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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 18

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 18

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 18

1. And it was, as he finished speaking to Saul, that Jonathan's soul had become attached to David's soul, and Jonathan loved him as himself.   א. וַיְהִי כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אֶל שָׁאוּל וְנֶפֶשׁ יְהוֹנָתָן נִקְשְׁרָה בְּנֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ יְהוֹנָתָן כְּנַפְשׁוֹ:
2. And Saul took him on that day, and did not allow him to return to his father's house.   ב. וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ שָׁאוּל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לָשׁוּב בֵּית אָבִיו:
3. And Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself.   ג. וַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹנָתָן וְדָוִד בְּרִית בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ אֹתוֹ כְּנַפְשׁוֹ:
4. And Jonathan stripped himself of the cloak which was on him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and even to his bow, and even to his girdle.   ד. וַיִּתְפַּשֵּׁט יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת הַמְּעִיל אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ לְדָוִד וּמַדָּיו וְעַד חַרְבּוֹ וְעַד קַשְׁתּוֹ וְעַד חֲגֹרוֹ:
5. And David went out; wherever Saul would send him, he would succeed; accordingly, Saul appointed him over the soldiers, and he was pleasing in the eyes of all the people, and also in the eyes of Saul's servants.   ה. וַיֵּצֵא דָוִד בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁלָחֶנּוּ שָׁאוּל יַשְׂכִּיל וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ שָׁאוּל עַל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינֵי כָל הָעָם וְגַם בְּעֵינֵי עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל:
6. And it was when they came, when David returned from slaying the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, to sing, and with musical instruments (in their hands), toward King Saul, with drums, with joy, and with cymbals.   ו. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם בְּשׁוּב דָּוִד מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַתֵּצֶאנָה הַנָּשִׁים מִכָּל עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָשִׁיר וְהַמְּחֹלוֹת לִקְרַאת שָׁאוּל הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּתֻפִּים בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשָׁלִשִׁים:
and with cymbals: (ובשלשים) - Jonathan renders: and with cymbals, a type of musical instrument.  
7. And the cheering women sang out and said, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands."   ז. וַתַּעֲנֶינָה הַנָּשִׁים הַמְשַׂחֲקוֹת וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הִכָּה שָׁאוּל בַּאֲלָפָיו וְדָוִד בְּרִבְבֹתָיו:
8. And Saul was very chagrined, and the matter displeased him, and he said, "They ascribed to David ten thousands, and to me they ascribed the thousands. And what more can he have, but the kingdom?"   ח. וַיִּחַר לְשָׁאוּל מְאֹד וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינָיו הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר נָתְנוּ לְדָוִד רְבָבוֹת וְלִי נָתְנוּ הָאֲלָפִים וְעוֹד לוֹ אַךְ הַמְּלוּכָה:
“… And what more can he have…”: (lit., and he has yet; i.e.,) What more is he lacking, that he needs to acquire…  
but the kingdom?: He needs nothing else but the kingdom.  
9. And Saul eyed David from that day on.   ט. וַיְהִי שָׁאוּל עוֹיֵן אֶת דָּוִד מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָהָלְאָה:
eyed: with an envious glance.  
10. And it was on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God rested upon Saul, and he raved in the midst of the house, and David was playing with his hand like everyday, and the spear was in Saul's hand.   י. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים | רָעָה | אֶל שָׁאוּל וַיִּתְנַבֵּא בְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ כְּיוֹם | בְּיוֹם וְהַחֲנִית בְּיַד שָׁאוּל:
and he raved: (lit., he prophesied. Jonathan renders:) and he raved. A prophet and a mad man speak with unintelligible hints.  
11. And Saul cast the spear, and said, "I shall pin David to the wall," and David turned from before him twice.   יא. וַיָּטֶל שָׁאוּל אֶת הַחֲנִית וַיֹּאמֶר אַכֶּה בְדָוִד וּבַקִּיר וַיִּסֹּב דָּוִד מִפָּנָיו פַּעֲמָיִם:
“I shall pin David to the wall,”: (lit., I shall strike David and the wall) I shall strike one blow that the spear will pierce David and the wall.  
