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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shoftim - Judges - Chapter 5

Shoftim - Judges - Chapter 5

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 5

1. Now Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam sang on that day, saying.   א. וַתָּשַׁר דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק בֶּן אֲבִינֹעַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר:
2. "When breaches are made in Israel, when the people offer themselves willingly, bless the Lord.   ב. בִּפְרֹעַ פְּרָעוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהִתְנַדֵּב עָם בָּרְכוּ יְהֹוָה:
When breaches are made in Israel, when the people offer themselves willingly: When breaches come upon Israel, for their enemies made breaches in them because they forsook their God and the masses feel motivated to repent, as of now it is proper to bless God (out of thankfulness) for the salvation He has wrought.  
3. Hear, O kings, give ear, O princes; I, to the Lord I shall sing, I shall sing to the Lord, the God of Israel.   ג. שִׁמְעוּ מְלָכִים הַאֲזִינוּ רֹזְנִים אָנֹכִי לַיהֹוָה אָנֹכִי אָשִׁירָה אֲזַמֵּר לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
אָנֹכִי אָנֹכִי: This word is repeated. I have heard an Aggadic interpretation: The Holy One did not rob (by withholding) the reward of Mount Tabor and Mount Carmel who arrived at the giving of the Torah, expecting it to be given upon them, and turned away in shame. The Holy One said to them, “I will pay you double fold. It was said at Sinai, (Ex. 20:2) ‘(אָנֹכִי) I am the Lord your God,’ at Tabor it will be said, ‘I… I…’ (אָנֹכִי אָנֹכִי). It was said at Sinai, ‘I am the Lord your God (ה׳ אֱלֹקֶי),’ at Carmel it will be said twice, (I Kings 18:39) ‘The Lord He is God, the Lord He is God (ה׳ הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים)’ in the days of Elijah.”  
4. Lord, when You went forth out of Seir, when You marched out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dripped; also the clouds dripped water.   ד. יְהֹוָה בְּצֵאתְךָ מִשֵּׂעִיר בְּצַעְדְּךָ מִשְּׂדֵה אֱדוֹם אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה גַּם שָׁמַיִם נָטָפוּ גַּם עָבִים נָטְפוּ מָיִם:
Lord, when You went forth out of Seir: This refers to the giving of the Torah as it says, “And He appeared to them from Seir” (Deut. 33:2). The relation here is that thus said Deborah: “The Torah is detrimental to forsake and rewarding to cling to it for amidst awe and might it was given. Therefore Israel was delivered into the hands of their adversaries because they forsook it, but when they decided to engage in it they were saved.” This can be derived from Targum Jonathan’s translation. נָטְפוּ - Dripped a life sustaining dew.  
5. The mountains melted at the presence of the Lord, this (was at) Sinai, because of the presence of the Lord, the God of Israel.   ה. הָרִים נָזְלוּ מִפְּנֵי יְהֹוָה זֶה סִינַי מִפְּנֵי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
The mountains melted: (Heb. נָזְלוּ) Like flowing water (נוֹזְלִים) they melted away.  
this (was at) Sinai: It is already stated what appeared there. (See Ex. 19:16 19, 20:15.) It was completely in smoke and amidst thunder, torches, and fire.  
because of the presence of the Lord: This is an abbreviated verse: This was at Sinai; that which occurred there was because God descended upon it.  
6. In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, caravans ceased, and travellers walked on crooked paths.   ו. בִּימֵי שַׁמְגַּר בֶּן עֲנָת בִּימֵי יָעֵל חָדְלוּ אֳרָחוֹת וְהֹלְכֵי נְתִיבוֹת יֵלְכוּ אֳרָחוֹת עֲקַלְקַלּוֹת:
In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael: (Since they are equated,) This teaches us that Jael also judged Israel in her days.  
caravans ceased: Israel was afraid to travel because of the enemy, hence they followed winding roads in secrecy.  
