Contact Us

The Shabbat Laws

The Shabbat Laws

 Email

The Shabbat laws are quite complex, requiring careful study and a qualified teacher. At first, it's often overwhelming and seems like an impossible number of restrictions. But spending shabbat with others who are shabbat observant will show you that eventually, you, too, will become comfortable with the Shabbat laws, as long as you realize that becoming shomer shabbat (shabbat observant) is a gradual process rather than an overnight transformation. You will also recognize that the wealth off details provides for a lifetime of scholarship--even those who have been keeping Shabbat for years find that there is always more to learn on this subject.

Following is a brief summary of some of the Shabbat laws you are most likely to encounter.

Let's start with some basic activities from which we refrain on Shabbat:

  • writing, erasing, and tearing;
  • business transactions;
  • driving or riding in cars or other vehicles;
  • shopping;
  • using the telephone;
  • turning on or off anything which uses electricity, including lights, radios, television, computer, air-conditioners and alarm clocks;
  • cooking, baking or kindling a fire;
  • gardening and grass-mowing;
  • doing laundry;

Does all this mean that Shabbat is somewhat of a miserable affair, where we sit hungry in the dark? Not at all. It simply means that we have to prepare for Shabbat in advance, so that, on the contrary, we celebrate in luxury, without doing any of the actual work, on Shabbat.

For example: Lights which will be needed on Shabbat are turned on before Shabbat. Automatic timers may be used for lights and some appliances as long as they have been set before Shabbat. The refrigerator may be used, but again, we have to ensure that it's use does not engender any of the forbidden Shabbat activities. Thus, the fridge light should be disconnected before Shabbat by unscrewing the bulb slightly and a freezer whose fan is activated when the door is opened may not be used.

Another example: We may not cook or light a fire, so we cook before Shabbat and keep the food warm through special methods that do not violate any Shabbat prohibitions. See Food Preparation on Shabbat for the laws and methods involved.

In addition to those mentioned above, two other important categories which are not permitted are using or touching items that are considered muktzeh and carrying outdoors.

Muktzeh

Many objects have been designated by our sages as muktzeh--we are forbidden from moving them, in some cases, even for activities permitted on Shabbat. Muktzeh may not be moved directly with one's hand or even indirectly with an object (such as sweeping it away with a broom). However, muktzeh may be moved in a very awkward, unusual manner, with other parts of the body, e.g.: with one's teeth or elbow, or by blowing on it.

Some of the categories of muktzeh are:

1. Objects which have no designated use, e.g.: Stones, plants, flowers in a vase, raw food (inedible in its present state, such as beans); an object that has broken and become no longer useful, such as a broken bowl, a button that falls off;

2. Valuable objects or those which would be used only for their designated task, for fear of damaging it, e.g.: Expensive items: camera, crystal decoration; professional tools: scalpel, electric wiring; important documents: passport, birth certificate;

3. Objects that are forbidden from use because of Torah prohibition, e.g.: Non-kosher food, chametz on Passover; also included are objects used for a mitzvah, such as sechach (rooftop greenery) that fell off a sukkah;

4. An object whose primary purpose is for an activity forbidden on Shabbat, e.g.: Hammer, stapler, pen. However, one is allowed to move these objects if a) they are needed for an activity permitted on Shabbat and nothing else can perform that task, e.g., a hammer to open a coconut or a telephone book as a booster seat or b) The place the object occupies is needed, e.g., if a pen is on a chair you want to sit on.

Anything that a muktzeh object rests upon is a basis--base for the muktzeh and becomes muktzeh itself if:

A. The muktzeh item was left on the spot intentionally, so that it remain there for at least part of Shabbat;

B. The object was placed there by the owner or with the knowledge of the owner;

C. At the start of Shabbat, the basis supported only the muktzeh and no non-muktzeh items.

An example of basis encountered every Shabbat is the Shabbat candles on the table. The candlesticks are muktzeh, and may not be removed from the table on Shabbat. The table holding the candlesticks may thus become a base for muktzeh and muktzeh itself, preventing it from being moved if necessary. To remedy this, we simply put another non-muktzeh item required for Shabbat on the table before the onset of Shabbat. Thus, although the candlesticks are muktzeh, the table holds the challah or prayerbook as well and may therefore be moved after the flames have gone out.

