Jonathan, Saul's son, desired David very much.   אוַיְדַבֵּר שָׁאוּל אֶל יוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְאֶל כָּל עֲבָדָיו לְהָמִית אֶת דָּוִד וִיהוֹנָתָן בֶּן שָׁאוּל חָפֵץ בְּדָוִד מְאֹד:
2And Jonathan told David, saying, "Saul, my father, seeks to put you to death, and now, beware now in the morning, and you shall remain in secret, and hide.   בוַיַּגֵּד יְהוֹנָתָן לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר מְבַקֵּשׁ שָׁאוּל אָבִי לַהֲמִיתֶךָ וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמֶר נָא בַבֹּקֶר וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בַסֵּתֶר וְנַחְבֵּאתָ:
3And I shall come out and stand beside my father in the field where you are, and I shall speak on your behalf to my father; and if I see something, I shall tell you."   גוַאֲנִי אֵצֵא וְעָמַדְתִּי לְיַד אָבִי בַּשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שָׁם וַאֲנִי אֲדַבֵּר בְּךָ אֶל אָבִי וְרָאִיתִי מָה וְהִגַּדְתִּי לָךְ:
beside my father: (lit., at the hand of my father.) Near my father, ‘en son aise’ (‘on his side,’ from Latin ‘adiacentia,’ adjacent) in Old French.  
4And Jonathan spoke well of David to Saul, his father, and he said to him, "Let not the king sin against his servant David, because he has not sinned against you, and because his deeds are very good toward you.   דוַיְדַבֵּר יְהוֹנָתָן בְּדָוִד טוֹב אֶל שָׁאוּל אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַל יֶחֱטָא הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעַבְדּוֹ בְדָוִד כִּי לוֹא חָטָא לָךְ וְכִי מַעֲשָֹיו טוֹב לְךָ מְאֹד:
5And he put his life in his hand and slew the Philistine, and the Lord wrought a great salvation for all Israel. You saw and rejoiced. Why, then, should you sin against innocent blood, to put David to death for no reason?"   הוַיָּשֶׂם אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ בְכַפּוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיַּעַשׂ יְהֹוָה תְּשׁוּעָה גְדוֹלָה לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל רָאִיתָ וַתִּשְׂמָח וְלָמָּה תֶחֱטָא בְּדָם נָקִי לְהָמִית אֶת דָוִד חִנָּם:
6And Saul listened to Jonathan's voice, and Saul swore, "As the Lord lives, he will not be put to death."   ווַיִּשְׁמַע שָׁאוּל בְּקוֹל יְהוֹנָתָן וַיִּשָּׁבַע שָׁאוּל חַי יְהֹוָה אִם יוּמָת:
7And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan told him all these things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was before him as yesterday and before.   זוַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹנָתָן לְדָוִד וַיַּגֶּד לוֹ יְהוֹנָתָן אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיָּבֵא יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת דָּוִד אֶל שָׁאוּל וַיְהִי לְפָנָיו כְּאֶתְמוֹל שִׁלְשׁוֹם:
8And there was war again, and David went out and battled the Philistines, and dealt a great blow upon them, and they fled from before him.   חוַתּוֹסֶף הַמִּלְחָמָה לִהְיוֹת וַיֵּצֵא דָוִד וַיִּלָּחֶם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּךְ בָּהֶם מַכָּה גְדוֹלָה וַיָּנֻסוּ מִפָּנָיו:
9And an evil spirit from the Lord was upon Saul, and he was sitting in his house, with his spear in his hand, and David was playing with his hand.   טוַתְּהִי רוּחַ יְהֹוָה | רָעָה אֶל שָׁאוּל וְהוּא בְּבֵיתוֹ יוֹשֵׁב וַחֲנִיתוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָד:
10And Saul attempted to pin David to the wall with the spear, but he slipped away from before Saul, and Saul drove the spear into the wall, but David fled and escaped on that night.   יוַיְבַקֵּשׁ שָׁאוּל לְהַכּוֹת בַּחֲנִית בְּדָוִד וּבַקִּיר וַיִּפְטַר מִפְּנֵי שָׁאוּל וַיַּךְ אֶת הַחֲנִית בַּקִּיר וְדָוִד נָס וַיִּמָּלֵט בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא:
11And Saul sent messengers to David's house to guard him and to put him to death in the morning, and Michal his wife told David, saying, "If you do not flee for your life tonight, tomorrow you will be put to death!"   יאוַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים אֶל בֵּית דָּוִד לְשָׁמְרוֹ וְלַהֲמִיתוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר וַתַּגֵּד לְדָוִד מִיכַל אִשְׁתּוֹ לֵאמֹר אִם אֵינְךָ מְמַלֵּט אֶת נַפְשְׁךָ הַלַּיְלָה מָחָר אַתָּה מוּמָת:
12And Michal let David down through the window, and he went, and fled, and escaped.   יבוַתֹּרֶד מִיכַל אֶת דָּוִד בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּבְרַח וַיִּמָּלֵט:
13And Michal took the teraphim, and put them into the bed, and she put a goatskin at its head, and covered it with a garment.   יגוַתִּקַּח מִיכַל אֶת הַתְּרָפִים וַתָּשֶׂם אֶל הַמִּטָּה וְאֵת כְּבִיר הָעִזִּים שָֹמָה מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַתְּכַס בַּבָּגֶד:
she put… at its head: since the teraphim has no hair, and this resembles human hair.  