12. And Saul feared David, for the Lord was with him, while He had turned away from Saul.   יב. וַיִּרָא שָׁאוּל מִלִּפְנֵי דָוִד כִּי הָיָה יְהֹוָה עִמּוֹ וּמֵעִם שָׁאוּל סָר:
13. And Saul removed him from (being) with him, and made him for himself a captain over a thousand, and he went out and came in before the people.   יג. וַיְסִרֵהוּ שָׁאוּל מֵעִמּוֹ וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ לוֹ שַׂר אָלֶף וַיֵּצֵא וַיָּבֹא לִפְנֵי הָעָם:
14. And David was successful in all his ways; and the Lord was with him.   יד. וַיְהִי דָוִד לְכָל דְּרָכָו מַשְׂכִּיל וַיהֹוָה עִמּוֹ:
15. And Saul saw that he was very successful, and he feared him.   טו. וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הוּא מַשְׂכִּיל מְאֹד וַיָּגָר מִפָּנָיו:
16. And all Israel and Judah loved David, for he went out and came in before them.   טז. וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה אֹהֵב אֶת דָּוִד כִּי הוּא יוֹצֵא וָבָא לִפְנֵיהֶם:
17. And Saul said to David, "Behold, my elder daughter, Merab. I shall give her to you as a wife. But, be a warrior for me, and wage the wars of the Lord." For Saul said, "Let not my hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him."   יז. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל דָּוִד הִנֵּה בִתִּי הַגְּדוֹלָה מֵרַב אֹתָהּ אֶתֶּן לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה אַךְ הֱיֵה לִּי לְבֶן חַיִל וְהִלָּחֵם מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהֹוָה וְשָׁאוּל אָמַר אַל תְּהִי יָדִי בּוֹ וּתְהִי בוֹ יַד פְּלִשְׁתִּים:
and Saul said: to himself (lit., in his heart).  
Let not my hand be upon him: lest I be punished.  
but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.: Therefore, he said to him, ‘… and wage the wars of the Lord.’  
18. And David said to Saul, "Who am I, and what is my life, or my fathers family in Israel, that I should be a son-in-law to the King."   יח. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל שָׁאוּל מִי אָנֹכִי וּמִי חַיַּי מִשְׁפַּחַת אָבִי בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי אֶהְיֶה חָתָן לַמֶּלֶךְ:
19. And it was at the time that Merab, Saul's daughter, should have been given to David, that she was given to Adriel, the Meholathite, as a wife.   יט. וַיְהִי בְּעֵת תֵּת אֶת מֵרַב בַּת שָׁאוּל לְדָוִד וְהִיא נִתְּנָה לְעַדְרִיאֵל הַמְּחֹלָתִי לְאִשָּׁה:
at the time that Merab, Saul’s daughter, should have been given: When the time which they had set to give her to him arrived, and while they were occupied with giving her to him, the matter turned out that she was given to Adriel.  
20. And Michal, Saul's daughter, loved David; and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.   כ. וַתֶּאֱהַב מִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל אֶת דָּוִד וַיַּגִּדוּ לְשָׁאוּל וַיִּשַׁר הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינָיו:
21. And Saul said, "I shall give her to him, and she will be a snare to him, and the hand of the Philistines will be upon him." And Saul said to David, "With (one of) two, shall you be my son-in-law today."   כא. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶתְּנֶנָּה לּוֹ וּתְהִי לוֹ לְמוֹקֵשׁ וּתְהִי בוֹ יַד פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל דָּוִד בִּשְׁתַּיִם תִּתְחַתֵּן בִּי הַיּוֹם:
With two, shall you become my son-in-law: I have two daughters. Through one of them, will you become my son-in-law. And so did Jonathan render: with one of two. Similar to this, (we find:) Three things I cast upon you (II Sam. 24:12), meaning, one of three things. As it is explained there, “Choose for yourself one of them.”  
