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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 17

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 17

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 17

1. And the Philistines assembled their camps to war; and they assembled at Sochoh which belonged to Judah, and they encamped between Sochoh and Azekah in Ephes-dammim.   א. וַיַּאַסְפוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים אֶת מַחֲנֵיהֶם לַמִּלְחָמָה וַיֵּאָסְפוּ שׂכֹה אֲשֶׁר לִיהוּדָה וַיַּחֲנוּ בֵּין שׂוֹכֹה וּבֵין עֲזֵקָה בְּאֶפֶס דַּמִּים:
in Ephes-dammim: This is the name of the place.  
2. And Saul and the men of Israel assembled, and they encamped in the Valley of the Terebinth, and they set the battle in array against the Philistines.   ב. וְשָׁאוּל וְאִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶאֶסְפוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּעֵמֶק הָאֵלָה וַיַּעַרְכוּ מִלְחָמָה לִקְרַאת פְּלִשְׁתִּים:
3. And the Philistines were standing on the mountain from here, and Israel was standing on the mountain from here, and the valley was between them.   ג. וּפְלִשְׁתִּים עֹמְדִים אֶל הָהָר מִזֶּה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֹמְדִים אֶל הָהָר מִזֶּה וְהַגַּיְא בֵּינֵיהֶם:
4. And the champion emerged from the Philistines' camp, named Goliath, from Gath; his height was six cubits and a span.   ד. וַיֵּצֵא אִישׁ הַבֵּנַיִם מִמַּחֲנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים גָּלְיָת שְׁמוֹ מִגַּת גָּבְהוֹ שֵׁשׁ אַמּוֹת וָזָרֶת:
the champion: A hero who would emerge from his battle array, to stand between the two arrays.  
5. And a helmet of copper was on his head, and he was wearing a coat of mail, and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of copper.   ה. וְכוֹבַע נְחשֶׁת עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְשִׁרְיוֹן קַשְׂקַשִּׂים הוּא לָבוּשׁ וּמִשְׁקַל הַשִּׁרְיוֹן חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים שְׁקָלִים נְחשֶׁת:
and a coat of mail: scales like those of fish, made of iron, spread over the coat (another version, the holes of the coat), a scale for each hole.  
6. And greaves of copper were on his legs, and a copper javelin was between his shoulders.   ו. וּמִצְחַת נְחשֶׁת עַל רַגְלָיו וְכִידוֹן נְחשֶׁת בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו:
greaves of copper: a sort of copper handle, extending from the helmet, opposite the nose, called ‘nasal’ in French, and it reached the feet.  
and a copper javelin: Jonathan renders: ומסחפא דנחשא נפיק מן קולסא ומטל בין כתפוהי A sort of copper javelin, protruding from the helmet, and extending between his shoulders, to protect his neck from the sword.  
7. And the shaft of his spear was like a weaver's beam, and the spear's head was six hundred shekels of iron, and the shield-bearer went before him.   ז. וְעֵץ חֲנִיתוֹ כִּמְנוֹר אֹרְגִים וְלַהֶבֶת חֲנִיתוֹ שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁקָלִים בַּרְזֶל וְנֹשֵֹא הַצִּנָּה הֹלֵךְ לְפָנָיו:
כמנור אורגים: like a weaver’s beam - (Jonathan) ‘ensouple’ in French (cylinder in a loom).  
six hundred shekels: All shekels mentioned in the Prophetic books, are ‘maneh’s’.  
8. And he stood and called to the array of Israel, and he said to them, "Why should you come out to wage war? Am I not the Philistine, and you the servants of Saul? Choose for yourselves a man, and let him come down to me.   ח. וַיַּעֲמֹד וַיִּקְרָא אֶל מַעַרְכֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לָמָּה תֵצְאוּ לַעֲרֹךְ מִלְחָמָה הֲלוֹא אָנֹכִי הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וְאַתֶּם עֲבָדִים לְשָׁאוּל בְּרוּ לָכֶם אִישׁ וְיֵרֵד אֵלָי:
Why should you come out: i.e., Why should all of you come out to wage war? Let one fight against me for all of you, and on the condition which is specified: if he is able to fight with me, etc.  