7. The open cities ceased, in Israel they ceased, until I Deborah arose; I arose as a mother in Israel.   ז. חָדְלוּ פְרָזוֹן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל חָדֵלּוּ עַד שַׁקַּמְתִּי דְּבוֹרָה שַׁקַּמְתִּי אֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
The open cities ceased: Heb. פְרָזוֹן. Open cities (פְּרָזִי), without walls, ceased to be inhabited because of the enemies, and they gathered into the fortified cities.  
until I (Deborah) arose: Heb. שַׁקַּמְתִּי. Interpreted as שֶׁקַּמְתִּי as below (6:17) “שָׁאַתָּה מְדַבֵּר עִמִּי” (That you are speaking with me, understood as שֶׁאַתָּה.)  
8. When they chose new gods, then there was war in the cities; was there seen a shield or a spear (when the) forty thousand (went against) Israel?   ח. יִבְחַר אֱלֹהִים חֲדָשִׁים אָז לָחֶם שְׁעָרִים מָגֵן אִם יֵרָאֶה וָרֹמַח בְּאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
When they chose new gods then there was war in the cities: When Israel chose new gods (cf. Deut. 32:17), they were then subject to war within their cities. However, look now when they were willing, will there be seen among Israel a shield or a spear to use in battle against the 40,000 generals the heathens brought upon them. The Almighty confused all of them in the battle with the stars, and the brook of Kishon raked them away.  
cities: (שְׁעָרִים is usually interpreted as gates, however, here it means cities,) as in (Deut. 17:2), “When it will be found among you, within one of your cities” (שְׁעָרֶי).  
9. My heart is toward the lawgivers of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people, (saying,) 'Bless the Lord.'   ט. לִבִּי לְחוֹקְקֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּתְנַדְּבִים בָּעָם בָּרֲכוּ יְהֹוָה:
My heart…: I, Deborah, (my heart) is out to the lawgivers of Israel; to love the wise men of Israel who volunteered to tell the people, “Bless the Lord and return to Him.”  
10. The riders of white donkeys, those that sit in judgment, and those that walk on the path, tell of it.   י. רֹכְבֵי אֲתֹנוֹת צְחֹרוֹת ישְׁבֵי עַל מִדִּין וְהֹלְכֵי עַל דֶּרֶךְ שִֹיחוּ:
The riders of white donkeys: The merchants and nobles who may now ride on the precious white donkeys without fear or worry of the heathens, and those that sit in judgment (מִדִּין is an expression of דַיָּינִים, judges), who were afraid to practice justice publicly, and those that travel on foot, recite and tell of this salvation; (v. 11) that instead of the noise of your adversaries, the ambushers, bandits, and tax collectors who banded together to ambush at the water crossings, there the donkey riders and wayfarers will recite the righteous deeds of the Lord. What are His righteous deeds? Deeds of restoring open cities for Israel, for He granted tranquility to Israel to dwell in open cities and go about scattered, singly, without massing together as a group. Then… went down to the cities They now returned to their home cities whence they had fled to gather in the fortified cities.  
11. Instead of the noise of adversaries, between the places of drawing water, there they will tell the righteous acts of the Lord, the righteous acts of restoring open cities in Israel. Then the people of the Lord went down to the cities.   יא. מִקּוֹל מְחַצְצִים בֵּין מַשְׁאַבִּים שָׁם יְתַנּוּ צִדְקוֹת יְהֹוָה צִדְקֹת פִּרְזֹנוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אָז יָרְדוּ לַשְּׁעָרִים עַם יְהֹוָה:
adversaries: Heb. מְחַצְצִים. Menachem (ben Seruk, a Hebrew Grammarian,) interprets, “those that wage war and array battles,” therefore he classifies this along with, (Prov. 30:27) “The locusts have no king, yet they march (חֹצֵץ) together;” an expression of “troops”. Another interpretation is מַשְׁאַבִּים מִקּוֹל מְחַצְצִים בֵּין, When you went to the river to draw water, you feared the sound of the pebbles smoothened by the river, Kiesels in German (cailloux in French is of Celtic origin), for their sound is heard when one passes over them, and you feared being detected by the heathens. However, now you do not have to worry about this. Therefore, it is incumbent upon you to give thanks to His name. מְחַצְצִים (is then) an expression of “pebbles smoothened by the river,” as in (Lam. 3:16) “and he broke with the stones (בֶחָצָץ) my teeth.”  
