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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 5

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 5

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 5

1. And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites, who were on the side of the Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites who were by the sea, heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan from before the children of Israel until they had passed over, that their heart melted, nor was there spirit in them anymore, because of the children of Israel.   א. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ כָּל מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן יָמָּה וְכָל מַלְכֵי הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר עַל הַיָּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר הוֹבִישׁ יְהֹוָה אֶת מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד עָבְרָם וַיִּמַּס לְבָבָם וְלֹא הָיָה בָם עוֹד רוּחַ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
who were on the side of the Jordan westward: on the side to which the children of Israel had crossed, i.e. the west side. And previously, they had been on the east side.  
2. At that time the Lord said to Joshua, Make for yourself sharp knives, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.   ב. בָּעֵת הַהִיא אָמַר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עֲשֵֹה לְךָ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וְשׁוּב מֹל אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁנִית:
sharp knives: חרבות צרים, according to Targum, sharp knives, also “You have turned back the edge of his sword.” When the sharp edge is turned sideways and does not cut well. And so: “Every weapon which will be sharpened against you.”  
the second time: for they had already circumcised a large assembly on the night of their departure from Egypt, and this was the second time, for the entire forty years that they were in the desert, the north wind did not blow for them, and they did not have any day suitable for circumcision, as we learned in Job. Our Rabbis state, however, “ ‘the second time’ refers the uncovering the corona at circumcision,” [i.e. splitting the membrane and pulling it back] which Abraham was not commanded to do.  
3. And Joshua made for himself sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel at the hill of the foreskins.   ג. וַיַּעַשׂ לוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וַיָּמָל אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל גִּבְעַת הָעֲרָלוֹת:
the hill of the foreskins: It was given this appellation to commemorate the event, because the foreskins were made into a sort of mound, or hillock.  
4. And this is the reason why Joshua did circumcise: All the people that came out of Egypt, that were males, all the men of war, had died in the desert by the way after they came out of Egypt.   ד. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּל הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם הַזְּכָרִים כֹּל | אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה מֵתוּ בַמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרָיִם:
Now this is the reason: Through speech he circumcised them. He said to them, “Do you expect to inherit the land while being uncircumcised? Was it not thus stated to Abraham: 'And you shall keep my covenant etc. And I shall give to you and to your seed after you the land of your sojournings?’ ”  
all the people that came out: Not one of them was here, for they had all died, and they were circumcised, as it is stated: for… were circumcised.  
5. For all the people that came out were circumcised, but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, they had not circumcised.   ה. כִּי מֻלִים הָיוּ כָּל הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וְכָל הָעָם הַיִּלֹּדִים בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא מָלוּ:
they had not circumcised: as I explained, that the north wind had not blown, and they were the ones who were circumcised now.  
6. For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, until all the people, the men of war, that came out of Egypt, were consumed, those who did not listen to the voice of the Lord, to whom the Lord had sworn that He would not show them the land, which the Lord had sworn to their forefathers that He would give us, a land that flows with milk and honey.   ו. כִּי | אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָלְכוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד תֹּם כָּל הַגּוֹי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַיֹּצְאִים מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהֹוָה לָהֶם לְבִלְתִּי הַרְאוֹתָם אֶת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהֹוָה לַאֲבוֹתָם לָתֶת לָנוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ:
7. And their children, whom he raised up in their stead, them Joshua circumcised, for they had not circumcised them by the way.   ז. וְאֶת בְּנֵיהֶם הֵקִים תַּחְתָּם אֹתָם מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי עֲרֵלִים הָיוּ כִּי לֹא מָלוּ אוֹתָם בַּדָּרֶךְ:
And their children whom he raised up in their stead: i.e. And their children whom he raised up in their stead, (they are the ones who were born in the desert) them Joshua circumcised.  
