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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 11

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 11

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 11

1. And Nahash the Ammonite went up and camped against Jabesh-Gilead. And all the people of Jabesh-Gilead said to Nahash, "Make a treaty with us, and we shall serve you."   א. וַיַּעַל נָחָשׁ הָעַמּוֹנִי וַיִּחַן עַל יָבֵשׁ גִּלְעָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל אַנְשֵׁי יָבֵישׁ אֶל נָחָשׁ כְּרָת לָנוּ בְרִית וְנַעַבְדֶךָּ:
2. And Nahash the Ammonite said to them, "On this (condition) will I make a treaty with you, by gouging out the right eye of every one of you, and I shall make it a reproach against all Israel."   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם נָחָשׁ הָעַמּוֹנִי בְּזֹאת אֶכְרֹת לָכֶם בִּנְקוֹר לָכֶם כָּל עֵין יָמִין וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ חֶרְפָּה עַל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
the right eye: (We explain this) literally, but the Midrash Agadah (MS. 14:7) (explains it figuratively): He said, “Bring me your Torah which was given by the right hand (of the Almighty),” (Deut. 33:2), and I shall burn it, because He wrote therein: “An Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter the congregation of the Lord” (Deut. 23:3).  
a reproach: an insult.  
3. And the elders of Jabesh said to him, "Give us seven days respite, that we may send messengers throughout the entire border of Israel, and if there is no one to save us, we shall come out to you."   ג. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו זִקְנֵי יָבֵישׁ הֶרֶף לָנוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְנִשְׁלְחָה מַלְאָכִים בְּכֹל גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם אֵין מוֹשִׁיעַ אֹתָנוּ וְיָצָאנוּ אֵלֶיךָ:
4. And the messengers came to Gibeah of Saul, and spoke the words in the ears of the people. And the people raised their voice and cried.   ד. וַיָּבֹאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים גִּבְעַת שָׁאוּל וַיְדַבְּרוּ הַדְּבָרִים בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיִּשְׂאוּ כָל הָעָם אֶת קוֹלָם וַיִּבְכּוּ:
5. And behold, Saul came after the cattle from the field. And Saul said, "What is troubling the people, that they cry?" And they told him the words of the people of Jabesh.   ה. וְהִנֵּה שָׁאוּל בָּא אַחֲרֵי הַבָּקָר מִן הַשָּׂדֶה וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל מַה לָּעָם כִּי יִבְכּוּ וַיְסַפְּרוּ לוֹ אֶת דִּבְרֵי אַנְשֵׁי יָבֵישׁ:
after the cattle: after the appointed time that the cattle come in from the field.  
6. And a spirit of God passed over Saul when he heard these words, and his wrath was kindled greatly.   ו. וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים עַל שָׁאוּל כְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ מְאֹד:
7. And he took a yoke of oxen and cut them in pieces, and sent them throughout the entire border of Israel in the hand of the messengers, saying, "Whosoever does not go forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall be done to his oxen," and a fear from the Lord fell upon the people, and they went forth as one man.   ז. וַיִּקַּח צֶמֶד בָּקָר וַיְנַתְּחֵהוּ וַיְשַׁלַּח בְּכָל גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד הַמַּלְאָכִים | לֵאמֹר אֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנּוּ יֹצֵא אַחֲרֵי שָׁאוּל וְאַחַר שְׁמוּאֵל כֹּה יֵעָשֶֹה לִבְקָרוֹ וַיִּפֹּל פַּחַד יְהֹוָה עַל הָעָם וַיֵּצְאוּ כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד:
to his oxen: to his animals.  
8. And he counted them in Bezek, and the children of Israel were three hundred thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thousand.   ח. וַיִּפְקְדֵם בְּבָזֶק וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה שְׁלשִׁים אָלֶף:
And he counted them in Bezek: Our Rabbis said: (He counted them) with fragments of earthenware. (I. e., ‘bezek’ is a common noun, not the name of a place.) (Yoma 22b) (The following does not appear in certain editions of Rashi.) Another explanation is that ‘b’vezek’ means ‘with pebbles,’ i.e., he took a pebble from each one, and counted them, similar to “And he counted them with lambs” (infra 15:4), which means that he took a lamb from each one, and counted them therewith, just as they would count them with half shekels. In (Prov. 26: 8) “like a pebble for throwing in a slingshot,” the Targum uses the word ‘bizka.’ And in Midrash Yelam’denu (T. Ki Thissa 9, Buber 8) “And he counted them with lambs.” When they were poor, they were counted with pebbles; when they became rich, they were counted with lambs. Another explanation is that ‘bezek’ is the name of a place, mentioned (in Judges 1:5): “And they found Adoni-bezek in Bezek.”  
9. And they said to the messengers who had come, "So shall you say to the people of Jabesh-Gilead, 'Tomorrow, by the time the sun is hot, you will have deliverance.' " And the messengers came and told to the people of Jabesh, and they rejoiced.   ט. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לַמַּלְאָכִים הַבָּאִים כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לְאִישׁ יָבֵישׁ גִּלְעָד מָחָר תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם תְּשׁוּעָה כְּחֹם הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וַיָּבֹאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים וַיַּגִּידוּ לְאַנְשֵׁי יָבֵישׁ וַיִּשְׂמָחוּ:
10. And the people of Jabesh said, "Tomorrow we shall come out to you, and you may do to us all that is good in your eyes."   י. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אַנְשֵׁי יָבֵישׁ מָחָר נֵצֵא אֲלֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָּנוּ כְּכָל הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶם:
11. And it was on the morrow, that Saul put the people into three contingents, and they came into the midst of the camp during the morning watch, and they smote the Ammonites until the heat of the day. And it was, that those remaining, scattered, and no two of them remained together.   יא. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁאוּל אֶת הָעָם שְׁלשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיָּבֹאוּ בְתוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה בְּאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַבֹּקֶר וַיַּכּוּ אֶת עַמּוֹן עַד חֹם הַיּוֹם וַיְהִי הַנִּשְׁאָרִים וַיָּפֻצוּ וְלֹא נִשְׁאֲרוּ בָם שְׁנַיִם יָחַד:
12. And the people said to Samuel, "Whosoever says, 'Saul will reign over us?' give over the people and let us put them to death. "   יב. וַיֹּאמֶר הָעָם אֶל שְׁמוּאֵל מִי הָאֹמֵר שָׁאוּל יִמְלֹךְ עָלֵינוּ תְּנוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וּנְמִיתֵם:
Whosoever says: derisively, “Saul will reign over us?” give them over, and let us put them to death.  
will reign: as a question.  
13. And Saul said, "No man shall be put to death on this day, for today, the Lord has wrought deliverance in Israel."   יג. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לֹא יוּמַת אִישׁ בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי הַיּוֹם עָשָֹה יְהֹוָה תְּשׁוּעָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
14. And Samuel said to the people, "Come, and let us go to Gilgal, and renew there the kingdom."   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל הָעָם לְכוּ וְנֵלְכָה הַגִּלְגָּל וּנְחַדֵּשׁ שָׁם הַמְּלוּכָה:
And Samuel said, etc.,… and let us renew there the kingdom: Since previously, there was opposition in the matter, and now they were all agreeable.  
15. And all the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king before the Lord in Gilgal, and there they slaughtered peace-offerings before the Lord, and Saul and all the people rejoiced greatly.   טו. וַיֵּלְכוּ כָל הָעָם הַגִּלְגָּל וַיַּמְלִכוּ שָׁם אֶת שָׁאוּל לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה בַּגִּלְגָּל וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שָׁם זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה וַיִּשְׂמַח שָׁם שָׁאוּל וְכָל אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד מְאֹד:
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