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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Shoftim - Judges - Chapter 1

Shoftim - Judges - Chapter 1

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 1

1. And it was after the death of Joshua, that the children of Israel asked of the Lord, saying, "Who shall go up for us first against the Canaanites, to fight against them?"   א. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּיהֹוָה לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה לָּנוּ אֶל הַכְּנַעֲנִי בַּתְּחִלָּה לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ:
Who shall go up for us first against the Canaanites: To the places for which we cast lots but were not yet conquered.  
2. And the Lord said, Judah shall go up; behold I have given the land into his hand.   ב. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה יְהוּדָה יַעֲלֶה הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי אֶת הָאָרֶץ בְּיָדוֹ:
Judah shall go up: The tribe of Judah shall go up first to conquer its portion.  
3. And Judah said to Simeon his brother, "Come up with me into my lot, and we will fight against the Canaanites, and I will also go with you into your lot. " And Simeon went with him.   ג. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְשִׁמְעוֹן אָחִיו עֲלֵה אִתִּי בְגוֹרָלִי וְנִלָּחֲמָה בַּכְּנַעֲנִי וְהָלַכְתִּי גַם אֲנִי אִתְּךָ בְּגוֹרָלֶךָ וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן:
to Simeon his brother: i.e., To the tribe of Simeon.  
Come up with me into my lot: Come up with me and help me conquer that which fell as my portion. Some interpret “Judah shall go up” referring to Othniel, being Yabetz, of whom we say in Tractate Temura (16a), “Judah, the brother of Simeon, is his name,” and Simeon, his brother, he asked to go with him.  
4. And Judah went up; and the Lord gave the Canaanites and the Perizzites into their hands; and they smote them in Bezek, ten thousand men.   ד. וַיַּעַל יְהוּדָה וַיִּתֵּן יְהֹוָה אֶת הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי בְּיָדָם וַיַּכּוּם בְּבֶזֶק עֲשֶֹרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ:
in Bezek: This is the name of the place.  
5. And they found Adoni- bezek in Bezek and fought with him: and they smote the Canaanites and the Perizzites.   ה. וַיִּמְצְאוּ אֶת אֲדֹנִי בֶזֶק בְּבֶזֶק וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ בּוֹ וַיַּכּוּ אֶת הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְאֶת הַפְּרִזִּי:
6. And Adoni-bezek fled, and they pursued him: and they caught him and cut off his thumbs and his great toes.   ו. וַיָּנָס אֲדֹנִי בֶזֶק וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אַחֲרָיו וַיֹּאחֲזוּ אֹתוֹ וַיְקַצְּצוּ אֶת בְּהֹנוֹת יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו:
7. And Adoni-bezek said, "Seventy kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, gathered (food) under my table; as I have done, so has God punished me." And they brought him to Jerusalem, and he died there.   ז. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנִי בֶזֶק שִׁבְעִים | מְלָכִים בְּהֹנוֹת יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם מְקֻצָּצִים הָיוּ מְלַקְּטִים תַּחַת שֻׁלְחָנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִֹיתִי כֵּן שִׁלַּם לִי אֱלֹהִים וַיְבִיאֻהוּ יְרוּשָׁלַםִ וַיָּמָת שָׁם:
Seventy kings…: From here you can learn [the extent of] the greatness and wealth of the kings of Canaan [mentioned in Josh. 12:7 24] since Adoni bezek was not even worthy of being counted among the kings of Canaan and [yet] it is so written of him [Sifre Deut. 33: 17].  
And they brought him to Jerusalem: They went from there to wage war against Jerusalem.  
8. And the children of Judah fought against Jerusalem and captured it, and smote it with the edge of the sword; and set the city on fire.   ח. וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ בְנֵי יְהוּדָה בִּירוּשָׁלַםִ וַיִּלְכְּדוּ אוֹתָהּ וַיַּכּוּהָ לְפִי חָרֶב וְאֶת הָעִיר שִׁלְּחוּ בָאֵשׁ:
set the city on fire: They set a fire throughout all of it.  