Am I not the Philistine, and you the servants of Saul?: I am neither a captain over a hundred, nor a captain over a thousand. I am but a Philistine like one of the others, even though I have fought many wars for them. I killed Hophni and Phinehas, and I captured the Ark. You, on the other hand, have become servants to Saul, although he never saved you with his heroism.  
Choose for yourselves: (ברו לכם. The root is ברר). Hence, it is like בררו לכם, (with two ‘resh’es’).  
a man: Saul, and let him come down to me.  
9. If he is able to fight with me and kill me, we shall be slaves to you, and if I overcome him, and kill him, you shall be slaves to us and serve us."   ט. אִם יוּכַל לְהִלָּחֵם אִתִּי וְהִכָּנִי וְהָיִינוּ לָכֶם לַעֲבָדִים וְאִם אֲנִי אוּכַל לוֹ וְהִכִּיתִיו וִהְיִיתֶם לָנוּ לַעֲבָדִים וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֹתָנוּ:
10. And the Philistine said, "I taunt the ranks of Israel this day; give me a man, and let us fight together."   י. וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֲנִי חֵרַפְתִּי אֶת מַעַרְכוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה תְּנוּ לִי אִישׁ וְנִלָּחֲמָה יָחַד:
11. And Saul and all Israel heard these words of the Philistine, and they were panic stricken and very much afraid.   יא. וַיִּשְׁמַע שָׁאוּל וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הָאֵלֶּה וַיֵּחַתּוּ וַיִּרְאוּ מְאֹד:
12. And David was the son of this Ephrathite man from Bethlehem of Judah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons; and the man was old in Saul's time, coming among men.   יב. וְדָוִד בֶּן אִישׁ אֶפְרָתִי הַזֶּה מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה וּשְׁמוֹ יִשַׁי וְלוֹ שְׁמֹנָה בָנִים וְהָאִישׁ בִּימֵי שָׁאוּל זָקֵן בָּא בַאֲנָשִׁים:
And David was the son of this Ephrathite man: Bethlehem is situated in the land of Ephrath.  
and he had eight sons: And that which is stated (in I Chron. 2:15), “Ozem the sixth, David the seventh,” and he states no more, may be reconciled by supposing that one died without children. He was, therefore, not counted there.  
among men: counted in the assemblies of the esteemed men.  
13. And Jesse's three eldest sons who had followed Saul, went to war; and the names of his three sons who went to war, were: Eliab, the firstborn, and the second to him, Abinadab, and the third, Shammah.   יג. וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלשֶׁת בְּנֵי יִשַׁי הַגְּדֹלִים הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי שָׁאוּל לַמִּלְחָמָה וְשֵׁם | שְׁלשֶׁת בָּנָיו אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָה אֱלִיאָב הַבְּכוֹר וּמִשְׁנֵהוּ אֲבִינָדָב וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁי שַׁמָּה:
14. And David was the youngest, and the three eldest followed Saul.   יד. וְדָוִד הוּא הַקָּטָן וּשְׁלשָׁה הַגְּדֹלִים הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי שָׁאוּל:
And David was the youngest: who had heretofore been in Saul’s palace to play music before him.  
15. Now David went to and fro from Saul, to tend his father's sheep in Bethlehem.   טו. וְדָוִד הֹלֵךְ וָשָׁב מֵעַל שָׁאוּל לִרְעוֹת אֶת צֹאן אָבִיו בֵּית לָחֶם:
Now David went: would always go to and fro from Saul to his father’s house.  
16. And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.   טז. וַיִּגַּשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַשְׁכֵּם וְהַעֲרֵב וַיִּתְיַצֵּב אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם:
morning and evening: Our Rabbis said: (He did this) in order to prevent them from reciting ‘Shema.’  
17. And Jesse said to David his son, "Take now to your brothers, an ephah of this parched corn and ten loaves of this bread, and rush them to the camp, to your brothers.   יז. וַיֹּאמֶר יִשַׁי לְדָוִד בְּנוֹ קַח נָא לְאַחֶיךָ אֵיפַת הַקָּלִיא הַזֶּה וַעֲשָׂרָה לֶחֶם הַזֶּה וְהָרֵץ הַמַּחֲנֶה לְאַחֶיךָ:
18. And you shall bring these ten cheeses to the captain of the thousand, and you shall see how your brothers are faring, and you shall take the tidings of their welfare."   יח. וְאֵת עֲשֶֹרֶת חֲרִצֵי הֶחָלָב הָאֵלֶּה תָּבִיא לְשַׂר הָאָלֶף וְאֶת אַחֶיךָ תִּפְקֹד לְשָׁלוֹם וְאֶת עֲרֻבָּתָם תִּקָּח:
חריצי החלב: cheeses (Jonathan).  
