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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 7

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 7

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 7

1. And the children of Israel committed a trespass in the consecrated thing, for Achan the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the consecrated thing; and the anger of the Lord was kindled against the children of Israel.   א. וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעַל בַּחֵרֶם וַיִּקַּח עָכָן בֶּן כַּרְמִי בֶן זַבְדִּי בֶן זֶרַח לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה מִן הַחֵרֶם וַיִּחַר אַף יְהֹוָה בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
2. And Joshua sent men from Jericho, to Ai, which is beside Beth-aven, on the east side of Beth-el, and spoke to them saying, Go up and spy out the land. And the men went up and spied out Ai.   ב. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֲנָשִׁים מִירִיחוֹ הָעַי אֲשֶׁר עִם בֵּית אָוֶן מִקֶּדֶם לְבֵית אֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר עֲלוּ וְרַגְּלוּ אֶת הָאָרֶץ וַיַּעֲלוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיְרַגְּלוּ אֶת הָעָי:
beside Beth aven: [lit., with Beth aven.]  
on the east side of Beth-el: מִקֶּדֶם.  
3. And they returned to Joshua, and said to him, Do not let all the people go up; but let about two or three thousand men go up and smite Ai; do not trouble all the people there; for they are but few.   ג. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַל יַעַל כָּל הָעָם כְּאַלְפַּיִם אִישׁ אוֹ כִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ יַעֲלוּ וְיַכּוּ אֶת הָעָי אַל תְּיַגַּע שָׁמָּה אֶת כָּל הָעָם כִּי מְעַט הֵמָּה:
4. So there went up there of the people, about three thousand men; and they fled before the men of Ai.   ד. וַיַּעֲלוּ מִן הָעָם שָׁמָּה כִּשְׁלשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ וַיָּנֻסוּ לִפְנֵי אַנְשֵׁי הָעָי:
5. And the men of Ai smote of them about thirty-six men; and they chased them from before the gate to Shebarim, and smote them in the descent; and the hearts of the people melted, and became as water.   ה. וַיַּכּוּ מֵהֶם אַנְשֵׁי הָעַי כִּשְׁלשִׁים וְשִׁשָּׁה אִישׁ וַיִּרְדְּפוּם לִפְנֵי הַשַּׁעַר עַד הַשְּׁבָרִים וַיַּכּוּם בַּמּוֹרָד וַיִּמַּס לְבַב הָעָם וַיְהִי לְמָיִם:
to Shebarim: until they broke them.  
6. And Joshua rent his clothing and fell to the earth upon his face before the Ark of the Lord until the evening, he and the elders of Israel, and they put dust upon their heads.   ו. וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיִּפֹּל עַל פָּנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהֹוָה עַד הָעֶרֶב הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָפָר עַל רֹאשָׁם:
7. And Joshua said, Woe, O Lord God, why have You at all brought this people over the Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to cause us to perish? Would that we had been content and dwelt on the other side of the Jordan!   ז. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֲהָהּ | אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה לָמָה הֵעֲבַרְתָּ הַעֲבִיר אֶת הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַאֲבִידֵנוּ וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ וַנֵּשֶׁב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן:
Would that we had been content: Would that we had decided to dwell on the east side of the Jordan in the land of Sihon and Og, which has already been conquered.  
8. Pray, oh Lord, what shall I say, after Israel has turned their backs before their enemies?   ח. בִּי אֲדֹנָי מָה אֹמַר אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הָפַךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹרֶף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבָיו:
9. For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land shall hear and shall encircle us and cut off our name from the earth; and what will You do for Your great Name?   ט. וְיִשְׁמְעוּ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְכֹל ישְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ וְנָסַבּוּ עָלֵינוּ וְהִכְרִיתוּ אֶת שְׁמֵנוּ מִן הָאָרֶץ וּמַה תַּעֲשֵֹה לְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל:
and what will You do for Your great Name?: which is inherent in our name [i.e., Israel, the שַׂר, or prince, of God.] This is the derash. The peshat is: What will You do for the Name of Your might which has already become famous? For now they will say, His strength has become weakened.  
10. And the Lord said to Joshua, Get up; why do you fall upon your face?   י. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ קֻם לָךְ לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל פָּנֶיךָ:
Get up: The kethib is קֻם לָ [It has arisen, or stayed, for you.] That which you have prayed before Me and mentioned, has stood you in good stead. Another explanation is: You stayed in camp, and did not go out with them, while I said: “And who will lead them out [to battle] and who will bring them [back].” “For you shall bring the children of Israel and I shall be with you.” “For he will cross before this nation and he will cause them to inherit.” If you go before them, they will succeed, and if not, they will not succeed. Another explanation is: קוּם לָ, [explaining לָ as: On your account] On your account this has befallen them. I did not tell you to consecrate the booty of the city.  