9. And afterward the children of Judah went down to fight against the Canaanites; the inhabitants of the mountains, of the South, and of the lowland.   ט. וְאַחַר יָרְדוּ בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה לְהִלָּחֵם בַּכְּנַעֲנִי יוֹשֵׁב הָהָר וְהַנֶּגֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָה:
10. And Judah went to the Canaanites that dwelt in Hebron-Now the name of Hebron formerly had been Kirjath-arba-and they smote Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai.   י. וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוּדָה אֶל הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶבְרוֹן וְשֵׁם חֶבְרוֹן לְפָנִים קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע וַיַּכּוּ אֶת שֵׁשַׁי וְאֶת אֲחִימַן וְאֶת תַּלְמָי:
11. And from there he went to the inhabitants of Debir-Now the name of Debir formerly had been Kirjath-sepher.   יא. וַיֵּלֶךְ מִשָּׁם אֶל יוֹשְׁבֵי דְּבִיר וְשֵׁם דְּבִיר לְפָנִים קִרְיַת סֵפֶר:
12. And Caleb said, "He that shall smite Kirjath-sepher and capture it; to him will I give Achsah my daughter for a wife."   יב. וַיֹּאמֶר כָּלֵב אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּה אֶת קִרְיַת סֵפֶר וּלְכָדָהּ וְנָתַתִּי לוֹ אֶת עַכְסָה בִתִּי לְאִשָּׁה:
13. And Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother, captured it; and he gave him Achsah his daughter for a wife.   יג. וַיִּלְכְּדָהּ עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן קְנַז אֲחִי כָלֵב הַקָּטֹן מִמֶּנּוּ וַיִּתֶּן לוֹ אֶת עַכְסָה בִתּוֹ לְאִשָּׁה:
Caleb’s [younger] brother: From his mother.  
14. And it was when she came to him, that she persuaded him to ask of her father the field, and she leaned off the donkey. And Caleb said to her, "What is (wanting) to you?"   יד. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָהּ וַתְּסִיתֵהוּ לִשְׁאוֹל מֵאֵת אָבִיהָ הַשָּׂדֶה וַתִּצְנַח מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ כָּלֵב מַה לָּךְ:
that she persuaded him: Targum Jonathan renders, וְאַמְלַכְתֵּיהּ, an expression of convincing, that you counsel a person and persuade him in a certain way. So it appears to me.  
and she leaned: Targum Jonathan renders וְאִתְרְכִינַת, she bent over to fall at her father’s feet.  
15. And she said to him, "Give me a blessing, for you have given me dry land; and you should give me springs of water." And Caleb gave her the upper springs and the lower springs.   טו. וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ הָבָה לִּי בְרָכָה כִּי אֶרֶץ הַנֶּגֶב נְתַתָּנִי וְנָתַתָּה לִי גֻּלֹּת מָיִם וַיִּתֶּן לָהּ כָּלֵב אֵת גֻּלֹּת עִלִּית וְאֵת גֻּלֹּת תַּחְתִּית:
dry land: I.e., A person whose house is arid [devoid] of all earthly good, who has nothing but Torah.  
springs of water: A rain [or, naturally] sustained field, as Targum Jonathan renders אֲתַר בֵּית שַׁקְיָא דְמַיָא [an adequately watered place].  
16. And the children of Keni, the father-in-law of Moses, went up from the city of date palms, with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah, which is south of Arad; and he went and dwelt with the people.   טז. וּבְנֵי קֵינִי חֹתֵן משֶׁה עָלוּ מֵעִיר הַתְּמָרִים אֶת בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר בְּנֶגֶב עֲרָד וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיֵּשֶׁב אֶת הָעָם:
from the city of date palms: That is Jericho. They were given the fat pasture grounds of Jericho to eat until the Temple would be built. The one in whose portion the Temple was to be built would take this [instead], so that all Israel could have a portion in the Temple [i.e., so that the Temple would not be built upon the private property of any particular tribe]. It was given to the children of Jethro for four hundred forty years [until the Temple was built], during which the students among them left it and went to Othniel the son of Kenaz, who is Jabetz, in the desert of Judah, which is in the south of Arad, to study Torah.  
and dwelt with the people: With the students who sat before him. He asked of God to provide for him proper students, as it says, [I Chron. 4:10] “And Jabetz called to God, etc.” And He provided for him these pious people.  
