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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 4

Shmuel I - I Samuel - Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

1And the word of Samuel was (fulfilled) to all Israel and Israel went out to war against the Philistines, and they encamped beside Ebenezer, and the Philistines encamped in Aphek.   אוַיְהִי דְבַר שְׁמוּאֵל לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּצֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל לִקְרַאת פְּלִשְׁתִּים לַמִּלְחָמָה וַיַּחֲנוּ עַל הָאֶבֶן הָעֵזֶר וּפְלִשְׁתִּים חָנוּ בַאֲפֵק:
And the word of Samuel was to all Israel, and Israel went out to war: I.e., the word which was said to Samuel, was fulfilled, and came to all Israel. Now, how did this misfortune (befall them)? And Israel went out to war against the Philistines.  
Ebenezer (The rock of help): This was not yet its name, for it was first called this (name) in Samuel’s time, but here the Scripture calls it by its future name.  
2And the Philistines arrayed (their troops) against Israel, and the battle spread, and Israel was beaten before the Philistines, and they slew in the battle array in the field, about four thousand men.   בוַיַּעַרְכוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים לִקְרַאת יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתִּטּשׁ הַמִּלְחָמָה וַיִּנָּגֶף יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּכּוּ בַמַּעֲרָכָה בַּשָּׂדֶה כְּאַרְבַּעַת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ:
and the battle spread: (Heb. ‘vatitosh’) similar to “and behold they were spread over the face of the earth” (Heb. ‘n’tushim’) (infra 30:16), “and they were scattered by the jaw bone,” (Heb. ‘vayinat’shu’) (Judges 15: 9).  
3And the people came to the camp, and the elders of Israel said, "Why has the Lord beaten us today before the Philistines? Let us take to us from Shiloh the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, and He will come in our midst, and save us from the hand of our enemies."   גוַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיֹּאמְרוּ זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָמָּה נְגָפָנוּ יְהֹוָה הַיּוֹם לִפְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים נִקְחָה אֵלֵינוּ מִשִּׁלֹה אֶת אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה וְיָבֹא בְקִרְבֵּנוּ וְישִׁעֵנוּ מִכַּף אֹיְבֵינוּ:
4And the people sent to Shiloh, and from there, they carried the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of Hosts, Who dwells above the cherubim, and there with the Ark of God's Covenant, were Eli's two sons, Hophni and Phinehas.   דוַיִּשְׁלַח הָעָם שִׁלֹה וַיִּשְׂאוּ מִשָּׁם אֵת אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת ישֵׁב הַכְּרֻבִים וְשָׁם שְׁנֵי בְנֵי עֵלִי עִם אֲרוֹן בְּרִית הָאֱלֹהִים חָפְנִי וּפִינְחָס:
5And it was, when the Ark of the Lord's Covenant came into the camp, that all Israel shouted a great shout, and the earth stirred.   הוַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרִעוּ כָל יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּרוּעָה גְדוֹלָה וַתֵּהֹם הָאָרֶץ:
6And the Philistines heard the sound of the shout, and they said, "What is the sound of this great shout in the camp of the Hebrews?" And they knew that the Ark of the Lord had come into the camp.   ווַיִּשְׁמְעוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים אֶת קוֹל הַתְּרוּעָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֶה קוֹל הַתְּרוּעָה הַגְּדוֹלָה הַזֹּאת בְּמַחֲנֵה הָעִבְרִים וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי אֲרוֹן יְהֹוָה בָּא אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה:
7And the Philistines feared, for they said, "God has come into the camp." And they said, "Woe is unto us, for there was nothing like this yesterday and before yesterday!"   זוַיִּרְאוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי אָמְרוּ בָּא אֱלֹהִים אֶל הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיֹּאמְרוּ אוֹי לָנוּ כִּי לֹא הָיְתָה כָּזֹאת אֶתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם:
8"Woe is unto us! Who will save us from the hand of this mighty God? This is the God who smote the Egyptians with every sort of plague in the wilderness."   חאוֹי לָנוּ מִי יַצִּילֵנוּ מִיַּד הָאֱלֹהִים הָאַדִּירִים הָאֵלֶּה אֵלֶּה הֵם הָאֱלֹהִים הַמַּכִּים אֶת מִצְרַיִם בְּכָל מַכָּה בַּמִּדְבָּר:
with every (sort of) plague in the wilderness:: By the Reed Sea. Jonathan, however, renders: (These are the mighty deeds of God, Who smote Egypt with every sort of plague,) and for His people He performed wonders in the wilderness. In Sifrei (Behaaloth’cha), we learned that this passage is a combination of statements. The worthy among them said, “Who will save us from the hand of this mighty God?” while the wicked among them retorted, “This is the God Who smote the Egyptians with every plague.” All the plagues which He had, He brought upon the Egyptians. Thenceforth, He has no plagues.  