Carrying

On Shabbat one may not carry or transfer objects between a "reshut ha-yachid" (private, enclosed domain, such as the house); and a "reshut ha-rabim" (public domain, such as the street). Neither may one carry an object in a reshut ha-rabim for more than four cubits (six feet). Examples of this prohibition include: carrying in one's pocket; carrying anything in the hand; wheeling a baby carriage or shopping cart, going outside with gum or food in the mouth. This prohibition also includes carrying in public hallways or yards of multiple dwellings, unless an eiruv chatzeirot is made. An eiruv chatzeirot is an arrangement whereby carrying in some of the above situations is permitted. In addition, the area in which one wishes to carry must be enclosed. This enclosure, commonly referred to as an eiruv, can occur naturally or be man-made, and must be constructed before Shabbat.

The Jewish community in some cities or neighborhoods constructs an eiruv which encloses several blocks. The area within the eiruv is then considered a private domain where carrying is permitted. If there is an eiruv, it is important to know its boundaries so as not to carry beyond them, and also to ensure before Shabbat that the eruv is up and not damaged.

© Copyright, all rights reserved. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you to distribute it further, provided that you comply with Chabad.org's copyright policy.
 Email
Join the Discussion
Sort By:
78 Comments
1000 characters remaining
Anonymous London, England September 2, 2017

I ask this as a gentile who sometimes have Jewish friends over to visit so my apologies if my question is inappropriate.

There have been occasions when I was aware of the time and asked if they wanted the light on. I recently got one of those Amazon Alexa things to control my lights. Would it be OK for them to use it, e.g.. to say "Alexa, turn the light on" if say they were staying overnight or should I program the bedroom etc lights beforehand?

One side of me says it would still be effectively turning on a switch, the other thinks that there is no prohibited "work" as no physical contact is involved. Reply

Rabbi Yossi Grossbaum, for Chabad.org Folsom, CA September 14, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Always best to program in advance. "Work" on Shabbat isn't necessarily strenuous. See this article for more on that. Reply

Anonymous New York August 27, 2017

If my computer is already on and I keep it on all night what is stopping me from using it. There is no spark generated because the electricity is already flowing Reply

Mendel Adelman August 28, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Hello Anonymous,

Well, leaving it on all night is fine, but each time you press a button, you complete a circuit and conduct electricity through it, simultaneously transgressing the prohibition against completing an object through closing the circuit, and possibly causing the creation of sparks.

See the article titled Electricity-on-Shabbat on this website for a comprehensive explanation of the subject. Reply

Simcha Bart for Chabad.org August 2, 2017

Shabbat is not here to annoy us - rather Shabbat is meant to free us. Allow me to give you one example of how Shabbat "restrictions" truly free us. I was in a restaurant where I saw a party of six or more people sitting together, almost all of them were looking at their phones, instead of at the people they came to share a meal with. This made me curious, so I looked around and saw the same thing at many other tables. Perhaps that is insane. Torah had much more insight into what we need than some are willing to give it credit for. Shabbat is a time to take in the spiritual - and be a real host by focusing on our guests, and a real parent by focusing on our children, at least one day a week. For on that day G-d ceased His creativeness, so we can take time out to set technology aside as well. Please read here and here to get some more insight into this concept.
Reply

Anonymous August 6, 2017
in response to Simcha Bart for Chabad.org :

Thank you for this post. I have been feeling especially isolated and lonely these last 10 weeks or so on Shabbat. I started leaving the television on in my home office tuned to a news channel so that I could hear human voices if I 'needed to.' And, with my vision worsening by the day, it is a struggle to make out the words of my Zohar and Bible.The contrast of my iPad screen makes it easy and enjoyable to read.and no headaches. I'm reading Jewish history, about Chassid leaders and about the Scottish/Jewish/Roma connection. I hate touching the screen. Reading an article you suggested, I wonder whether a voice activated page turner would solve that issue and if one exists. Thank you for reminding me that this is a problem that must be solved before next Friday evening. Nope. No one to invite and no one to invite me. Reply

