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The Shabbat Laws

The Shabbat Laws


The Shabbat laws are quite complex, requiring careful study and a qualified teacher. At first, it's often overwhelming and seems like an impossible number of restrictions. But spending shabbat with others who are shabbat observant will show you that eventually, you, too, will become comfortable with the Shabbat laws, as long as you realize that becoming shomer shabbat (shabbat observant) is a gradual process rather than an overnight transformation. You will also recognize that the wealth off details provides for a lifetime of scholarship--even those who have been keeping Shabbat for years find that there is always more to learn on this subject.

Following is a brief summary of some of the Shabbat laws you are most likely to encounter.

Let's start with some basic activities from which we refrain on Shabbat:

  • writing, erasing, and tearing;
  • business transactions;
  • driving or riding in cars or other vehicles;
  • shopping;
  • using the telephone;
  • turning on or off anything which uses electricity, including lights, radios, television, computer, air-conditioners and alarm clocks;
  • cooking, baking or kindling a fire;
  • gardening and grass-mowing;
  • doing laundry;

Does all this mean that Shabbat is somewhat of a miserable affair, where we sit hungry in the dark? Not at all. It simply means that we have to prepare for Shabbat in advance, so that, on the contrary, we celebrate in luxury, without doing any of the actual work, on Shabbat.

For example: Lights which will be needed on Shabbat are turned on before Shabbat. Automatic timers may be used for lights and some appliances as long as they have been set before Shabbat. The refrigerator may be used, but again, we have to ensure that it's use does not engender any of the forbidden Shabbat activities. Thus, the fridge light should be disconnected before Shabbat by unscrewing the bulb slightly and a freezer whose fan is activated when the door is opened may not be used.

Another example: We may not cook or light a fire, so we cook before Shabbat and keep the food warm through special methods that do not violate any Shabbat prohibitions. See Food Preparation on Shabbat for the laws and methods involved.

In addition to those mentioned above, two other important categories which are not permitted are using or touching items that are considered muktzah and carrying outdoors.


Many objects have been designated by our sages as Muktzah--we are forbidden from moving them, in some cases, even for activities permitted on Shabbat. Muktzah may not be moved directly with one's hand or even indirectly with an object (such as sweeping it away with a broom). However, Muktzah may be moved in a very awkward, unusual manner, with other parts of the body, e.g.: with one's teeth or elbow, or by blowing on it.

Some of the categories of Muktzah are:

1. Objects which have no designated use, e.g.: Stones, plants, flowers in a vase, raw food (inedible in its present state, such as beans); an object that has broken and become no longer useful such as a broken bowl, a button that falls off;

2. Valuable objects or those which would be used only for their designated task, for fear of damaging it, e.g.: Expensive items: camera, crystal decoration; Professional tools: scalpel, electric wiring; Important documents: passport, birth certificate;

3. Objects that are forbidden from use because of Torah prohibition, e.g.: Non-kosher food, chametz on Passover; also included are objects used for a mitzvah, such as tefillin, schach (rooftop greenery) that fell off a sukkah;

4. An object whose primary purpose is for an activity forbidden on Shabbat, e.g.: Hammer, stapler, pen. However, one is allowed to move these objects if a)they are needed for an activty permitted on Shabbat and nothing else can perform that task, e.g., a hammer to open a coconut or a telephone book as a booster seat or b) The place the object occupies is needed, e.g., if a pen is on a chair you want to sit on.

Anything that a muktzah object rests upon is a basis--base for the muktzah and becomes muktzah itself if:

A. The muktzah item was left on the spot intentionally, so that it remain there for at least part of Shabbat;

B. The object was placed there by the owner or with the knowledge of the owner;

C. At the start of Shabbat, the basis supported only the muktzah and no non-muktzah items.

An example of basis encountered every Shabbat is the Shabbat candles on the table. The candlesticks are muktzah, and may not be removed from the table on Shabbat. The table holding the candlesticks may thus become a base for muktzah and muktzah itself, preventing it from being moved if necessary. To remedy this, we simply put another non-muktzah item required for Shabbat on the table while setting up the candles. Thus, although the candlesticks are muktzah, the table holds the challah or prayerbook as well and is therefore not muktzah.


On Shabbat one may not carry or transfer objects between a "reshut ha-yachid" (private, enclosed domain, such as the house); and a "reshut ha-rabim" (public domain, such as the street). Examples of this prohibition include: carrying in one's pocket; carrying anything in the hand; wheeling a baby carriage or shopping cart, going outside with gum or food in the mouth. This prohibition also includes carrying in public hallways or yards of multiple dwellings, unless an eiruv chatzeirot is made. An eiruv chatzeirot is an arrangement whereby carrying in some of the above situations is permitted. In addition, the area in which one wishes to carry must be enclosed. This enclosure, commonly referred to as an eiruv, can occur naturally or be man-made, and must be constructed before Shabbat.

