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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 16

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 16

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 16

1. And the Lord said to Samuel, "Until when are you mourning for Saul, when I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? Fill your horn with oil, and come, I shall send you to Jesse, the Bethlehemite, for I have seen for Myself a king among his sons."   א. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל שְׁמוּאֵל עַד מָתַי אַתָּה מִתְאַבֵּל אֶל שָׁאוּל וַאֲנִי מְאַסְתִּיו מִמְּלֹךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלֵּא קַרְנְךָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֵךְ אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל יִשַׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי כִּי רָאִיתִי בְּבָנָיו לִי מֶלֶךְ:
the Bethlehemite: (בית-הלחמי,) from Bethlehem, and so is the rule of every noun which is composed of two words, e. g., Beth-lehem, Beth-shemesh, Beth-el, Kiriath-arba, if one wishes to add a ‘heh’ (definite article) thereto, he adds it between the two words, e.g., Kiriath-ha’arba (Gen. 35:27), בית-האלי (I Kings 16:34), בית-הלחמי.  
2. And Samuel said, "How shall I go? For, if Saul hears, he will kill me." And the Lord said, "You shall take a heifer with you, and you shall say, 'I have come to slaughter (a sacrifice) to the Lord.'   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי ס וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה עֶגְלַת בָּקָר תִּקַּח בְּיָדֶךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהֹוָה בָּאתִי:
3. And you shall invite Jesse to the sacrificial feast, and I shall let you know what you shall do, and you shall anoint for Me whom I shall tell you."   ג. וְקָרָאתָ לְיִשַׁי בַּזָּבַח וְאָנֹכִי אוֹדִיעֲךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶֹה וּמָשַׁחְתָּ לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ:
4. And Samuel did that which the Lord had spoken, and he came to Bethlehem, and the elders of the city hurried toward him, and one said, "Is your coming peaceable?"   ד. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁמוּאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה וַיָּבֹא בֵּית לָחֶם וַיֶּחֶרְדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלֹם בּוֹאֶךָ:
hurried: (lit., trembled) hurried out toward him.  
5. And he said, "Peaceable. I have come to slaughter (a sacrifice) to the Lord. Prepare yourselves, and you shall come with me to the sacrificial feast." And he prepared Jesse and his sons, and invited them to the sacrificial feast.   ה. וַיֹּאמֶר | שָׁלוֹם לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהֹוָה בָּאתִי הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ וּבָאתֶם אִתִּי בַּזָּבַח וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת יִשַׁי וְאֶת בָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא לָהֶם לַזָּבַח:
6. And it was, that when they came, and he saw Eliab, that he said, "Surely, before the Lord is His anointed."   ו. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם וַיַּרְא אֶת אֱלִיאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אַךְ נֶגֶד יְהֹוָה מְשִׁיחוֹ:
that he said, “Surely, before the Lord is His anointed.”: and he said to himself, “Surely, it is true that this one is fitting for the kingdom.”  
7. And the Lord said to Samuel, "Look not upon his appearance, or the height of his stature, for I have rejected him, for it is not as man sees, (what is visible) to the eyes, while the Lord sees into the heart."   ז. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל שְׁמוּאֵל אַל תַּבֵּט אֶל מַרְאֵהוּ וְאֶל גְּבֹהַּ קוֹמָתוֹ כִּי מְאַסְתִּיהוּ כִּי | לֹא אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָאָדָם כִּי הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם וַיהֹוָה יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב:
Look not upon his appearance: upon the beauty of his form.  
for I have rejected him: because he is an irascible person, as it is stated: “And Eliab’s wrath was kindled against David” (infra 17:29).  
for it is not as man sees: Even though you called yourself ‘seer,’ for you said to Saul, “I am the seer,” (supra 9:19), here I inform you that you do not see.  
8. And Jesse called to Abinadab, and he presented him before Samuel, and he said, "Neither has the Lord chosen this one."   ח. וַיִּקְרָא יִשַׁי אֶל אֲבִינָדָב וַיַּעֲבִרֵהוּ לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם בָּזֶה לֹא בָחַר יְהֹוָה:
9. And Jesse presented Shammah, and he said, "Neither has the Lord chosen this one."   ט. וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שַׁמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם בָּזֶה לֹא בָחַר יְהֹוָה:
Shammah: That is Shimeah (mentioned in II Sam. 12:3; II Chron. 2:13).  
10. And Jesse presented seven of his sons before Samuel; and Samuel said to Jesse, "The Lord has not chosen these."   י. וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שִׁבְעַת בָּנָיו לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל יִשַׁי לֹא בָחַר יְהֹוָה בָּאֵלֶּה:
11. And Samuel said to Jesse, "Are these all the young men?" And he said, "The youngest still remains, and behold, he is tending the sheep." And Samuel said to Jesse, "Send and bring him, for we shall not sit down until he comes here."   יא. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל יִשַׁי הֲתַמּוּ הַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד שָׁאַר הַקָּטָן וְהִנֵּה רֹעֶה בַּצֹּאן וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל יִשַׁי שִׁלְחָה וְקָחֶנּוּ כִּי לֹא נָסֹב עַד בֹּאוֹ פֹה:
The youngest still remains: (Heb. שאר, kal conj. active) This is like נשאר (remains, niph’al conj. passive).  
we will not sit down: (לא נסב) We will not sit down to eat. Every instance of sitting down to a meal is called הסבה (leaning).  
12. And he sent and brought him, and he was ruddy, with beautiful eyes, and handsome appearance. And the Lord said, "Arise, anoint him, for this is he."   יב. וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי עִם יְפֵה עֵינַיִם וְטוֹב רֹאִי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה קוּם מְשָׁחֵהוּ כִּי זֶה הוּא:
13. And Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And a spirit of the Lord passed over David from that day forth, and Samuel arose and went to Ramah.   יג. וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת קֶרֶן הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ בְּקֶרֶב אֶחָיו וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ יְהֹוָה אֶל דָּוִד מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָמָעְלָה וַיָּקָם שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ הָרָמָתָה:
And a spirit of the Lord passed: a spirit of valiance.  
14. And the spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord frightened him.   יד. וְרוּחַ יְהֹוָה סָרָה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבִעֲתַתּוּ רוּחַ רָעָה מֵאֵת יְהֹוָה:
15. And Saul's servants said to him, "Behold now, an evil spirit of God is frightening you.   טו. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נָא רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים רָעָה מְבַעִתֶּךָ:
16. Let our lord say (your servants are before you), 'Let them seek a man who knows how to play on the harp'; and it will be, that when the evil spirit of God is upon you, he will play with his hand, and it will be good for you."   טז. יֹאמַר נָא אֲדֹנֵנוּ עֲבָדֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ יְבַקְשׁוּ אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ מְנַגֵּן בַּכִּנּוֹר וְהָיָה בִּהְיוֹת עָלֶיךָ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים רָעָה וְנִגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְטוֹב לָךְ:
your servants are before you: Behold, your servants are before you, who will do your bidding.  
17. And Saul said to his servants, "Provide me now with a man who plays well, and you shall bring him to me."   יז. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל עֲבָדָיו רְאוּ נָא לִי אִישׁ מֵיטִיב לְנַגֵּן וַהֲבִיאוֹתֶם אֵלָי:
18. And one of the young men answered and said, "Behold, I saw a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, who knows how to play, a mighty man of valor, and a warrior, and prudent in affairs, and a handsome man, and the Lord is with him."   יח. וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי בֵּן לְיִשַׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי יֹדֵעַ נַגֵּן וְגִבּוֹר חַיִל וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה וּנְבוֹן דָּבָר וְאִישׁ תֹּאַר וַיהֹוָה עִמּוֹ:
one of the young men: The special one of the young men, Doeg the Edomite.  
who knows how to play: With his entire essence, he intended to introduce Saul’s evil eye into David, i.e., that he envy him.  
19. And Saul sent messengers to Jesse, and he said, "Send me David your son, who is with the sheep."   יט. וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים אֶל יִשָׁי וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁלְחָה אֵלַי אֶת דָּוִד בִּנְךָ אֲשֶׁר בַּצֹּאן:
20. And Jesse took a donkey laden with bread, and an earthenware jug of wine, and a kid; and he sent them with David his son, to Saul.   כ. וַיִּקַּח יִשַׁי חֲמוֹר לֶחֶם וְנֹאד יַיִן וּגְדִי עִזִּים אֶחָד וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד דָּוִד בְּנוֹ אֶל שָׁאוּל:
21. And David came to Saul, and stood before him, and he loved him very much, and he was his weapon bearer.   כא. וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל שָׁאוּל וַיַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ מְאֹד וַיְהִי לוֹ נֹשֵֹא כֵלִים:
22. And Saul sent to Jesse, saying, "Let David stand before me now, for he has found favor in my eyes."   כב. וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל אֶל יִשַׁי לֵאמֹר יַעֲמָד נָא דָוִד לְפָנַי כִּי מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָי:
23. And it would be, that when the spirit of God was upon Saul, that David would take the harp, and would play with his hand, and Saul would be relieved, and it would be good for him, the spirit of evil would depart from him.   כג. וְהָיָה בִּהְיוֹת רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים אֶל שָׁאוּל וְלָקַח דָּוִד אֶת הַכִּנּוֹר וְנִגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְרָוַח לְשָׁאוּל וְטוֹב לוֹ וְסָרָה מֵעָלָיו רוּחַ הָרָעָה:
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