Printed from chabad.org
All Departments
Jewish Holidays
TheRebbe.org
Jewish.TV - Video
Jewish Audio
News
Kabbalah Online
JewishWoman.org
Kids Zone
The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 12

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 12

E-mail
Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 12

1. And Samuel said to all Israel, "Behold, I have hearkened to your voice, to everything which you have said to me, and I have made a king to reign over you.   א. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנֵּה שָׁמַעְתִּי בְקֹלְכֶם לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲמַרְתֶּם לִי וָאַמְלִיךְ עֲלֵיכֶם מֶלֶךְ:
2. And now, behold the king is walking before you, and I have become old and hoary, and my sons are here with you, and I have walked before you from my youth and until this day.   ב. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ | מִתְהַלֵּךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי וָשַֹבְתִּי וּבָנַי הִנָּם אִתְּכֶם וַאֲנִי הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי לִפְנֵיכֶם מִנְּעֻרַי עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
and I have become old and hoary: Our Rabbis said that he aged prematurely, as it is stated in Tractate Taanith (5b).  
3. Here I am; bear witness against me before the Lord and before His anointed; whose ox did I take, or whose ass did I take, or whom did I rob; or whom did I oppress, or from whose hand did I take a ransom, that I hide my eyes therewith, and I shall restore to you."   ג. הִנְנִי עֲנוּ בִי נֶגֶד יְהֹוָה וְנֶגֶד מְשִׁיחוֹ אֶת שׁוֹר | מִי לָקַחְתִּי וַחֲמוֹר מִי לָקַחְתִּי וְאֶת מִי עָשַׁקְתִּי אֶת מִי רַצּוֹתִי וּמִיַּד מִי לָקַחְתִּי כֹפֶר וְאַעְלִים עֵינַי בּוֹ וְאָשִׁיב לָכֶם:
whose ox did I take: for my work.  
or whose ass did I take: When I used to go from city to city to judge them concerning their needs, I used to go on my own ass, although I should have taken (one) of theirs.  
or whom did I oppress: Every expression of ‘meruzah’ which follows ‘oshek’ (robbery), is an expression of “robbed and oppressed” (Deut. 28:33), one who robs the poor and oppresses them.  
that I hide my eyes therewith: in order to hide my eyes from the judgment because of the money.  
and I shall restore to you: all that you will say.  
4. And they said, "You did not rob us, nor did you oppress us, neither did you take anything from anyone's hand."   ד. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא עֲשַׁקְתָּנוּ וְלֹא רַצּוֹתָנוּ וְלֹא לָקַחְתָּ מִיַּד אִישׁ מְאוּמָה:
5. And he said to them, "The Lord is a witness against you, and His anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything in my hand, and they said, "(He is) witness."   ה. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם עֵד יְהֹוָה בָּכֶם וְעֵד מְשִׁיחוֹ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי לֹא מְצָאתֶם בְּיָדִי מְאוּמָה וַיֹּאמֶר עֵד:
and they said, “(He is) witness.”: (lit., ‘and he said.’ The Rabbis, taking the word literally, explain that) a bath kol (a heavenly voice) came forth and said, ‘I am witness.’ This was one of three places in which the holy spirit entered the earthly court, as it is stated in Tractate Makkoth (23b).  
6. And Samuel said to the people, "(It is) the Lord Who made Moses and Aaron, and Who brought your forefathers up from the land of Egypt.   ו. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל הָעָם יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת משֶׁה וְאֶת אַהֲרֹן וַאֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָה אֶת אֲבֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם:
Who made Moses and Aaron: to be prepared for His mission to take your forefathers out of Egypt.  
7. And now, stand and I shall reason with you before the Lord, concerning all the righteous acts which He did to you and to your forefathers.   ז. וְעַתָּה הִתְיַצְּבוּ וְאִשָּׁפְטָה אִתְּכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה אֵת כָּל צִדְקוֹת יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָֹה אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם:
and I shall reason: or debate.  