11. Israel has sinned, and they have also transgressed My covenant which I commanded them; and they have also taken of the consecrated thing, and have also stolen, and also dissembled, and they have also put into their vessels.   יא. חָטָא יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגַם עָבְרוּ אֶת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם וְגַם לָקְחוּ מִן הַחֵרֶם וְגַם גָּנְבוּ וְגַם כִּחֲשׁוּ וְגַם שָֹמוּ בִכְלֵיהֶם:
12. And the children of Israel shall not be able to stand before their enemies; they will turn their backs before their enemies, because they have become accursed. I will not be with you anymore, if you do not destroy the consecrated thing from among you.   יב. וְלֹא יֻכְלוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָקוּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיהֶם עֹרֶף יִפְנוּ לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיהֶם כִּי הָיוּ לְחֵרֶם לֹא אוֹסִיף לִהְיוֹת עִמָּכֶם אִם לֹא תַשְׁמִידוּ הַחֵרֶם מִקִּרְבְּכֶם:
13. Arise, prepare the people, and say, Prepare yourselves for tomorrow; for thus says the Lord God of Israel, There is an accursed thing in your midst, O Israel; you will not be able to stand before your enemies, until you remove the accursed thing from among you.   יג. קֻם קַדֵּשׁ אֶת הָעָם וְאָמַרְתָּ הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לְמָחָר כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חֵרֶם בְּקִרְבְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תוּכַל לָקוּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ עַד הֲסִירְכֶם הַחֵרֶם מִקִּרְבְּכֶם:
14. In the morning, therefore, you shall be brought near according to your tribes; and it shall be, that the tribe which the Lord takes shall come near by families; and the family which the Lord takes shall come near by households; and the household which the Lord takes shall come near man by man.   יד. וְנִקְרַבְתֶּם בַּבֹּקֶר לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְהָיָה הַשֵּׁבֶט אֲשֶׁר יִלְכְּדֶנּוּ יְהֹוָה יִקְרַב לַמִּשְׁפָּחוֹת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּחָה אֲשֶׁר יִלְכְּדֶנָּה יְהֹוָה תִּקְרַב לַבָּתִּים וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר יִלְכְּדֶנּוּ יְהֹוָה יִקְרַב לַגְּבָרִים:
by households: One family contained many households.  
man by man: by heads; all the men of the household were to come to the casting of lots.  
15. And it shall be, he that is taken with the accursed thing shall be burned with fire, he and all that he has; because he has transgressed the covenant of the Lord, because he has wrought an infamous deed in Israel.   טו. וְהָיָה הַנִּלְכָּד בַּחֵרֶם יִשָּׂרֵף בָּאֵשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ כִּי עָבַר אֶת בְּרִית יְהֹוָה וְכִי עָשָֹה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל:
[Supplement] shall be burned with fire: The tent and the movable property.  
he and all that he has: according to the law specified below: He and the cattle by lapidation. The accent zakef which appears over the word: בָּאֵשׁ [with fire] indicates that it is separate from אֹתוֹ [he]; for we find verses which the accent divides, such as: הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אַחֲרֵי דֶרֶ מְבוֹא, “far past [the Jordan], the way of the going down of the sun,” in which אַחֲרֵי [far past] is separated from דֶרֶ [the way] by the accent. And this is its interpretation: And he that is taken with the accursed thing shall be burned with fire that which is fit to be burned, as is explained below.  
He and all that he has: according to the law explained below. This is a brief verse, and similar to it: “whosoever smites the Jebusites and gets up to the tower.” He does not explain what will be done to him. In (I) Chronicles, however, he explains: ‘shall be chief.’ Here also, he did not specify what would be done to ‘him and all that he has,’ and below he specifies.  
16. And Joshua rose up early in the morning and brought Israel near by their tribes; and the tribe of Judah was taken.   טז. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבָטָיו וַיִּלָּכֵד שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה:
and brought Israel near: before the ‘hoshen,’ the place where the [names of] the tribes were inscribed. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave him a sign that the tribe which sinned, his stone would fade; and Judah’s stone faded.  
17. And he brought near the family of Judah; and He took the family of the Zarhites; and he brought the family of the Zarhites near man by man; and Zabdi was taken.   יז. וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת מִשְׁפַּחַת יְהוּדָה וַיִּלְכֹּד אֵת מִשְׁפַּחַת הַזַּרְחִי וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת מִשְׁפַּחַת הַזַּרְחִי לַגְּבָרִים וַיִּלָּכֵד זַבְדִּי:
and he brought near the family of Judah: to a casting of lots. He brought near the heads of the families, one man from each family, and they cast lots on whom it would fall, and afterwards on each household, i.e., one man of each household came to the lot casting, and afterwards all the men of that household came.  