to the captain of the thousand: I say (that Jesse meant) “to the captain of that thousand to which I belong,” for all the tribes had captains of thousands “according to their thousands” (This last phrase is vague). I have heard, however, that ‘to the captain of the thousand’ refers to Jonathan, concerning whom the Scripture states: “And a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin.” (supra 13:3).  
and the tidings of their welfare you shall take: And the assurance of their salvation and their welfare you shall take into your ears and your heart, and you shall relate it to me. And so did Jonathan render: ‘and their welfare.’  
their welfare: (Heb. ‘arubatham,’) an expression of salvation, like (Ps. 119:112).“Assure your servant for good,” ‘garantir’ in French. Our Rabbis said: He should take a bill of divorcement from them, and deliver it to their wives, to break the connection between man and wife (lit., between him and her).  
19. And Saul and they, and all the men of Israel in the Valley of the Terebinth, were at war with the Philistines.   יט. וְשָׁאוּל וְהֵמָּה וְכָל אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵמֶק הָאֵלָה נִלְחָמִים עִם פְּלִשְׁתִּים:
20. And David arose early in the morning, and he left the sheep with a keeper; and he carried off and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the barricade, and the army which was going out to the battle array, shouted in the battle.   כ. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם דָּוִד בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּטּשׁ אֶת הַצֹּאן עַל שֹׁמֵר וַיִּשָּׂא וַיֵּלֶךְ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּהוּ יִשָׁי וַיָּבֹא הַמַּעְגָּלָה וְהַחַיִל הַיֹּצֵא אֶל הַמַּעֲרָכָה וְהֵרֵעוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָה:
to the barricade: They would form a circle around the camp, and whoever would go out of the circle, either ahead of or behind the camp, would be liable (to death); ahead, lest the men of the enemy armies attack him, and behind, since he seeks to desert.  
21. And the Israelites and the Philistines put the battle in array, army against army.   כא. וַתַּעֲרֹךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפְלִשְׁתִּים מַעֲרָכָה לִקְרַאת מַעֲרָכָה:
And the Israelites… put: (The feminine form is used, referring to) the army of Israel, (which is grammatically feminine).  
22. And David left the baggage in the hand of the keeper of the baggage, and he ran to the battle array, and he came and greeted his brothers.   כב. וַיִּטּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת הַכֵּלִים מֵעָלָיו עַל יַד שׁוֹמֵר הַכֵּלִים וַיָּרָץ הַמַּעֲרָכָה וַיָּבֹא וַיִּשְׁאַל לְאֶחָיו לְשָׁלוֹם:
the keeper of the baggage: of the soldiers.  
23. And while he was speaking with them, behold, the champion, named Goliath the Philistine, from Gath, was coming up from the ranks of the Philistines, and he spoke the same words (as before), and David heard.   כג. וְהוּא | מְדַבֵּר עִמָּם וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ הַבֵּנַיִם עוֹלֶה גָּלְיָת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי שְׁמוֹ מִגַּת מִמַּעֲרְכוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיְדַבֵּר כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד:
from the ranks of the Philistines: The ‘kethib’ is ממערות פלשתים. Our Rabbis expounded the word מערות : as ממאה ערלות (from 100 foreskins) meaning that one hundred men were intimate (הערו) with his mother Orpah, when she parted with Ruth and her mother-in-law Naomi.  
24. And all the men of Israel, upon seeing the man, fled from before him, and were exceedingly frightened.   כד. וְכֹל אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּרְאוֹתָם אֶת הָאִישׁ וַיָּנֻסוּ מִפָּנָיו וַיִּירְאוּ מְאֹד:
25. And the men of Israel said, "Have you seen this man who is coming up, for he is coming up to taunt Israel? And it will be, that the man who will kill him, the King will enrich him with great riches, and he will give him his daughter, and he will make his father's house free in Israel."   כה. וַיֹּאמֶר | אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַרְאִיתֶם הָאִישׁ הָעֹלֶה הַזֶּה כִּי לְחָרֵף אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹלֶה וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּנּוּ יַעְשְׁרֶנּוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ | עשֶׁר גָּדוֹל וְאֶת בִּתּוֹ יִתֶּן לוֹ וְאֵת בֵּית אָבִיו יַעֲשֶֹה חָפְשִׁי בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
and he will make his father’s house free: from the things mentioned in the laws of the kingdom.  