12. Praise! Praise! Deborah. Praise! Praise! Utter a song. Arise Barak, and capture your captives, son of Abinoam.   יב. עוּרִי עוּרִי דְּבוֹרָה עוּרִי עוּרִי דַּבְּרִי שִׁיר קוּם בָּרָק וּשֲׁבֵה שֶׁבְיְךָ בֶּן אֲבִינֹעַם:
Praise! Praise! Deborah: (עוּרִי is) An expression of praise, as in its plain meaning: Become firm in your praise. But our Rabbis said, because she praised herself by saying (v. 7) “Until I Deborah arose,” the Divine spirit left her (therefore she had to arouse (עוֹרֵר) it).  
13. Then ruled a remnant among the mighty of the nations; the Lord dominated the strong for me.   יג. אָז יְרַד שָׂרִיד לְאַדִּירִים עָם יְהֹוָה יְרַד לִי בַּגִּבּוֹרִים:
Then ruled a remnant among the mighty: יְרַד = ירדה meaning “ruled,” as in (Isaiah 45:1) “Who rules (לְרַד) nations before Him.” The remnants of Israel ruled over the mighty (אַדִּירֵי) gentiles.  
the Lord dominated the strong for me: He gave me dominion (יְרַד לִי) over the mighty of the gentiles.  
14. Out of Ephraim, whose root was against Amalek; after you (will be) Benjamin with your abaters; out of Machir came down officers, and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the scribe.   יד. מִנִּי אֶפְרַיִם שָׁרְשָׁם בַּעֲמָלֵק אַחֲרֶיךָ בִנְיָמִין בַּעֲמָמֶיךָ מִנִּי מָכִיר יָרְדוּ מְחֹקְקִים וּמִזְּבוּלֻן מֹשְׁכִים בְּשֵׁבֶט סֹפֵר:
Out of Ephraim: From Ephraim issued the root (שׁוֹרֶשׁ, referring to Joshua the son of Nun (their prince), to subdue Amalek and weaken him by the sword (Ex. 17:13). This verse is connected to the previous one and explains: The Lord dominated the strong for me by establishing Joshua to subdue Amalek.  
after you: Will arise from the tribe of Benjamin, Saul the son of Kish who will stone him and slacken (עֲמָם) him like dying (עוֹמְמוֹת) embers. We can (also) interpret בַּעֲמָמֶי referring to the army of 200,000 soldiers with which Saul came upon them (I Sam. 15:4).  
Out of Machir came down officers: Outstanding officers who conquered the Amorites. This refers to those who captured sixty cities, the whole royal stretch conquered under Jair (of Menasseh See Deut. 3: 4, 14).  
15. And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah, as was Issachar with Barak; into the valley they rushed forth with their feet. (But) among the divisions of Reuben, (there were) great resolves of heart.   טו. וְשָׂרַי בְּיִשָּׂשׂכָר עִם דְּבֹרָה וְיִשָּׂשׂכָר כֵּן בָּרָק בָּעֵמֶק שֻׁלַּח בְּרַגְלָיו בִּפְלַגּוֹת רְאוּבֵן גְּדֹלִים חִקְקֵי לֵב:
And the princes of Issachar: The princes of Issachar are the Sanhedrin who were occupied in Torah and “knew how to treat the times” (I Chron. 12:32). They are always (cooperating) with Deborah to teach Israel statutes and laws.  
And the princes of Issachar: Heb. שָׂרַי. The “yud” is inconsequential and does not serve any purpose, as the “yud” in (Ps. 8:8) “the cattle of the field (שָׂדַי)” ; (Jer. 22: 14) “Expand the windows (חַלּוֹנָי).”  
as was Issachar with Barak: (The princes) And the rest of the people of Issachar are faithful to Barak in all that he will instruct.  
into the valley they rushed forth with their feet: He sent them for all his errands; to gather the people and for all the needs of war.  