The Jewish community in some cities or neighborhoods constructs an eiruv which encloses several blocks. The area within the eiruv is then considered a private domain where carrying is permitted. If there is an eiruv, it is important to know its boundaries so as not to carry beyond them, and also to ensure before Shabbat that the eruv is up and not damaged.

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Discussion (40)
April 18, 2016
Good that you asked. As I'm sure you suspected, one may not desecrate Shabbat to honor Passover. Similarly, one may not carry a Siddur on Shabbat to synagogue. I would suggest you drop your Haggadah of at your friend's house before Shabbat begins. Alternatively, you can find out if there are any English/Hebrew Haggadahs at your friend's house that you would be able to use.
Simcha Bart for
April 15, 2016
My question: I am going to a seder dinner for Pesach at my friends house but his parents read the Haggadah in Hebrew..Can I carry my own English/Hebrew Haggadah on Shabbos when I go to their home even if the neighborhood doesn't have an eiruv?
April 1, 2016
1. The principle behind the law applies though they were given before the discovery of electricity. Many examples of this can be found in modern secular law. One example is the 4th amendment of the US Constitution prohibits unlawful search of a person or his property - US courts have ruled that this includes not listening in on a phone call though phones weren't invented when the Constitution was written.
2. A vehicle needs to expend more energy to carry every passenger. Therefore, the passenger is a direct cause to whatever "work" the vehicle is doing.
Simcha Bart for
March 31, 2016
Electrical Items
My question is this: Presumably these laws were devised at a time when electric power didn't exist, so the laws for turning on or off electric devices have to at some intervening point, be interpreted by a mortal human being(s), so where did these laws come from?

Regarding driving/riding, I would posit that public transportation is ok with the rationale that this bus, train, or airplane is going to operate whether I get on or not, there's nothing causally that I can do to cause or prevent the vehicle's operation. If automatic timers on lights are ok because we're not actually operating the lights, why wouldn't public transportation be ok for that same reason?
January 26, 2016
Thank you Shaul Wolf for the answers, I appreciate it!
Thank G-d I don't have gums that bleed, so is the oil method I mentioned ok to use for Shabbat? What about the no polishing thing I mentioned that I thought I heard was for Shabbat as well, would it apply to toothbrushing or "polishing" as the Hebrew name for it is?
January 25, 2016
Re: Weekday talk
Being that Shabbat is a holy day it is best that it be dedicated to holy pursuits. It follows, therefore, that one should try to the best of their ability to reserve Shabbat conversation to matters of Torah and holiness. Catching up from the past week is not forbidden; it is just that we try as much as we can to have "Shabbat" conversations.
Shaul Wolf
January 25, 2016
Re: Brushing teeth
Aside for the issue of toothpaste there is an additional concern with brushing teeth, that it may cause the gums to bleed. If one has weak gums that are prone to bleeding as a result of brushing their teeth they should not brush on Shabbat, even if it is without toothpaste.
Shaul Wolf
January 22, 2016
Also, in your Shabbat wizard there is this paragraph;

"The spirit of Shabbat rest is no less important than its technical observance. Avoid talking, or even thinking, about business, sports, the news, or other weekday matters. Also to be avoided are activities which may technically not violate any of the Shabbat laws, but are workday and mundane in nature."

During Shabbat we talk catch up with family or friends that come over and talk about our week with each other and tell of work stories. I was often invited to friends for Shabbat and they would ask me how my week went and if things are fine. They were orthodox but they encouraged stories about the week. Is this ok, or violation of Shabbat to discuss our past week together?

Should we maybe only talk about holy things on Shabbat and reserve catching up till Saturday night or Sunday? Because then the whole new week starts up again and I find people just get way too busy to actually sit down and have a meaningful chat....
January 22, 2016
Brushing teeth
I would like to please know if my method is allowed on Shabbat? I don't actually ever use toothpaste, I use oils, either kosher sesame oil, which is liquid, or kosher coconut oil, which melts completely to liquid inside the mouth.

I take the oil, either one of these, and spoon it in. I swish it around as if test tasting wine, and it becomes even more liquid. I then spit some of it out and brush. I don't push the button on my battery toothbrush, I just brush manually (for Shabbat)

Lately I have been scared maybe this is not ok as polishing might not be allowed on Shabbat and by moving a brush over your teeth, you are, literally in Hebrew "Me'Tzach'Tzech" polishing them. So any tooth brush technically polishes the teeth.

Can someone please help me to see if my method is ok to use on Shabbat?

Thank you so much for all your information you provide and I hope to hear from you,

Toda Raba!
March 9, 2015
Thank you for the reply. I agree with the underlying issue you presented. For my own purposes, I will pursue a dialogue with an orthodox Rabbi who is comfortable with an open dialogue and perhaps empathetic to a reductionist point of view.