Sonia Uk September 17, 2017
in response to Simcha Bart for Chabad.org :

We cannot totally kick technology aside now, in order to observe Shabbat - or at least it would be extremely difficult and cumbersome to do so. Even our walking in the street can turn a security light on, with or without our knowledge. There is electricity all around us, security cameras, pedestrian lights when crossing dangerous roads etc. Virtually all hotel rooms are opened with electronic key cards now. There are lifts disabled people have to use sometimes, to get to their rooms. Yes there are ways round it, I know. A lot of people use time-switches on ovens, etc. It was blatantly forbidden to use these time-switches for cooking in the early 70s, but somewhere along the line, the rabbis changed their minds.
Without the benefits of technology we would have to endure a very uncomfortable and boring day. There is no turning back to the 'cosy ' 1940/50s, when a lot of these supertech devices had yet to be invented, or developed. We can only cut usage to a minimum. Reply

M.Diane August 27, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Update:

I looked around and found a reading app that allows the device to automatically scroll book pages at various speeds. I tried it two weeks. Each time I still found I had to touch the device for some reason - so unless someone comes up with an eye controlled app that doesn't require the camera to function, I don't see how reading on my device will work for Shabbat. Book reading is quite uncomfortable for my eyes now. I have been promising myself an eye exam and new prescription glasses but other more pressing expenses always win out.. (Not complaining, L-rd!) Next Shabbat I will sit and lay around and do nothing - because, what else is there to do besides read? Reply

Anonymous Kansas City June 8, 2017

What about dancing? If we walk to somewhere to perform, can we do that? Reply

Anonymous June 8, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

What about yoga on Shabbos at home? Is it not good to burn calories on Shabbos? Reply

Simcha Bart for Chabad.org June 16, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Though it is laudable to get the extra calories off our bodies, Shabbat is not the time for us to use our body in a strenuous manner - rather we are meant to focus relaxing and peaceful things. Reply

M. Diane Flushing, NY January 15, 2017

Thank you I did receive the response before Shabbos and wrote to thank you for that. I decided that touching coins was not so important to do and that it was not worth putting myself at risk to do it on Shabbos. Anyway, handling coins has the appearance of preparing to do business and as i admitted, if i were to come across one that looked crazy valuable during Shabbos and sold it during the week, i would have been acting in furtherance of a business transaction on Shabbos and that feels wrong to me. Thanks for helping me think this one through. I feel better about my decision not to deal with coins or touch coins on (during) Shabbos. Reply

Simcha Bart for Chabad.org January 13, 2017

In general, a coin collection that does not contain coins which can be used currently as legal tender and is not valuable enough that one takes great care in its handling would not be considered "Muktzeh". That being said, there may be differences based on some specific circumstances - therefore I strongly recommend discussing each specific case with a competent rabbinic authority.
Reply

M. Diane Flushing, NY January 8, 2017

Enjoying coin collection on Shabbat Is it prohibited to enjoy looking at and handle a coin collection on Shabbos if all the coins are the same denomination, same country and none will be thrown away? The coins are not being touched because they will be spent in a transaction during Shabbos. They will end up put in order in books at some point. On the other hand, if i were to come across a valuable coin I probably would sell it; but, when I enjoy the coin collection it's the beauty of the coins and the unusual die grease marks, cracks, double die marks, their age, interesting mint marks that i find entertaining. I would appreciate learning if there is a prohibition against touching coins at all for any reason. I tried to find the answer to coin collections on Shabbos but did not find an answer. If it exists, Can someone please point me to it so I can read it? Thank you. Reply

Rochel Chein January 6, 2017

Re: Alarm clock An alarm clock can be set before Shabbat, to ring on Shabbat. According to some opinions, the alarm shouldn't be loud enough to be heard from another room. An electric alarm cannot be turned off on Shabbat though, and care should be taken to ensure that you don't forget that it's Shabbat and silence the alarm when it rings. Reply