(But) among the divisions of Reuben: But in the divisions of Reuben’s heart were vast חִקְקֵי לֵב, (which Targum Jonathan renders) נִכְלֵי לִיבָּא i.e., shrewdness. And what was his shrewdness? He dwelt by the edges (מִשִׂפְתֵי) of the battle to hear who would win so that he should join with him.  
16. Why do you sit between the borders, to hear the bleatings of the flocks? At the divisions of Reuben, (there are) great searchings of heart.   טז. לָמָּה יָשַׁבְתָּ בֵּין הַמִּשְׁפְּתַיִם לִשְׁמֹעַ שְׁרִקוֹת עֲדָרִים לִפְלַגּוֹת רְאוּבֵן גְּדוֹלִים חִקְרֵי לֵב:
the bleatings of the flocks: To hear the sound of the flocks in battle; to whom is the sound of victory and to whom is the sound of defeat.  
17. Gilead abides beyond the Jordan; and Dan, why does he gather into the ships? Asher dwelt at the shore of the seas, and by his breaches he abides.   יז. גִּלְעָד בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁכֵן וְדָן לָמָּה יָגוּר אֳנִיּוֹת אָשֵׁר יָשַׁב לְחוֹף יַמִּים וְעַל מִפְרָצָיו יִשְׁכּוֹן:
abides beyond the Jordan: And he did not come to the battle, and likewise Dan gathered his wealth into ships to be prepared to escape.  
and by his breaches: To watch the vulnerable parts of his land.  
18. Zebulun is a people that jeopardized their lives to die, as did Naphtali, upon the high places of the field.   יח. זְבֻלוּן עַם חֵרֵף נַפְשׁוֹ לָמוּת וְנַפְתָּלִי עַל מְרוֹמֵי שָׂדֶה:
Zebulun is a people that jeopardized…: He scorned himself and submitted himself to die in battle with Barak, and likewise Naphtali on the high places of the field, on Mount Tabor.  
19. The kings came and fought; then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of money.   יט. בָּאוּ מְלָכִים נִלְחָמוּ אָז נִלְחֲמוּ מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן בְּתַעְנַךְ עַל מֵי מְגִדּוֹ בֶּצַע כֶּסֶף לֹא לָקָחוּ:
in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo: Jonathan renders: In Taanach they dwelt and reached until the waters of Megiddo. The edge of the camp was in Taanach and it reached until the waters of Megiddo.  
they took no gain of money: Without payment they came to aid Sisera, they asked no reward.  
20. From heaven they fought; the stars from their courses fought against Sisera.   כ. מִן שָׁמַיִם נִלְחָמוּ הַכּוֹכָבִים מִמְּסִלּוֹתָם נִלְחֲמוּ עִם סִיסְרָא:
From heaven they fought: (As they sought no gain,) likewise the Holy One sent against them His hosts who do not desire any reward.  
from their courses: The tip of the star being in heaven and its edge upon earth (see following verses). From here it was said: The thickness of the firmament is equivalent to the space between heaven and earth, since the star is inserted in the firmament like a bolt into a door (this refers to an old fashioned bolt which went through the thickness of the door), i.e., the size of its length equaling the thickness of the firmament. Thus from this verse, which attests that from their courses they fought, we derive that the thickness of the firmament is equal to the height between heaven and earth.  
21. The brook Kishon swept them away, that ancient brook, the brook Kishon; tread down, O my soul, (their) strength.   כא. נַחַל קִישׁוֹן גְּרָפָם נַחַל קְדוּמִים נַחַל קִישׁוֹן תִּדְרְכִי נַפְשִׁי עֹז:
swept them away: Heb. גְּרָפָם. It swept them from the world like a rake (מַגְרֵפָה) that rakes ashes from an oven.  
that ancient brook: It became a guarantor to the sea concerning this from the days of Egypt as it is stated in Pesachim (118b).  
tread down, O my soul: By using my feet upon the strength (עוֹז) of the mighty of Canaan.  