26. And David said to the men who were standing before him, saying, "What shall be done to the man who slays that Philistine, and takes away reproach from Israel, for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should taunt the ranks of the living God?"   כו. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל הָאֲנָשִׁים הָעֹמְדִים עִמּוֹ לֵאמֹר מַה יֵּעָשֶֹה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּה אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַלָּז וְהֵסִיר חֶרְפָּה מֵעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מִי הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֶעָרֵל הַזֶּה כִּי חֵרֵף מַעַרְכוֹת אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים:
27. And the people said to him, "So shall be done to the man who slays him."   כז. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הָעָם כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֵאמֹר כֹּה יֵעָשֶֹה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּנּוּ:
28. And Eliab, his eldest brother, heard when he spoke to the men, and Eliab's wrath was kindled against David, and he said, "Why have you come down? With whom have you left those few sheep in the desert? I know your impetuousness, and the evil of your heart, for you have come down in order to see the war."   כח. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלִיאָב אָחִיו הַגָּדוֹל בְּדַבְּרוֹ אֶל הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיִחַר אַף אֱלִיאָב בְּדָוִד וַיֹּאמֶר | לָמָה זֶּה יָרַדְתָּ וְעַל מִי נָטַשְׁתָּ מְעַט הַצֹּאן הָהֵנָּה בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת זְדֹנְךָ וְאֵת רֹעַ לְבָבֶךָ כִּי לְמַעַן רְאוֹת הַמִּלְחָמָה יָרָדְתָּ:
29. And David said, "What have I done now? Is it not but a word?"   כט. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד מֶה עָשִֹיתִי עָתָּה הֲלוֹא דָּבָר הוּא:
30. And he turned around from him, toward another. And he spoke according to the same manner, the people answered according to the former manner.   ל. וַיִּסֹּב מֵאֶצְלוֹ אֶל מוּל אַחֵר וַיֹּאמֶר כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְשִׁבֻהוּ הָעָם דָּבָר כַּדָּבָר הָרִאשׁוֹן:
31. And the words which David had spoken, were heard. And they related (them) before Saul, and he took him.   לא. וַיִּשָּׁמְעוּ הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר דָּוִד וַיַּגִּדוּ לִפְנֵי שָׁאוּל וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ:
32. And David said to Saul, "Let no man's heart fail because of him. Your bondsman will go, and battle with the Philistine."   לב. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל שָׁאוּל אַל יִפֹּל לֵב אָדָם עָלָיו עַבְדְּךָ יֵלֵךְ וְנִלְחַם עִם הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַזֶּה:
33. And Saul said to David, "You are unable to go to this Philistine to battle with him, for you are a lad, and he is a warrior since his youth."   לג. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל דָּוִד לֹא תוּכַל לָלֶכֶת אֶל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַזֶּה לְהִלָּחֵם עִמּוֹ כִּי נַעַר אַתָּה וְהוּא אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה מִנְּעֻרָיו:
34. And David said to Saul, "Your bondsman was a shepherd of sheep for his father, and there came a lion and also a bear, and carried off a lamb from the flock.   לד. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל שָׁאוּל רֹעֶה הָיָה עַבְדְּךָ לְאָבִיו בַּצֹּאן וּבָא הָאֲרִי וְאֶת הַדּוֹב וְנָשָֹא שֶֹה מֵהָעֵדֶר:
ובא הארי ואת הדוב: and also a bear (Jonathan).  