18. And he brought his household near man by man; and Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, was taken.   יח. וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת בֵּיתוֹ לַגְּבָרִים וַיִּלָּכֵד עָכָן בֶּן כַּרְמִי בֶן זַבְדִּי בֶּן זֶרַח לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה:
19. And Joshua said to Achan, My son, give, I pray you, glory to the Lord, God of Israel, and make confession to Him; and tell me now what you have done; do not hide anything from me.   יט. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל עָכָן בְּנִי שִֹים נָא כָבוֹד לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתֶן לוֹ תוֹדָה וְהַגֶּד נָא לִי מֶה עָשִֹיתָ אַל תְּכַחֵד מִמֶּנִּי:
give, I pray you, glory: He began to criticize the method of casting lots [by which his guilt had been established]. He said: By casting lots are you coming upon me [to establish my guilt]? If a lot were cast between you and Eleazar the two greats of the generation, it would fall on one [of you]. Said he to him: “I ask you not to find fault with the method of casting lots, through which method the land is destined to be divided.”  
20. And Achan answered Joshua, and said, Indeed I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and thus have I done.   כ. וַיַּעַן עָכָן אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמַר אָמְנָה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי לַיהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָזֹאת וְכָזֹאת עָשִֹיתִי:
And Achan answered: He saw the children of Judah [his tribe] assembling for war [in loyalty for one of their own]; and said [to himself]: It is better that I alone die rather than many thousands of Israel be killed.  
and thus and thus have I done: also with other devoted things during Moses’ time, as it is stated: “and I will devote their cities.”  
21. When I saw among the spoils a goodly Babylonish garment, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, then I coveted them, and took them; and, behold, they are hidden in the earth in the midst of my tent, and the silver under it.   כא. וָאֵרֶא בַשָּׁלָל אַדֶּרֶת שִׁנְעָר אַחַת טוֹבָה וּמָאתַיִם שְׁקָלִים כֶּסֶף וּלְשׁוֹן זָהָב אֶחָד חֲמִשִּׁים שְׁקָלִים מִשְׁקָלוֹ וָאֶחְמְדֵם וָאֶקָּחֵם וְהִנָּם טְמוּנִים בָּאָרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ הָאָהֳלִי וְהַכֶּסֶף תַּחְתֶּיהָ:
When I saw among the spoils: I reflected upon that which is written in the Torah: “And you shall eat up she spoils of your enemies.”  
a Babylonish garment: As the Targum renders: a Babylonish garment, for any sovereign who had not acquired a palace in the Land of Israel, experienced no satisfaction from his reign, as it is stated: “And I give you a coveted land, an inheritance desired by hosts of nations.” And the king of Babylonia had a palace in Jericho, and when he would come here he would wear them (sic).  
22. And Joshua sent messengers and they ran to the tent and behold, it was hidden in his tent, and the silver under it.   כב. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מַלְאָכִים וַיָּרֻצוּ הָאֹהֱלָה וְהִנֵּה טְמוּנָה בְּאָהֳלוֹ וְהַכֶּסֶף תַּחְתֶּיהָ:
and they ran to the tent: lest the tribe of Judah arrive first and take it from there to cast a doubt on the efficacy of the lots.  
23. And they took them from the midst of the tent, and brought them to Joshua, and to all the children of Israel, and laid them out before the Lord.   כג. וַיִּקָּחוּם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל וַיְבִאוּם אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאֶל כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּצִּקֻם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
and laid them out: And they melted them. And our Rabbis state: He threw them down before the Omnipresent. He said before Him, “Lord of the Universe, For these [insignificant articles] shall the majority of the Sanhedrin fall?”  
24. And Joshua, and all Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his ox, and his ass, and his flock, and his tent, and all that he had; and they brought them up to the Valley of Achor.   כד. וַיִּקַּח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת עָכָן בֶּן זֶרַח וְאֶת הַכֶּסֶף וְאֶת הָאַדֶּרֶת וְאֶת לְשׁוֹן הַזָּהָב וְאֶת בָּנָיו וְאֶת בְּנֹתָיו וְאֶת שׁוֹרוֹ וְאֶת חֲמֹרוֹ וְאֶת צֹאנוֹ וְאֶת אָהֳלוֹ וְאֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ וַיַּעֲלוּ אֹתָם עֵמֶק עָכוֹר:
and his sons, and his daughters: to witness his chastisement, and so that they be deterred from doing as He [had done].  
and his ox and his ass: to destroy them, as it was said: And it shall be, he that is taken with the accursed thing shall be burned with fire, he and all that he has.  
25. And Joshua said, Why have you troubled us? The Lord shall trouble you this day. And all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned them with fire, [after] they [had] stoned them with stones.   כה. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מֶה עֲכַרְתָּנוּ יַעְכֳּרְךָ יְהֹוָה בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּרְגְּמוּ אֹתוֹ כָל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶבֶן וַיִּשְׂרְפוּ אֹתָם בָּאֵשׁ וַיִּסְקְלוּ אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים:
and they stoned him etc.: for he had violated the Sabbath.  
and burned them: the tent and the movable property.  
and stoned them: the ox and the [other] animals.  
26. And they raised over him a great heap of stones to this day. So the Lord turned from the fierceness of His anger. Therefore, the name of that place was called, The Valley of Achor, to this day.   כו. וַיָּקִימוּ עָלָיו גַּל אֲבָנִים גָּדוֹל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיָּשָׁב יְהֹוָה מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ עַל כֵּן קָרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא עֵמֶק עָכוֹר עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
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