8. When Jacob came to Egypt, and your forefathers cried out to the Lord, the Lord sent Moses and Aaron, and they brought your forefathers out of Egypt, and they made them dwell in this place.   ח. כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּא יַעֲקֹב מִצְרָיִם וַיִּזְעֲקוּ אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֶל יְהֹוָה וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהֹוָה אֶת משֶׁה וְאֶת אַהֲרֹן וַיּוֹצִיאוּ אֶת אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיּשִׁבוּם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה:
9. And they forgot the Lord, their God, and He delivered them into the hand of Sisera, the commander of the army of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they waged war with them.   ט. וַיִּשְׁכְּחוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיִּמְכֹּר אֹתָם בְּיַד סִיסְרָא שַׂר צְבָא חָצוֹר וּבְיַד פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּבְיַד מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ בָּם:
10. And they cried out to the Lord, and said, 'We have sinned, for we have forsaken the Lord, and have served the Baalim and Ashtaroth. Now, save us from the hand of our enemies, and we shall serve You.'   י. וַיִּזְעֲקוּ אֶל יְהֹוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי עָזַבְנוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה וַנַּעֲבֹד אֶת הַבְּעָלִים וְאֶת הָעַשְׁתָּרוֹת וְעַתָּה הַצִּילֵנוּ מִיַּד אֹיְבֵינוּ וְנַעַבְדֶךָּ:
11. And the Lord sent Jerubaal, and Bedan, and Jephtah, and Samuel, and He saved you from the hand of your enemies round about, and you dwelt in safety.   יא. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהֹוָה אֶת יְרֻבַּעַל וְאֶת בְּדָן וְאֶת יִפְתָּח וְאֶת שְׁמוּאֵל וַיַּצֵּל אֶתְכֶם מִיַּד אֹיְבֵיכֶם מִסָּבִיב וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בֶּטַח:
Jerubaal: This is Gideon (Jud. 6:32).  
Bedan: This is Samson who came from the tribe of Dan.  
and Jephthah: Here are three insignificant leaders with three eminent leaders: Moses, Aaron, and Samuel, to tell you that the insignificant leader in his generation is equal to the eminent leader in his generation. Every court which is appointed over the generation must be followed as though its members were the noblest of nobility.  
12. And when you saw that Nahash, the king of Ammon, came upon you, you said to me, 'No, but a king shall rule over us,' when the Lord your God was your king.   יב. וַתִּרְאוּ כִּי נָחָשׁ מֶלֶךְ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן בָּא עֲלֵיכֶם וַתֹּאמְרוּ לִי לֹא כִּי מֶלֶךְ יִמְלֹךְ עָלֵינוּ וַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מַלְכְּכֶם:
13. And now, behold the king whom you have chosen, whom you have requested, and behold, the Lord has appointed a king over you.   יג. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתֶּם אֲשֶׁר שְׁאֶלְתֶּם וְהִנֵּה נָתַן יְהֹוָה עֲלֵיכֶם מֶלֶךְ:
14. If you will fear the Lord, and serve Him, and hearken to His voice, and you will not rebel against the commandments of the Lord, both you and the king who reigns over you, will be after the Lord your God.   יד. אִם תִּירְאוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֹתוֹ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּקוֹלוֹ וְלֹא תַמְרוּ אֶת פִּי יְהֹוָה וִהְיִתֶם גַּם אַתֶּם וְגַם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר מָלַךְ עֲלֵיכֶם אַחַר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
both you and the king who reigns over you will be: Both you and the king who reigns over you will live to a ripe old age.  
15. But, if you will not hearken to the voice of the Lord, and you will rebel against the commandments of the Lord, the Lord's hand will be against you and against your fathers.   טו. וְאִם לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה וּמְרִיתֶם אֶת פִּי יְהֹוָה וְהָיְתָה יַד יְהֹוָה בָּכֶם וּבַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם:
the Lord’s hand will be against you and against your fathers: Meaning, after it was against your fathers. Our Rabbis, however, said: (Jeb. 63b) “against you and against your fathers” refers to the digging up of the dead, which is a visitation of disgrace upon the dead.  
16. Even now, stand and see this great thing which the Lord will do before your eyes.   טז. גַּם עַתָּה הִתְיַצְּבוּ וּרְאוּ אֶת הַדָּבָר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה עֹשֶֹה לְעֵינֵיכֶם:
stand and see, etc.: and just as through my prayer, I am able to change the seasons, similarly, if a war befell you, there would be power in my prayer to protect you against the adversary, and you had no need to ask for a king during my lifetime despite the fact that I am old.  