35. And I went out after him and smote him, and saved it from his mouth. And he arose upon me, and I took hold of his jaw, and I smote him and slew him.   לה. וְיָצָאתִי אַחֲרָיו וְהִכִּתִיו וְהִצַּלְתִּי מִפִּיו וַיָּקָם עָלַי וְהֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִּזְקָנוֹ וְהִכִּתִיו וַהֲמִיתִּיו:
36. Both the lion and the bear has your bondsman slain, and the uncircumcised Philistine shall be like one of them, for he taunted the armies of the living God."   לו. גַּם אֶת הָאֲרִי גַּם הַדּוֹב הִכָּה עַבְדֶּךָ וְהָיָה הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֶעָרֵל הַזֶּה כְּאַחַד מֵהֶם כִּי חֵרֵף מַעַרְכֹת אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים:
Both the lion and the bear: These three words (גם את גם) are of inclusive nature, meaning a lion and its two whelps, and a bear and its two cubs.  
37. And David said, "The Lord Who saved me from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear, He will save me from the hand of this Philistine." And Saul said to David, "Go, and may the Lord be with you."   לז. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר הִצִּלַנִי מִיַּד הָאֲרִי וּמִיַּד הַדֹּב הוּא יַצִּילֵנִי מִיַּד הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַזֶּה ס וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל דָּוִד לֵךְ וַיהֹוָה יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ:
The Lord Who saved me from the paw of the lion: I know that this incident did not occur to me for naught, but as an indication that in the future, I would come through similar circumstances, to a salvation for Israel. And I shall rely upon this, and go out. And he was one of the two righteous men, to whom the Almighty gave a hint, and they took heed, to understand the matter, viz., David and Mordecai, as it is stated: “And everyday, Mordecai would walk before the courtyard, etc.” (Es. 2:11) He said, “It is not for nothing that this righteous woman (Esther) has been taken into the bed of this uncircumcised one (Ahasuerus). It can only mean that she is destined to stand up for the Jews in a day of distress.”  
38. And Saul dressed David with his garments, and he placed a copper helmet on his head, and he dressed him with a coat of mail.   לח. וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ שָׁאוּל אֶת דָּוִד מַדָּיו וְנָתַן קוֹבַע נְחשֶׁת עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ שִׁרְיוֹן:
David with his garments: They changed to David’s size, (explaining מדיו from מדה, a measure, cf., Lev. 6:3) since he had been anointed with the anointing oil, although they belonged to Saul who was taller than any of the people, from his shoulder and upward (supra 9:2), and when Saul noticed this, he cast an envious glance toward him, and David realized it.  
39. And David girded his sword over his garments, and he did not want to go (in them), for he was not accustomed, and David said to Saul, "I cannot go with these, for I am not accustomed." And David took them off.   לט. וַיַּחְגֹּר דָּוִד אֶת חַרְבּוֹ מֵעַל לְמַדָּיו וַיֹּאֶל לָלֶכֶת כִּי לֹא נִסָּה וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל שָׁאוּל לֹא אוּכַל לָלֶכֶת בָּאֵלֶּה כִּי לֹא נִסִּיתִי וַיְסִרֵם דָּוִד מֵעָלָיו:
ויאל ללכת: and he did not want to go (in them - Jonathan.) (Despite the fact that ויאל usually means, he wanted, [cf., Ex. 2:21],) there are words which have two opposite definitions, e.g., “will cut off a branch (Is. 10:32),” (using מסעף, will cut off, derived from סעיף, a branch). And he will uproot you from the land of the living (Ps 52:7), (using ושרשך, will uproot you, derived from שרש, a root). כי לא נסה for he was not accustomed (after Jonathan).  
for I am not accustomed: (Heb. לא נסיתי (Jonathan explains this as derived from נס, a miracle, and, therefore, renders:) for there is no miracle in them, i.e., there will be no praise for the miracle in this manner. Another explanation is ויאל ללכת - he wanted to go, and to try, when he saw that they were too heavy for him, he took them off.  
40. And he took his staff in his hand, and he chose for himself five smooth pebbles from the brook, and he placed them in the shepherds' bag which he had, and in the sack, and his slingshot was in his hand, and he approached the Philistine.   מ. וַיִּקַּח מַקְלוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וַיִּבְחַר לוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה חַלֻּקֵי אֲבָנִים | מִן הַנַּחַל וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָם בִּכְלִי הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וּבַיַּלְקוּט וְקַלְּעוֹ בְיָדוֹ וַיִּגַּשׁ אֶל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי:
five smooth pebbles: five thin, smooth stones.  
and in the sack: (Jonathan renders:) ובתרמיליה.  
and to the cattle of the field: It is not customary for cattle to eat human (sic) flesh. Said David “This one’s mind is already deranged (like one who is close to death). He is mine.” David then came and said “… and I shall give the carcasses of the camp of the Philistines… and to the beasts of the earth (not to the cattle).”  