Chase January 5, 2017

The prohibition on "carrying" (it prohibits carrying and things that aren't considered carrying by the basic denotation of the word in any language) seems to make no sense at all. I would like to know the source of it, and I wonder whether it has historical precedent beyond the modern era, and whether that precedent applies to all carrying, or just carrying for a creative activity/carrying a load or objects in a way that is considered work like in thw book of Jeremiah. I know of many orthodox jews that carry guns, their keys, and perhaps a phone for emergencies, as well as roll strollers on shabbat without an eruv (which is just a legalistic technicality that does not change the nature of the space). Reply

Anonymous January 4, 2017

Get the Shabbos Alarm App on your phone or get a kosher clock or shabbat alarm clock on Amazon. Reply

Anonymous Illinois January 4, 2017

Alarm clock? If you are planning on attending Saturday morning services, how are you supposed to make sure you're up in time without an alarm clock? (Asking as a serious question - I would love to turn it off for the day, but I'm worried I'll never go to services without it!) Do you just set it ahead of time? Is that permitted, or does it need to be actually off? Reply

Anonymous August 19, 2017
in response to Anonymous :

According to Rama one may not produce noise on Shabbat and therefore the use of an alarm clock is not allowed Reply

Simcha Bart for Chabad.org December 8, 2016

Accidentally Carrying In general, one should not stop walking and let go of the object in an unusual manner (known as a "Shinui). For example, turning out a pocket that the item is in and letting it fall to the ground, or just letting go of an object that is in their hand.

If it is too valuable to leave - and there is no way he can watch it until Shabbat is over, then he may pick it up and carry it home stopping after walking less than 4 cubits (about 6 feet), and dropping it just outside his home and leaving it there until Shabbat concludes. If he must bring it inside on Shabbat, he should do so in an unusual manner, like throwing it in or carrying it in his elbow etc.

Reply

Simcha Bart for Chabad.org November 14, 2016

Carrying in College Dorm Carrying in the hallways of a college dormitory falls under the category of carrying in public hallways - and would not be permitted unless one could make an eiruv chatzeirot (mentioned in the article above) in the dorm. This would need the guidance of a rabbi to see if and how this can be done.

Reply

Mrs. Chana Benjaminson via For Chabad.org November 11, 2016

To Anonymous On Shabbat we eat, laugh, pray and yes sleep and rest too. We take walks, play board games read, study, talk and spend quality time without electronics.
We may not drive to synagogue on Shabbat, if moving is not an option, create your own Shabbat atmosphere by hosting a Shabbat meal and inviting fellow Jews who live in your area and perhaps once in a while stay over at friends who live near the synagogue. Reply

Anonymous November 11, 2016

What is exactly done on Shabbat? Just sleeping ? And it is to my understanding that if one goes to the temple during Shabbat they are not allowed to drive correct ? Reply

Nechama Maryland November 10, 2016

Is carrying in a college dorm hallway carrying in a public domain? Thank you Reply

Anonymous November 8, 2016

Thank you for all your help Rabbi, I have a question?
What would you do if you accidentally found yourself carrying on Shabbat? Reply

Simcha Bart for Chabad.org November 3, 2016

Muktzah on Holidays Certain objects serve a function that is permitted on Jewish Holidays yet are prohibited on Shabbat. Since you may kindle a fire on Holidays (from a pre-existing flame), you may move candles, candlesticks, and their related items from place to place on Yom Tov. Yet these very same items are Muktzah on Shabbat - since you may not kindle any fire on Shabbat.

Reply

Eliezer Zalmanov for Chabad.org November 1, 2016

To Anonymous in WI Generally speaking, saving a life always take precedence. A rabbi should be consulted regarding the specifics of each case. Reply

Anonymous WI October 15, 2016

Are any laws able to be "broken" or abstained from if a person is receiving medical attention to address health concerns? Could this also apply to a psychiatric hospitalization as well? Reply