9"Strengthen yourselves and become men, you Philistines, lest you serve the Hebrews, as they served you, and you shall become men, and fight!"   טהִתְחַזְּקוּ וִהְיוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן תַּעַבְדוּ לָעִבְרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ לָכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם לַאֲנָשִׁים וְנִלְחַמְתֶּם:
10And the Philistines waged war and Israel was beaten, and they fled, each man to his tents. Now the blow was very great, and there fell from Israel thirty thousand infantrymen.   יוַיִּלָּחֲמוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּנָּגֶף יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּנֻסוּ אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וַתְּהִי הַמַּכָּה גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד וַיִּפֹּל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שְׁלשִׁים אֶלֶף רַגְלִי:
11And the Ark of God was taken, and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, perished.   יאוַאֲרוֹן אֱלֹהִים נִלְקָח וּשְׁנֵי בְנֵי עֵלִי מֵתוּ חָפְנִי וּפִינְחָס:
12And a man of Benjamin ran from the battle array, and came to Shiloh on that day, with his garments torn, and earth upon his head.   יבוַיָּרָץ אִישׁ בִּנְיָמִן מֵהַמַּעֲרָכָה וַיָּבֹא שִׁלֹה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמַדָּיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל רֹאשׁוֹ:
And a man of Benjamin: This was Saul, who grabbed the tablets from the hands of Goliath and fled.  
13And he came, and behold, Eli was sitting on the chair beside the road, anxiously waiting, for his heart trembled for the Ark of God. And the man had come to tell in the city, and the whole city cried out.   יגוַיָּבוֹא וְהִנֵּה עֵלִי ישֵׁב עַל הַכִּסֵּא יַד (כתיב יַך) דֶּרֶךְ מְצַפֶּה כִּי הָיָה לִבּוֹ חָרֵד עַל אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וְהָאִישׁ בָּא לְהַגִּיד בָּעִיר וַתִּזְעַק כָּל הָעִיר:
beside the road: By the place of the road, he was anxiously waiting.  