8. And it was, when all the people were finished being circumcised, that they remained in their places in the camp, until they recovered.   ח. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּמּוּ כָל הַגּוֹי לְהִמּוֹל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם בַּמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲיוֹתָם:
and they remained in their places: in their places (Jonathan) and they did not besiege the city.  
until they recovered: from the wound.  
9. And the Lord said to Joshua, This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you. And he called the name of the place Gilgal to this day.   ט. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַיּוֹם גַּלּוֹתִי אֶת חֶרְפַּת מִצְרַיִם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא גִּלְגָּל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
have I rolled away: I removed the reproach of the Egyptians who had said, “See that ‘Ra-ah’ is before your faces. There is a star named ‘Ra-ah’ which is a symbol of blood. We see it over you in the desert.” And that is what Moses said in the desert, “Why should the Egyptians say, With ‘Ra-ah’ He took them out.” But they did not know that that was the blood of circumcision. And when they circumcised in Joshua’s time, and that blood came, that reproach was removed, for the vast multitude which had gone up with them were still vexing them. In this manner, Rabbi Moses the preacher expounded.  
have I rolled away: גלותי - I have removed, like “(גל) Remove [or roll away] from me reproach and shame.” “ (ויגל) and he rolled off [or removed] the stone.”  
10. And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and they made the Passover sacrifice on the fourteenth day of the month at evening in the plains of Jericho.   י. וַיַּחֲנוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּגִּלְגָּל וַיַּעֲשֹוּ אֶת הַפֶּסַח בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָֹר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב בְּעַרְבוֹת יְרִיחוֹ:
11. And they ate of the grain of the land on the morrow of the Passover, unleavened cakes and parched grain on this very day.   יא. וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח מַצּוֹת וְקָלוּי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
on the morrow of the Passover: the day of the waving of the 'Omer, for first they sacrificed the 'Omer. And from the seventh of Adar, when Moses died, whereupon the manna ceased to fall, they subsisted on the manna which was in their vessels, which they had gathered on the seventh of Adar, as it is stated: “the manna they ate forty years.” Now, was it not forty years less thirty days, for the beginning of the falling of the manna was on the fifteenth of Iyar? Hence we deduce that in the cakes which the Israelites took with them from Egypt they perceived the taste of manna.  
12. And the manna ceased on the morrow when they ate of the grain of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna anymore; and they ate of the produce of the land of Canaan that year.   יב. וַיִּשְׁבֹּת הַמָּן מִמָּחֳרָת בְּאָכְלָם מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מָן וַיֹּאכְלוּ מִתְּבוּאַת אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא:
neither had the children of Israel manna anymore: Therefore, they ate of the grain of the Land. Had they still had manna, they world not have eaten of the grain, for the manna was pleasing to them. An appropriate parable is: One says to a child, why do you eat barley bread? Because he has no wheat bread. Therefore, it is stated: “Neither had the children of Israel manna anymore, etc.”  
13. And it was when Joshua was in Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and saw, and, behold, a man was standing opposite him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went to him, and said to him, Are you for us, or for our adversaries?   יג. וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם לְצָרֵינוּ:
when Joshua was in Jericho: Hence we deduce that the outskirts of a city are considered as part of the city, for it is impossible to say [that he was actually] inside Jericho.  
Are you for us: Have you come to support us?  
14. And he said, No, but I am the captain of the host of the Lord; I have now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and prostrated himself, and said to him, What does my lord say to his servant?   יד. וַיֹּאמֶר | לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר צְבָא יְהֹוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל עַבְדּוֹ:
I have now come: to your aid, for no man can wage war against it [Jericho] and seize it, to throw down the wall. But in the time of Moses your master, I came and he did not want me, as it is stated: “if Your presence does not go, etc.”  
15. And the captain of the Lord's host said to Joshua, Remove your shoe from your foot; for the place upon which you stand is holy. And Joshua did so.   טו. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר צְבָא יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן:
the captain of the Lord’s host: Israel, who is the Lord’s host. Now, this was Michael, as it is said: “Michael your prince.”  
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