And Michal took: so that they should not understand that he fled, and pursue him.  
the teraphim: made in the likeness of a human body.  
a goatskin: A hide skinned in one piece, like a skin bottle. Flocete in French (a hairy stuff).  
14And Saul sent messengers to take David, and she said, "He is ill."   ידוַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים לָקַחַת אֶת דָּוִד וַתֹּאמֶר חֹלֶה הוּא:
15And Saul sent the messengers to see David, saying, "Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may put him to death."   טווַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל אֶת הַמַּלְאָכִים לִרְאוֹת אֶת דָּוִד לֵאמֹר הַעֲלוּ אֹתוֹ בַמִּטָּה אֵלַי לַהֲמִתוֹ:
16And the messengers came, and behold, the teraphim was in the bed, and the goatskin was at its head.   טזוַיָּבֹאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים וְהִנֵּה הַתְּרָפִים אֶל הַמִּטָּה וּכְבִיר הָעִזִּים מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו:
17And Saul said to Michal, "Why have you thus deceived me, and you sent away my enemy, so that he escaped?" And Michal said to Saul, "He said to me, 'Let me go. Why should I put you to death?' "   יזוַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל מִיכַל לָמָּה כָּכָה רִמִּיתִנִי וַתְּשַׁלְּחִי אֶת אֹיְבִי וַיִּמָּלֵט וַתֹּאמֶר מִיכַל אֶל שָׁאוּל הוּא אָמַר אֵלַי שַׁלְּחִנִי לָמָה אֲמִיתֵךְ:
He said to me, ‘Let me go, etc.’: You delivered me into the hands of a bandit. He drew his sword over me until I allowed him to leave.  
18Now David had fled and escaped, and he came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him, and he and Samuel went and stayed in Naioth.   יחוְדָוִד בָּרַח וַיִּמָּלֵט וַיָּבֹא אֶל שְׁמוּאֵל הָרָמָתָה וַיַּגֶּד לוֹ אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לוֹ שָׁאוּל וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁמוּאֵל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּנָיוֹת (כתיב בְּנָויֹת) :
19And it was related to Saul, saying, "Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah."   יטוַיֻּגַּד לְשָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה דָוִד בְּנָיוֹת (כתיב בְּנָויֹת) בָּרָמָה:
and stayed in Naioth: (lit., dwellings; Jonathan renders:) in the house of study.  
20And Saul sent messengers to take David, and he saw the company of prophets prophesying and Samuel was standing as head over them; and a spirit from God was upon Saul's messengers, and they too prophesied.   כוַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים לָקַחַת אֶת דָּוִד וַיַּרְא אֶת לַהֲקַת הַנְּבִיאִים נִבְּאִים וּשְׁמוּאֵל עֹמֵד נִצָּב עֲלֵיהֶם וַתְּהִי עַל מַלְאֲכֵי שָׁאוּל רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ גַּם הֵמָּה:
the company: להקת, reversed from קהלת a company (Jonathan).  
21And they told Saul, and he sent other messengers, and they too prophesied. And Saul continued to send third messengers, and they too prophesied.   כאוַיַּגִּדוּ לְשָׁאוּל וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ גַּם הֵמָּה וַיֹּסֶף שָׁאוּל וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים שְׁלִשִׁים וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ גַּם הֵמָּה:
22And he also went to Ramah, and he came to the great pit which is in Secu, and he asked, and said, "Where are Samuel and David?" And (one) said, "Behold, at Naioth in Ramah."   כבוַיֵּלֶךְ גַּם הוּא הָרָמָתָה וַיָּבֹא עַד בּוֹר הַגָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר בַּשֶּׂכוּ וַיִּשְׁאַל וַיֹּאמֶר אֵיפֹה שְׁמוּאֵל וְדָוִד וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בְּנָיוֹת (כתיב בְּנָוֹית) בָּרָמָה:
23And he went there, to Naioth in Ramah, and even upon him was a spirit from God, and he went along prophesying until he came to Naioth in Ramah.   כגוַיֵּלֶךְ שָׁם אֶל נָיוֹת (כתיב נָוֹית) בָּרָמָה וַתְּהִי עָלָיו גַּם הוּא רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ וַיִּתְנַבֵּא עַד בֹּאוֹ בְּנָיוֹת (כתיב בְּנָוֹית) בָּרָמָה:
24And he too stripped off his clothes, and he too prophesied before Samuel, and he fell naked all that day and all the night. Therefore, they say, "Is Saul also among the prophets?"   כדוַיִּפְשַׁט גַּם הוּא בְּגָדָיו וַיִּתְנַבֵּא גַם הוּא לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיִּפֹּל עָרֹם כָּל הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וְכָל הַלָּיְלָה עַל כֵּן יֹאמְרוּ הֲגַם שָׁאוּל בַּנְּבִיאִם:
And he too stripped off his clothes: his royal garments, to don the garments of the disciples.  
And he fell naked: (Rashi’s commentary, as it appears in available editions, is very difficult, and probably erroneous. I should like to take the liberty to emend the text to read:) And he fell naked. Jonathan renders: ונפל ברשן, and in the name of Rabbi Menahem, who heard from an Arab, ברשן in Arabic means insane.  
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