14Now Eli heard the sound of the cry, and he said, "What is this confused noise?" And the man hurried, and came, and told Eli.   ידוַיִּשְׁמַע עֵלִי אֶת קוֹל הַצְּעָקָה וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה קוֹל הֶהָמוֹן הַזֶּה וְהָאִישׁ מִהַר וַיָּבֹא וַיַּגֵּד לְעֵלִי:
15Now Eli was ninety- eight years old, and his eyes were set, and he could not see.   טווְעֵלִי בֶּן תִּשְׁעִים וּשְׁמֹנֶה שָׁנָה וְעֵינָיו קָמָה וְלֹא יָכוֹל לִרְאוֹת:
16And the man said to Eli, "I am the one who has come from the battle array, and I fled from the battle array today." And he said, "What happened, my son?"   טזוַיֹּאמֶר הָאִישׁ אֶל עֵלִי אָנֹכִי הַבָּא מִן הַמַּעֲרָכָה וַאֲנִי מִן הַמַּעֲרָכָה נַסְתִּי הַיּוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה הָיָה הַדָּבָר בְּנִי:
17And the one who had reported the news, answered and said, "Israel fled before the Philistines, and also there was a great slaughter among the people, and also your two sons perished, Chofni and Pinchas and the Ark of God was taken."   יזוַיַּעַן הַמְבַשֵּׂר וַיֹּאמֶר נָס יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וְגַם מַגֵּפָה גְדוֹלָה הָיְתָה בָעָם וְגַם שְׁנֵי בָנֶיךָ מֵתוּ חָפְנִי וּפִינְחָס וַאֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים נִלְקָחָה:
18And it was, when he mentioned the Ark of God, that he (Eli) fell off the chair backward through the gate opening, and his neck broke and he died, because the man was old and weighty and he had judged Israel for forty years.   יחוַיְהִי כְּהַזְכִּירוֹ | אֶת אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּפֹּל מֵעַל הַכִּסֵּא אֲחֹרַנִּית בְּעַד | יַד הַשַּׁעַר וַתִּשָּׁבֵר מַפְרַקְתּוֹ וַיָּמֹת כִּי זָקֵן הָאִישׁ וְכָבֵד וְהוּא שָׁפַט אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה:
and his neck: (Heb. ‘mafrakto’) ‘targum mafrakuthei’ the bone of the neck.  
19And his daughter-in-law, Phinehas' wife, was with child, ready to give birth, and she heard the news concerning the taking of the Ark of God, and that her father-in-law and her husband had died. And she knelt and gave birth, for her pains had suddenly come upon her.   יטוְכַלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת פִּינְחָס הָרָה לָלַת וַתִּשְׁמַע אֶת הַשְּׁמוּעָה אֶל הִלָּקַח אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וּמֵת חָמִיהָ וְאִישָׁהּ וַתִּכְרַע וַתֵּלֶד כִּי נֶהֶפְכוּ עָלֶיהָ צִרֶיהָ:
was with child, ready to give birth: (Heb. ‘lolath.’) We are compelled (to agree) that the meaning of this word, is ‘to give birth,’ like ‘laledeth,’ although (the daleth is missing), and there is no similar form (in the Scriptures). Menahem, (however,) joined this (with other verb forms) in the section dealing with the word, ‘yelalah,’ wailing, because her birth pangs came upon her with wailing. The root of the word ‘yelalah,’ is the ‘lamed’ alone.  
had suddenly come upon her: They were unnatural, and that is why she died.  
her pains: (translation follows Metzudas Zion. Rashi, however, explains it as ‘hinges’;) i.e., the hinges of the doors of her womb, in French, charniere.  
20And about the time of her dying, the women who were standing by her, said, "Do not fear, for you have borne a son," and she did not answer, neither did she heed.   כוּכְעֵת מוּתָהּ וַתְּדַבֵּרְנָה הַנִּצָּבוֹת עָלֶיהָ אַל תִּירְאִי כִּי בֵן יָלָדְתְּ וְלֹא עָנְתָה וְלֹא שָׁתָה לִבָּהּ:
21And she called the child Ichabod, saying, "Glory has been exiled from Israel, because the Ark of God has been taken, and because of her father-in-law and her husband."   כאוַתִּקְרָא לַנַּעַר אִי כָבוֹד לֵאמֹר גָּלָה כָבוֹד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶל הִלָּקַח אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶל חָמִיהָ וְאִישָׁהּ:
Ichabod: There is no glory, like ‘ein kabod.’ Similarly (Job 22:30), He will save ‘i naki’ one who is not innocent, like ‘ein naki.’  
because the Ark of God has been taken: (Lit., to the being taken of the Ark of God.) Like “because of the being taken of the Ark of God,” but it is unnecessary to remove it from the expression of ‘to’ for the one who understands its meaning.  
because the Ark of God was taken: In French, “envers l’etre pris,” (concerning the being taken).  
and because of her father-in-law: and because of this misfortune that her father- in-law and husband had perished.  
22And she said, "Glory has been exiled from Israel, for the Ark of God has been taken."   כבוַתֹּאמֶר גָּלָה כָבוֹד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נִלְקַח אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים:
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