41. And the Philistine was continuously drawing nearer to David, and the man who bore the shield was before him.   מא. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֹלֵךְ וְקָרֵב אֶל דָּוִד וְהָאִישׁ נֹשֵֹא הַצִּנָּה לְפָנָיו:
42. And the Philistine looked and saw David, and he despised him, for he was a youth, and ruddy, with an attractive appearance.   מב. וַיַּבֵּט הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיִּרְאֶה אֶת דָּוִד וַיִּבְזֵהוּ כִּי הָיָה נַעַר וְאַדְמֹנִי עִם יְפֵה מַרְאֶה:
43. And the Philistine said to David, "Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?" And the Philistine cursed David by his god.   מג. וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל דָּוִד הֲכֶלֶב אָנֹכִי כִּי אַתָּה בָא אֵלַי בַּמַּקְלוֹת וַיְקַלֵּל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶת דָּוִד בֵּאלֹהָיו:
44. And the Philistine said to David, "Come to me, and I shall give your flesh to the fowl of the air, and to the cattle of the field."   מד. וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל דָּוִד לְכָה אֵלַי וְאֶתְּנָה אֶת בְּשָֹרְךָ לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הַשָּׂדֶה:
and he fell on his face to the ground: He should have fallen backwards since he had been struck in the forehead. But, (he fell forward) in order that David should not be troubled to walk and sever his head, for David saved twelve cubits and two spans. Since his height was six cubits and a span, David saved (a walk of) his entire height back and his entire height forth.  
45. And David said to the Philistine, "You come to me with spear and javelin, and I come to you with the Name of the Lord of Hosts, the God of the armies of Israel which you have taunted.   מה. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֵלַי בְּחֶרֶב וּבַחֲנִית וּבְכִידוֹן וְאָנֹכִי בָא אֵלֶיךָ בְּשֵׁם יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי מַעַרְכוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר חֵרַפְתָּ:
46. This day, the Lord will deliver you into my hand, and I shall slay you, and take off your head, and I shall give the carcasses of the camp of the Philistines this day, to the fowl of the air and to the beasts of the earth, and all the earth shall know that Israel has a God.   מו. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְסַגֶּרְךָ יְהֹוָה בְּיָדִי וְהִכִּיתִךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת רֹאשְׁךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי פֶּגֶר מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל הָאָרֶץ כִּי יֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל:
47. And all this assembly shall know that not with sword and javelin does the Lord save, for the battle is the Lord's, and He will deliver you into our hand."   מז. וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה כִּי לֹא בְּחֶרֶב וּבַחֲנִית יְהוֹשִׁיעַ יְהֹוָה כִּי לַיהֹוָה הַמִּלְחָמָה וְנָתַן אֶתְכֶם בְּיָדֵנוּ:
48. And it was, when the Philistine arose and drew closer to David, that David hastened and ran to the battle array, toward the Philistine.   מח. וְהָיָה כִּי קָם הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּקְרַב לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וַיְמַהֵר דָּוִד וַיָּרָץ הַמַּעֲרָכָה לִקְרַאת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי:
49. And David stretched his hand into the bag, and took a stone therefrom, and slung it, and he hit the Philistine in his forehead, and the stone sank into his forehead, and he fell on his face to the ground.   מט. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶת יָדוֹ אֶל הַכֶּלִי וַיִּקַּח מִשָּׁם אֶבֶן וַיְקַלַּע וַיַּךְ אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל מִצְחוֹ וַתִּטְבַּע הָאֶבֶן בְּמִצְחוֹ וַיִּפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו אָרְצָה:
50. And David overpowered the Philistine with the slingshot and with the stone, and he smote the Philistine and slew him: and no sword was in David's hand.   נ. וַיֶּחֱזַק דָּוִד מִן הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי בַּקֶּלַע וּבָאֶבֶן וַיַּךְ אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיְמִיתֵהוּ וְחֶרֶב אֵין בְּיַד דָּוִד:
51. And David ran and stood up to the Philistine, and he took his sword and drew it from its sheath, and slew him, and with it, severed his head. And the Philistines saw that their hero had died, and they fled.   נא. וַיָּרָץ דָּוִד וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיִּקַּח אֶת חַרְבּוֹ וַיִּשְׁלְפָהּ מִתַּעְרָהּ וַיְמֹתְתֵהוּ וַיִּכְרָת בָּהּ אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּרְאוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי מֵת גִּבּוֹרָם וַיָּנֻסוּ:
52. And the men of Israel and Judah arose and shouted, and pursued the Philistines until you come to the valley, and until the Gates of Ekron; and the slain of the Philistines fell on the road of Shaaraim, and up to Gath and up to Ekron.   נב. וַיָּקֻמוּ אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וַיָּרִעוּ וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים עַד בּוֹאֲךָ גַיְא וְעַד שַׁעֲרֵי עֶקְרוֹן וַיִּפְּלוּ חַלְלֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים בְּדֶרֶךְ שַׁעֲרַיִם וְעַד גַּת וְעַד עֶקְרוֹן:
53. And the children of Israel returned from pursuing the Philistines, and plundered their camps.   נג. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִדְּלֹק אַחֲרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיָּשֹׁסּוּ אֶת מַחֲנֵיהֶם:
from pursuing: (מדלק) Same as מרדף, similar to “you have pursued me” (דלקת) (Gen. 31: 36).  
