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The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary
   

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 4

Yehoshua - Joshua - Chapter 4

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Rashi's Commentary:

Chapter 4

1. And it was when all the nation had completely passed over the Jordan, the Lord spoke to Joshua, saying,   א. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּמּוּ כָל הַגּוֹי לַעֲבוֹר אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן (פיסקא באמצע פסוק) וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לֵאמֹר:
2. Take to yourselves twelve men from the people, a man from every tribe.   ב. קְחוּ לָכֶם מִן הָעָם שְׁנֵים עָשָֹר אֲנָשִׁים אִישׁ אֶחָד אִישׁ אֶחָד מִשָּׁבֶט:
twelve men: They are the aforementioned, who were to be prepared.  
3. And command them saying, Take to yourselves from here out of the midst of the Jordan, out of the place where the priests' feet stood firm, twelve stones, and you shall carry them over with you, and leave them in the lodging place, where you shall lodge this night.   ג. וְצַוּוּ אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר שְׂאוּ לָכֶם מִזֶּה מִתּוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן מִמַּצַּב רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הָכִין שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אֲבָנִים וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אוֹתָם עִמָּכֶם וְהִנַּחְתֶּם אוֹתָם בַּמָּלוֹן אֲשֶׁר תָּלִינוּ בוֹ הַלָּיְלָה:
and you shall carry them over with you: in accordance with Moses’ commandment to build an altar there with on Mt. Ebal and to write upon them the words of the Torah. On that very day, they came to Mt. Ebal, built therewith the altar, and offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings, and they ate and drank and peeled them and came and lodged in Gilgal.  
4. And Joshua called the twelve men, whom he had prepared of the children of Israel, a man from every tribe.   ד. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל שְׁנֵים הֶעָשָׂר אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הֵכִין מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אֶחָד אִישׁ אֶחָד מִשָּׁבֶט:
5. And Joshua said to them, Pass before the Ark of the Lord your God into the midst of the Jordan, and lift up every man of you a stone upon his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of the children of Israel.   ה. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עִבְרוּ לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶל תּוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהָרִימוּ לָכֶם אִישׁ אֶבֶן אַחַת עַל שִׁכְמוֹ לְמִסְפַּר שִׁבְטֵי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Pass before the Ark etc.: Enter now into the Jordan and pass until you are in front of the priests.  
6. That this may be a sign among you, that when your children ask in time to come, saying, What are these stones for you?   ו. לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה זֹאת אוֹת בְּקִרְבְּכֶם כִּי יִשְׁאָלוּן בְּנֵיכֶם מָחָר לֵאמֹר מָה הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה לָכֶם:
7. Then you shall say to them, That the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the Ark of the covenant of the Lord; when it passed over the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off; and these stones shall be for a memorial to the children of Israel forever.   ז. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר נִכְרְתוּ מֵימֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה בְּעָבְרוֹ בַּיַּרְדֵּן נִכְרְתוּ מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהָיוּ הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה לְזִכָּרוֹן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד עוֹלָם:
and these stones shall be: in Gilgal as a memorial of this.  
8. And the children of Israel did as Joshua commanded, and took up twelve stones out of the midst of the Jordan, as the Lord had spoken to Joshua, according to the number of the tribes of the children of Israel, and carried them over with them to the place where they lodged, and laid them there.   ח. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּשְׂאוּ שְׁתֵּי עֶשְׂרֵה אֲבָנִים מִתּוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְמִסְפַּר שִׁבְטֵי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲבִרוּם עִמָּם אֶל הַמָּלוֹן וַיַּנִּחוּם שָׁם:
9. And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests who bore the Ark of the covenant stood; and they have been there to this day.   ט. וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אֲבָנִים הֵקִים יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן תַּחַת מַצַּב רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה:
And twelve stones: I.e. others Joshua set up in the midst of the Jordan.  
10. And the priests that bore the Ark stood in the midst of the Jordan, until everything was finished that the Lord commanded Joshua to speak to the people, according to all that Moses commanded Joshua; and the people hastened and passed over.   י. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי הָאָרוֹן עֹמְדִים בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן עַד תֹּם כָּל הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהֹוָה אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְדַבֵּר אֶל הָעָם כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיְמַהֲרוּ הָעָם וַיַּעֲבֹרוּ:
until everything was finished: as we learned in Tractate Sotah While they were still standing in the river bed of the Jordan, Joshua said to them: Know for what purpose you are crossing the Jordan. On the condition that you drive out all the inhabitants of the land etc.  
11. And it was, when all the people had completely passed over, that the Ark of the Lord passed over, and the priests, in the presence of the people.   יא. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּם כָּל הָעָם לַעֲבוֹר וַיַּעֲבֹר אֲרוֹן יְהֹוָה וְהַכֹּהֲנִים לִפְנֵי הָעָם:
And it was, when all the people had completely passed over, that the Ark passed over, etc.: not after the manner in which the others had passed over, but as it is explained below in this episode, the soles of the priests’ feet were lifted up backwards to the dry land on the bank from which they had entered, beside which they were standing, and the waters returned backwards to flow as it had done heretofore. Hence, the Ark and its bearers are found to be on one side, and all Israel on the other side. The Ark picked up its bearers and passed over.  
in the presence of the people: [lit. before the people,] i.e. before the eyes of the people.  
12. And the children of Reuben, and the children of Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, passed over armed before the children of Israel, as Moses had spoken to them.   יב. וַיַּעַבְרוּ בְּנֵי רְאוּבֵן וּבְנֵי גָד וַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט הַמְנַשֶּׁה חֲמֻשִׁים לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם מֹשֶׁה:
13. About forty thousand armed for war passed over before the Lord to battle, to the plains of Jericho.   יג. כְּאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף חֲלוּצֵי הַצָּבָא עָבְרוּ לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה לַמִּלְחָמָה אֶל עַרְבוֹת יְרִיחוֹ:
14. On that day the Lord made Joshua great in the sight of all Israel, and they feared him, as they had feared Moses, all the days of his life.   יד. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא גִּדַּל יְהֹוָה אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּעֵינֵי כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרְאוּ אֶת מֹשֶׁה כָּל יְמֵי חַיָּיו:
15. And the Lord said to Joshua, saying,   טו. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לֵאמֹר:
16. Command the priests that bear the Ark of the testimony, that they come up out of the Jordan.   טז. צַוֵּה אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת וְיַעֲלוּ מִן הַיַּרְדֵּן:
Command the priests: Here the Scripture explains the aforementioned, how the Ark of the Lord and the priests passed over in the presence of the people etc.  
that they come up out of the Jordan: that they cross, is not written here, but “that they come up.” Hence, we deduce that they came up on the bank beside which they were standing. And it is impossible to say that they were standing beside the western bank of the Jordan, for it is stated above: The feet of the priests were dipped in the edge of the water. And there it is stated: And the priests stood and all Israel passed.  
17. And Joshua commanded the priests, saying, Come up out of the Jordan.   יז. וַיְצַו יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים לֵאמֹר עֲלוּ מִן הַיַּרְדֵּן:
18. And it was, when the priests that bore the Ark of the covenant of the Lord came up out of the midst of the Jordan, that as soon as the soles of the priests' feet were lifted up to the dry land, the waters of Jordan returned to their place, and flowed over all its banks, as before.   יח. וַיְהִי כַּעֲלוֹת הַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהֹוָה מִתּוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן נִתְּקוּ כַּפּוֹת רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶל הֶחָרָבָה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן לִמְקוֹמָם וַיֵּלְכוּ כִתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו:
the soles of the priests’ feet were lifted up: from the water to the dry land which was beside them, and the waters returned to their place. Hence, the Ark is found to be on one side and Israel on the other side. Accordingly, the Ark lifted its bearers and passed over. And concerning this matter, Uzzah was punished when he took hold of the Ark. If it bore its bearers, can it not be deduced by a fortiori conclusion that it can bear itself?  
19. And the people came up out of the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month, and encamped in Gilgal, in the east border of Jericho.   יט. וְהָעָם עָלוּ מִן הַיַּרְדֵּן בֶּעָשֹוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּגִּלְגָּל בִּקְצֵה מִזְרַח יְרִיחוֹ:
20. And these twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgal.   כ. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר לָקְחוּ מִן הַיַּרְדֵּן הֵקִים יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּגִּלְגָּל:
Joshua set up in Gilgal: That is the lodging place where they lodged that night.  
21. And he spoke to the children of Israel, saying, When your children ask their fathers in time to come, saying, What are these stones?   כא. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁאָלוּן בְּנֵיכֶם מָחָר אֶת אֲבוֹתָם לֵאמֹר מָה הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה:
22. Then, you shall let your children know, saying, Israel came over this Jordan on dry land.   כב. וְהוֹדַעְתֶּם אֶת בְּנֵיכֶם לֵאמֹר בַּיַּבָּשָׁה עָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה:
23. For the Lord your God dried up the waters of the Jordan from before you, until you passed over, as the Lord your God did to the Red Sea, which He dried up from before us, until we passed over.   כג. אֲשֶׁר הוֹבִישׁ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶת מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵיכֶם עַד עָבְרְכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְיַם סוּף אֲשֶׁר הוֹבִישׁ מִפָּנֵינוּ עַד עָבְרֵנוּ:
24. That all the people of the earth might know the power of the Lord, that it is mighty; that you might fear the Lord your God forever.   כד. לְמַעַן דַּעַת כָּל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת יַד יְהֹוָה כִּי חֲזָקָה הִיא לְמַעַן יְרָאתֶם אֶת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל הַיָּמִים:
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