22. Then were pounded the heels of the horses by reason of the prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones.   כב. אָז הָלְמוּ עִקְּבֵי סוּס מִדַּהֲרוֹת דַּהֲרוֹת אַבִּירָיו:
were pounded the heels of the horses: The hoofs of their horses slipped off because the heat of the star would boil the mud and the nail would slip off, as one scalds the feet in boiling water and the hoofs would slip off. And since they slipped off, the feet were stricken (הָלְמוּ) (Mechilta Ex. 14:24).  
by reason of the prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones: They would cause their horses to prance in war as in (Nachum 3:2) “And a horse prancing” (דוֹהֵר). This is an expression of the prancing of a horse.  
23. 'Curse you Meroz,' said the messenger of the Lord, 'curse you bitterly (you) inhabitants thereof,' because they came not to the aid of the Lord, to the aid of the Lord against the mighty.   כג. אוֹרוּ מֵרוֹז אָמַר מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֹרוּ אָרוֹר יֹשְׁבֶיהָ כִּי לֹא בָאוּ לְעֶזְרַת יְהֹוָה לְעֶזְרַת יְהֹוָה בַּגִּבּוֹרִים:
“Curse you Meroz,”: Some say it was a star and some say he was a prominent person who was near the battle area and yet did not come.  
said the messenger of the Lord: Said Barak as an agent of the Holy One.  
the inhabitants thereof: Those that dwell within his four cubits. With (the blast of) four hundred horns, Barak excommunicated Meroz.  
to the aid of the Lord: Speaking as though it could be done, for he who aids Israel is as if he is aiding the Divine Presence.  
24. Blessed above women shall Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, be; above women in the tent shall she be blessed.   כד. תְּבֹרַךְ מִנָּשִׁים יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי מִנָּשִׁים בָּאֹהֶל תְּבֹרָךְ:
above women in the tent: Heb. אֹהֶל. Referring to Sarah of whom it is said, (Gen. 18:9) “She is in the tent,” Rebecca of whom it is said, (ibid. 24:67) “And Isaac brought her into the tent,” and Rachel and Leah of whom it is said, (ibid 31:33) “And he went out of Leah’s tent and he entered Rachel’s tent”.  
above women in the tent shall she be blessed: (Referring to) Jael, because they bore and raised children, but if not Jael, this evil one (i.e., Sisera) would have come and destroyed them. So it states in Genesis Rabbah 48. Another interpretation is that Jael also dwelt in tents (above 4:18), therefore she was mentioned in the blessing of tents.  
25. Water he requested, (but) milk she gave him: in a lordly bowl she brought him cream.   כה. מַיִם שָׁאַל חָלָב נָתָנָה בְּסֵפֶל אַדִּירִים הִקְרִיבָה חֶמְאָה:
(but) milk she gave him: To test his state of consciousness, if he could discern between the taste of water and the taste of milk. So does Targum Jonathan paraphrase.  
in a lordly bowl: Heb. אַדִּירִים. In a vessel that one drinks water, since water is called “mighty” (or lordly i. e., אַדִּירִים), as it says, (Ex. 15:10) “In the mighty (אַדִּירִים) waters”.  
26. She put forth her hand to the pin, and her right hand to strike the weary; she struck Sisera, pierced his head, and wounded and penetrated his temple.   כו. יָדָהּ לַיָּתֵד תִּשְׁלַחְנָה וִימִינָהּ לְהַלְמוּת עֲמֵלִים וְהָלְמָה סִיסְרָא מָחֲקָה רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָחֲצָה וְחָלְפָה רַקָּתוֹ:
to strike the weary: Heb. עֲמֵלִים. Referring to Sisera who was exhausted (עָמֵל) and tired.  
(she) pierced: Heb. מָחֲקָה. An expression of piercing (חִיקוּי).  
and (she) wounded: Heb. מָחֲצָה. An expression of wounding (מַחַץ).  
and penetrated: Heb. חָלְפָה means “she made pass through” referring to the pin which pierced his head) coming out on the other side.  