17. And Judah went with Simeon his brother, and they smote the Canaanites that inhabited Safed; and they destroyed it, and called the name of the city, Chormah.   יז. וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוּדָה אֶת שִׁמְעוֹן אָחִיו וַיַּכּוּ אֶת הַכְּנַעֲנִי יוֹשֵׁב צְפַת וַיַּחֲרִימוּ אוֹתָהּ וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שֵׁם הָעִיר חָרְמָה:
18. And Judah captured Gaza with its territory, and Ashkelon with its territory, and Ekron with its territory.   יח. וַיִּלְכֹּד יְהוּדָה אֶת עַזָּה וְאֶת גְּבוּלָהּ וְאֶת אַשְׁקְלוֹן וְאֶת גְּבוּלָהּ וְאֶת עֶקְרוֹן וְאֶת גְּבוּלָהּ:
19. And the Lord was with Judah, and they drove out the inhabitants of the mountains; but they could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, for they had iron chariots.   יט. וַיְהִי יְהֹוָה אֶת יְהוּדָה וַיֹּרֶשׁ אֶת הָהָר כִּי לֹא לְהוֹרִישׁ אֶת ישְׁבֵי הָעֵמֶק כִּי רֶכֶב בַּרְזֶל לָהֶם:
but they could not drive out: Targum Jonathan paraphrases: But after they had sinned, they were unable to drive out the inhabitants of the plain.  
20. And they gave Hebron to Caleb, as Moses had spoken; and he drove out from there the three sons of the giant.   כ. וַיִּתְּנוּ לְכָלֵב אֶת חֶבְרוֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר משֶׁה וַיּוֹרֶשׁ מִשָּׁם אֶת שְׁלשָׁה בְּנֵי הָעֲנָק:
21. And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem; and the Jebusites dwelt with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem until this day.   כא. וְאֶת הַיְבוּסִי ישֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלַםִ לֹא הוֹרִישׁוּ בְּנֵי בִנְיָמִן וַיֵּשֶׁב הַיְבוּסִי אֶת בְּנֵי בִנְיָמִן בִּירוּשָׁלַםִ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem: There was a section in Jerusalem called Jebuse, which was populated by the descendants of Abimelech who were not driven out because of the oath [which Abraham had sworn], until the coming of David. This was because his grandson was still alive and Abraham had sworn [Gen. 21:23] to him, his son, and grandson.  
22. And the house of Joseph, they also went up to Beth-El; and the Lord was with them.   כב. וַיַּעֲלוּ בֵית יוֹסֵף גַּם הֵם בֵּית אֵל וַיהֹוָה עִמָּם:
Beth-El: Which fell to their lot. Although the idol of Micah was with them, since Micah was from the tribe of Ephraim, it nevertheless states here, “the Lord was with them.” That is what Daniel said, [Daniel 9: 7] “To You, Lord, there is charity, and to us there is shame of face.”  
23. And the house of Joseph caused to spy Beth-El. Now the name of the city formerly was Luz.   כג. וַיָּתִירוּ בֵית יוֹסֵף בְּבֵית אֵל וְשֵׁם הָעִיר לְפָנִים לוּז:
caused to spy: Through others, as Targum Jonathan renders וּשְׁלַחוּ מְאַלְלִין [and they sent spies]. [Num. 13:21] וַיָּתֻרוּ, “And they spied the land,” is said of the spies themselves, and of those that sent spies it is said, וַיַּתִּירוּ [“caused to spy”].  
24. And the watchers saw a man leave the city. And they said to him, "Show us now the entrance to the city and we will deal kindly with you."   כד. וַיִּרְאוּ הַשֹּׁמְרִים אִישׁ יוֹצֵא מִן הָעִיר וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ הַרְאֵנוּ נָא אֶת מְבוֹא הָעִיר וְעָשִֹינוּ עִמְּךָ חָסֶד:
the entrance to the city: They entered the city through a cave over which one hazelnut bush (לוּז) stood at the entrance and one would enter through the bush into the cave.  
Luz: Upon which small nuts grow. Courdre [in Old French a hazelnut bush].  
25. And he showed them the entrance of the city, and they struck the city with the edge of the sword; but the man and his entire family they let go.   כה. וַיַּרְאֵם אֶת מְבוֹא הָעִיר וַיַּכּוּ אֶת הָעִיר לְפִי חָרֶב וְאֶת הָאִישׁ וְאֶת כָּל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ שִׁלֵּחוּ:
And he showed them: [By pointing] with his finger.  
26. And the man went to the land of the Hittites, and built a city, and called its name Luz; this is its name until this day.   כו. וַיֵּלֶךְ הָאִישׁ אֶרֶץ הַחִתִּים וַיִּבֶן עִיר וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ לוּז הוּא שְׁמָהּ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
this is its name until this day: Sannacherib did not repatriate it, nor did Nebuchadnezzar destroy it.  
