Before partaking of any food, a brachah rishonah (preceding blessing), is said. There are six different blessings, each beginnning with the same words, BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM, Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the Universe, and concluding with a few words related to the type of food eaten. Following are the food groups with examples for each group and a transliteration and translation of the Hebrew blessing for each.

1. Hamotzi: The Blessing on Bread

On bread, bagels, challah, matzah, pita and rolls made from any of these five grains: wheat, barley, rye, oat or spelt1:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ:

BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI
ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM
HA-MO-TZI LE-CHEM MIN HA-A-RETZ.
Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the
Universe, Who brings forth bread from the earth.

Read: Hamotzi, the Blessing on Bread.

2. Mezonot: The Blessing on the Five Grains

On cakes, cereals, cookies, cupcakes, doughnuts, and pasta - if made of one or more of the five grains listed under the first blessing:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת

BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI
ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM
BO-RAI MI-NAI ME-ZO-NOT.
Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the
Universe, Who creates various kinds of sustenance.

Read: Mezonot, the Blessing on Grains.

3. Hagafen: The Blessing on Wine & Grape Juice

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן

BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI
ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM
BO-RAI PRI HA-GA-FEN.
Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the
Universe, Who creates the fruit of the vine.

Read: Borei Pri Hagafen, the Blessing on Wine and Grape Juice.

4. Ha'etz: The Blessing on Fruits


For all fruits from permanent trees, such as apples, oranges, and peaches, even if these fruits are dried; also grapes, raisins, and all nuts (except peanuts, which are a legume):

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ

BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI
ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM
BO-RAI PRI HA-AITZ.
Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the
Universe, Who creates the fruit of the tree.

Read: Borei Pri Ha'etz, the Blessing on Fruits.

5. Ha'adamah: The Blessing on Vegetables


For all vegetables and greens from the ground, peanuts, legumes, and some fruits such as bananas, melons, and pineapples:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה:

BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI
ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM
BO-RAI PRI HA-A-DA-MAH.
Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the
Universe, Who creates the fruit of the earth.

Read: Borei Pri Ha'Adamah, the Blessing on Vegetables.

6. Shehakol: The Blessing on All Other Foods


For candy, dairy, eggs, fish, liquids, meat, mushrooms and everything else not included in the first five blessings above:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ:

BA-RUCH A-TAH A-DO-NOI
ELO-HAI-NU ME-LECH HA-O-LAM
SHE-HA-KOL NI-H'YAH BI-D'VA-RO.
Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the
Universe, by Whose word all things came to be.

Read: Shehakol, the Blessing on All Other Foods.


NOTE: The above blessings apply to foods in their basic form; however, the blessings may vary when the form is changed through processing, or when foods are combined. See Combined Foods