54. And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem, and his weapons, he put in his tent.   נד. וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת רֹאשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיְבִאֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלָםִ וְאֶת כֵּלָיו שָֹם בְּאָהֳלוֹ:
55. And when Saul saw David going out toward the Philistine, he said to Abner, the general of his army, "Whose son is this youth, Abner?" And Abner said, "By your life, O King, I know not."   נה. וְכִרְאוֹת שָׁאוּל אֶת דָּוִד יֹצֵא לִקְרַאת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אָמַר אֶל אַבְנֵר שַֹר הַצָּבָא בֶּן מִי זֶה הַנַּעַר אַבְנֵר וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְנֵר חֵי נַפְשְׁךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ אִם יָדָעְתִּי:
Whose son is this youth,: Our Rabbis said: Did he not recognize him? Is it not stated: “And he became his weapon bearer” (supra 16:21)? But, (rather this is the explanation): he saw him behaving in a kingly manner. (Vid. supra v. 38) Said Saul, “If he comes from the family of Perez, he will be a king, for the king may break fences (פורץ, related to פרץ) to make a way for himself, and no one may stop him. If, however, he comes from the family of Zerah, he will merely become an esteemed person. Said Doeg to him, ” Before you ask whether or not he is descended from a family which qualifies him for the throne, ask whether or not he is qualified to enter the congregation, (i.e., whether or not he may marry among Jews) since he is descended from Ruth the Moabitess.“ Said Abner to him, ” We have learned: An Ammonite (is forbidden, Deut. 23:3) but not an Ammonitess. (Similarly, a Moabite is forbidden, but not a Moabitess.) “ Said Doeg to him, ” If so (let us say), a ‘mamzer’ (the male issue of a union forbidden under penalty of extinction is forbidden,) and not a ‘mamzereth’ (the female issue of such a union).“ He replied, ” It is stated here: Because they did not meet you with bread and water (v. 5 ibid.), and it is not customary for a woman to do so.“ He said to him,” Men should have met men, and women should have met women." Abner became silent. Saul said to him:  
56. And the king said, "You ask whose son this youth is."   נו. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁאַל אַתָּה בֶּן מִי זֶה הָעָלֶם:
You ask whose son this youth is: Above (v. 55) it is written: הנער, and here it is written העלם. He said to him, “This law has escaped your memory (נתעלמה). Go out and ask in the academy.” This is as it is stated in Jeb. 77a.  
57. And as David returned from slaying the Philistine, Abner called him, and brought him before Saul, and the Philistine's head was in his hand.   נז. וּכְשׁוּב דָּוִד מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיִּקַּח אֹתוֹ אַבְנֵר וַיְבִאֵהוּ לִפְנֵי שָׁאוּל וְרֹאשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי בְּיָדוֹ:
58. And Saul said to him, "Whose son are you, young man?" And David said, "The son of your bondsman, Jesse the Bethlehemite."   נח. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו שָׁאוּל בֶּן מִי אַתָּה הַנָּעַר וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד בֶּן עַבְדְּךָ יִשַׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי:
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