17. Is it not wheat harvest today? I shall call to the Lord, and He will send thunder and rain, and you shall know and see, that your evil is great, which you have done in the eyes of the Lord, to ask for yourselves a king."   יז. הֲלוֹא קְצִיר חִטִּים הַיּוֹם אֶקְרָא אֶל יְהֹוָה וְיִתֵּן קֹלוֹת וּמָטָר וּדְעוּ וּרְאוּ כִּי רָעַתְכֶם רַבָּה אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם בְּעֵינֵי יְהֹוָה לִשְׁאוֹל לָכֶם מֶלֶךְ:
Is it not wheat harvest today?: Rain is an evil omen (Taanith 12b), and the Holy One Blessed be He is reluctant to visit retribution for nothing. Nevertheless, I have power; I shall call to the Lord, and He will send thunder and rain.  
and you shall know and see: that it was unnecessary to ask for a king and to treat me with disrespect.  
18. And Samuel called to the Lord, and the Lord sent thunder and rain on that day, and all the people greatly feared the Lord and Samuel.   יח. וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל יְהֹוָה וַיִּתֵּן יְהֹוָה קֹלֹת וּמָטָר בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיִּירָא כָל הָעָם מְאֹד אֶת יְהֹוָה וְאֶת שְׁמוּאֵל:
19. And all the people said to Samuel, "Pray for your servants to the Lord your God and let us not die, for we have added to all our sins evil, to ask for ourselves a king."   יט. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל הָעָם אֶל שְׁמוּאֵל הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד עֲבָדֶיךָ אֶל יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאַל נָמוּת כִּי יָסַפְנוּ עַל כָּל חַטֹּאתֵינוּ רָעָה לִשְׁאֹל לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ:
20. And Samuel said to the people, "Fear not. You have done all this evil, but do not turn aside from following the Lord, and you shall serve the Lord with all your heart.   כ. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל הָעָם אַל תִּירָאוּ אַתֶּם עֲשִׂיתֶם אֵת כָּל הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת אַךְ אַל תָּסוּרוּ מֵאַחֲרֵי יְהֹוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֶת יְהֹוָה בְּכָל לְבַבְכֶם:
21. And you shall not turn aside, for then (you would go) after vain things which cannot profit or deliver, for they are vain.   כא. וְלֹא תָּסוּרוּ כִּי | אַחֲרֵי הַתֹּהוּ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יוֹעִילוּ וְלֹא יַצִּילוּ כִּי תֹהוּ הֵמָּה:
22. For the Lord will not forsake His people for His great name's sake; for the Lord has sworn to make you a people for Himself.   כב. כִּי לֹא יִטּשׁ יְהֹוָה אֶת עַמּוֹ בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל כִּי הוֹאִיל יְהֹוָה לַעֲשֹוֹת אֶתְכֶם לוֹ לְעָם:
for His great Name’s sake: for His Name has spread concerning you, that He is your Savior and lest the Name of His greatness be diminished.  
the Lord swore: (Heb. ‘ho il,’) like (infra 14:24) “And Saul made the people swear (Heb. ‘vayoel’).”  
23. I also, far be it from me to sin to the Lord in ceasing to pray for you, but I shall instruct you in the good and proper way.   כג. גַּם אָנֹכִי חָלִילָה לִּי מֵחֲטֹא לַיהֹוָה מֵחֲדֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְכֶם וְהוֹרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם בְּדֶרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה וְהַיְשָׁרָה:
also far be it from me: Since you will do your part by returning to the Lord, I also, far be it from me to stop praying for you.  
24. Only fear the Lord and you shall serve Him in truth with all your heart, for see the great things which He has dealt with you.   כד. אַךְ | יְראוּ אֶת יְהֹוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמֶת בְּכָל לְבַבְכֶם כִּי רְאוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר הִגְדִּל עִמָּכֶם:
25. But, if you will do wrong, both you and your king will be destroyed.   כה. וְאִם הָרֵעַ תָּרֵעוּ גַּם אַתֶּם גַּם מַלְכְּכֶם תִּסָּפוּ:
E-mail
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
FEATURED ON CHABAD.ORG