27. And Menasseh did not drive out the inhabitants of Beth-Shean and its towns, Taanach and its towns, the inhabitants of Dor and its towns, the inhabitants of Yibleam and its towns, the inhabitants of Megiddo and its towns; and the Canaanites wanted to remain in this land.   כז. וְלֹא הוֹרִישׁ מְנַשֶּׁה אֶת בֵּית שְׁאָן וְאֶת בְּנוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת תַּעְנַךְ וְאֶת בְּנֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת ישְׁבֵי דוֹר וְאֶת בְּנוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת יוֹשְׁבֵי יִבְלְעָם וְאֶת בְּנֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת יוֹשְׁבֵי מְגִדּוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹתֶיהָ וַיּוֹאֶל הַכְּנַעֲנִי לָשֶׁבֶת בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת:
And Menasseh did not drive out: The Scripture tells of their shame; they began to betray the Holy One, blessed be He, Who commanded them, [Num. 33:52] “You shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land, etc.”  
28. And it was when Israel became strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute, but they did not drive them out.   כח. וַיְהִי כִּי חָזַק יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת הַכְּנַעֲנִי לָמַס וְהוֹרֵישׁ לֹא הוֹרִישׁוֹ:
29. And Ephraim did not drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; and the Canaanites dwelt among them in Gezer.   כט. וְאֶפְרַיִם לֹא הוֹרִישׁ אֶת הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּגָזֶר וַיֵּשֶׁב הַכְּנַעֲנִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ בְּגָזֶר:
30. Zebulun did not drive out the inhabitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of Nahalol; and the Canaanites dwelt among them and became tributary.   ל. זְבוּלֻן לֹא הוֹרִישׁ אֶת יוֹשְׁבֵי קִטְרוֹן וְאֶת יוֹשְׁבֵי נַהֲלֹל וַיֵּשֶׁב הַכְּנַעֲנִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ וַיִּהְיוּ לָמַס:
31. Asher did not drive out the inhabitants of Akko, nor the inhabitants of Zidon, nor of Achlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Chelbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rechob.   לא. אָשֵׁר לֹא הוֹרִישׁ אֶת ישְׁבֵי עַכּוֹ וְאֶת יוֹשְׁבֵי צִידוֹן וְאֶת אַחְלָב וְאֶת אַכְזִיב וְאֶת חֶלְבָּה וְאֶת אֲפִיק וְאֶת רְחֹב:
32. And the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land; for they did not drive them out.   לב. וַיֵּשֶׁב הָאָשֵׁרִי בְּקֶרֶב הַכְּנַעֲנִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ כִי לֹא הוֹרִישׁוֹ:
33. Naphtali did not drive out the inhabitants of Beth-Shemesh, nor the inhabitants of Beth-Anath; and he dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land. And the inhabitants of Beth-Shemesh and of Beth-Anath became tributary to them.   לג. נַפְתָּלִי לֹא הוֹרִישׁ אֶת יֹשְׁבֵי בֵית שֶׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת ישְׁבֵי בֵית עֲנָת וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּקֶרֶב הַכְּנַעֲנִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ וְיֹשְׁבֵי בֵית שֶׁמֶשׁ וּבֵית עֲנָת הָיוּ לָהֶם לָמַס:
34. And the Amorites forced the children of Dan to the mountain; for they would not let them come down to the valley.   לד. וַיִּלְחֲצוּ הָאֱמֹרִי אֶת בְּנֵי דָן הָהָרָה כִּי לֹא נְתָנוֹ לָרֶדֶת לָעֵמֶק:
35. And the Amorites wanted to remain on Mount Cheres, in Ayalon, and in Shaalbim; but the hand of the house of Joseph prevailed and they became tributary.   לה. וַיּוֹאֶל הָאֱמֹרִי לָשֶׁבֶת בְּהַר חֶרֶס בְּאַיָּלוֹן וּבְשַׁעַלְבִים וַתִּכְבַּד יַד בֵּית יוֹסֵף וַיִּהְיוּ לָמַס:
36. And the border of the Amorites was from Maaleh-Accrabbim, from the rock upward.   לו. וּגְבוּל הָאֱמֹרִי מִמַּעֲלֵה עַקְרַבִּים מֵהַסֶּלַע וָמָעְלָה:
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