27. At her feet he sank, fell, lay; at her feet he sank (and) fell; where he sank, there he fell down dead.   כז. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד:
28. Through the window the mother of Sisera looked forth, and peered through the window; why is his chariot late in coming? Why tarry the strides of his chariots?   כח. בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן נִשְׁקְפָה וַתְּיַבֵּב אֵם סִיסְרָא בְּעַד הָאֶשְׁנָב מַדּוּעַ בֹּשֵׁשׁ רִכְבּוֹ לָבוֹא מַדּוּעַ אֶחֱרוּ פַּעֲמֵי מַרְכְּבוֹתָיו:
and peered: Heb. וַתְּיַבֵּב. An expression of speaking, as in (Isa. 57:19) “The speech (נִיב) of the lips.” But our Rabbis explained (Rosh Hashanah 33b) מְיַבֵּב as an expression of wailing, as in (Num. 29:1), “Of wailing” (תְּרוּעָה) which is rendered יַבָּבָא. However, I say it is an expression of looking, as in, (Zach. 2:12) “The pupil (בָבַת) of his eye,” and so has Menachem classified it. הָאֶשְׁנָב, the window.  
29. The wisest of her princesses answer her, she too returns answers to herself.   כט. חַכְמוֹת שָׂרוֹתֶיהָ תַּעֲנֶינָּה אַף הִיא תָּשִׁיב אֲמָרֶיהָ לָהּ:
The wisest of her princesses answer her: Heb. חַכְמוֹת is interpreted as “the wise of her princesses” (an adjective in the constructive form), therefore the “Heth” is vocalized with a “patach” (“ah” sounding vowel). חָכְמוֹת as a noun is vocalized “hatof kamatz” (an “aw” sound), as in (Prov. 24:7) “Wisdom (חָכְמוֹת) to a fool is like a rare jewel.” However, this form is vocalized חַכְמוֹת and similarly, (Prov. 14:1) “The wise (חַכְמוֹת) of the women establish their house.”  
answer her: The dot in the (second) “nun” replaces the third “nun” (which would be needed to replace the word “her”). It thus means “they answer her.” The dot of a “nun” replaces the word “her” as in (Lev. 6:14) “Scalded he shall bring it,” (lit., her) (תְּבִיאֶנָּה).  
she too returns answers: (Of) Consolation to herself saying: Why am I wondering about my son’s delay? (Are they not, etc.)  
30. 'Are they not finding (and) dividing the spoils? A damsel, two damsels to every man; a spoil of dyed garments to Sisera, a spoil of dyed garments of embroidery; dyed garments of embroidery for the neck of the spoiler.'   ל. הֲלֹא יִמְצְאוּ יְחַלְּקוּ שָׁלָל רַחַם רַחֲמָתַיִם לְרֹאשׁ גֶּבֶר שְׁלַל צְבָעִים לְסִיסְרָא שְׁלַל צְבָעִים רִקְמָה צֶבַע רִקְמָתַיִם לְצַוְּארֵי שָׁלָל:
Are they not finding (and) dividing the spoils?: And that is delaying them.  
two damsels to every man: They are ravishing the pretty women of Israel and every one of the men has two or three women in his bed.  
31. So may perish all Your enemies, O Lord; but they that love Him (should be) as the sun when he goes forth in his might." And the land rested forty years.   לא. כֵּן יֹאבְדוּ כָל אוֹיְבֶיךָ יְהֹוָה וְאֹהֲבָיו כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָתוֹ וַתִּשְׁקֹט הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה:
So may perish: Deborah said, “This is for her a vain consolation, for so may perish all your enemies, O Lord, as he was destroyed.”  
but they that love Him (should be) as the sun when he goes forth in his might: Which will occur in the coming future seven times seven the light of all the seven days of creation which is 343 times as much (as one day). This equals the sum of forty nine times seven. [Tanchuma].  
And the land rested: These are not Deborah’s words, but rather the words of the writer of this book.  
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