22. And Saul commanded his servants, "Speak to David secretly, saying, 'Behold, the king desires you, and all his servants love you; and now, become the king's son-in-law.' "   כב. וַיְצַו שָׁאוּל אֶת עֲבָדָּו דַּבְּרוּ אֶל דָּוִד בַּלָּט לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָפֵץ בְּךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל עֲבָדָיו אֲהֵבוּךָ וְעַתָּה הִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ:
23. And Saul's servants spoke these words in David's ears. And David said, "Does becoming the king's son-in-law, seem to you to be a light thing, for I am poor and lightly esteemed?"   כג. וַיְדַבְּרוּ עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל בְּאָזְנֵי דָוִד אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד הַנְקַלָּה בְעֵינֵיכֶם הִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ וְאָנֹכִי אִישׁ רָשׁ וְנִקְלֶה:
24. And Saul's servants told him, saying, "According to these words, has David spoken."   כד. וַיַּגִּדוּ עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל לוֹ לֵאמֹר כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר דָּוִד:
25. And Saul said, "So shall you say to David, 'The king has no desire in a dowry, but in one hundred foreskins of Philistines, to avenge himself upon the king's enemies.' " But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.   כה. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל כֹּה תֹאמְרוּ לְדָוִד אֵין חֵפֶץ לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּמֹהַר כִּי בְּמֵאָה עָרְלוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים לְהִנָּקֵם בְּאֹיְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁאוּל חָשַׁב לְהַפִּיל אֶת דָּוִד בְּיַד פְּלִשְׁתִּים:
26. And his servants told David these words, and the thing pleased David to become the king's son-in-law, and the days had not expired.   כו. וַיַּגִּדוּ עֲבָדָיו לְדָוִד אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּשַׁר הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי דָוִד לְהִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ וְלֹא מָלְאוּ הַיָּמִים:
and the days had not expired: He did not wait until the expiration of the days which he had set for him to bring the hundred foreskins.  
27. And David arose, and he and his men went, and he slew two hundred men of the Philistines, and brought their foreskins, and they delivered them in full to the king, in order to become the king's son-in-law. And the king gave him Michal, his daughter, as a wife.   כז. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד וַיֵּלֶךְ | הוּא וַאֲנָשָׁיו וַיַּךְ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים מָאתַיִם אִישׁ וַיָּבֵא דָוִד אֶת עָרְלֹתֵיהֶם וַיְמַלְאוּם לַמֶּלֶךְ לְהִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ וַיִתֶּן לוֹ שָׁאוּל אֶת מִיכַל בִּתּוֹ לְאִשָּׁה:
and they delivered them in full: Presenter in French (to present).  
28. And Saul saw, and knew that the Lord was with David, and Michal, Saul's daughter, loved him.   כח. וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל וַיֵּדַע כִּי יְהֹוָה עִם דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת שָׁאוּל אֲהֵבַתְהוּ:
29. And Saul grew still more afraid of David, and Saul was hostile to David all the days.   כט. וַיֹּאסֶף שָׁאוּל לֵרֹא מִפְּנֵי דָוִד עוֹד וַיְהִי שָׁאוּל אֹיֵב אֶת דָוִד כָּל הַיָּמִים:
afraid: (לרא), equivalent to ליראה (to fear).  
30. And the princes of the Philistines came out, and it was, as often as they came out, that David was more successful than all Saul's servants, and his name was highly esteemed.   ל. וַיֵּצְאוּ שָׂרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיְהִי | מִדֵּי צֵאתָם שָׂכַל דָּוִד מִכֹּל עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל וַיִּיקַר שְׁמוֹ מְאֹד:
And the princes of the Philistines came out: to come in troops to plunder the Israelites.  
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