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Negative Commandments

Negative Commandments

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1. The first mitzvah of the negative command­ments is not to consider the thought that there is another divinity aside from God, as [Exodus 20:13] states: "You shall have no other gods before Me."

2. Not to make an idol - not to make one oneself or have one made for oneself by others - as [Exodus 20:4] states: "Do not make an idol for yourselves."

3. Not to make false gods even for others, as [Leviticus 19:4] states: "Do not make molten gods for yourselves."

4. Not to make images for decoration, even when one does not worship them, as [Exodus 20:20] states: "Do not make a representation of anything that is with Me."

5. Not to bow down to any false gods, even though they are not generally worshiped by bowing down before them, as [Exodus 20:13] states: "Do not bow down to them."

6. Not to worship false gods with the types of ser­vice with which it is customary to worship them, as [Exodus 20:3] states: "Do not serve them."

7. Not to offer one's son to Molech, as [Leviticus 18:21] states: "Do not give [any] of your children to offer to Molech."

8. Not to perform the deeds associated with an ov, as [Leviticus 19:31] states: "Do not turn to the ovot."

9. Not to perform the deeds associated with a yid'oni, as [Leviticus 19:31] states: "Do not turn to... the yid'onim."

10. Not to take interest in the worship of false gods, as [Leviticus 19:4] states: "Do not turn to false gods."

11. Not to erect a pillar [for purposes of worship], as [Deuteronomy 16:22] states: "Do not erect a pillar for yourselves."

12. Not to make hewn stones [upon which to prostrate oneself], as [Leviticus 26:1] states: "You shall not place hewn stones..."

13. Not to plant a tree on the Temple [premises], as [Deuteronomy 16:21] states: "Do not plant an asherah or any other tree...."

14. Not to take an oath on a false god [as requested by] one of its worshipers, nor to have one of them take an oath on [their false god], as [Exodus 23:13] states: "And the name of other gods you shall not mention, nor should it be heard from your mouth."

15. Not to act as a missionary [madiach] to per­suade the Jews to worship false gods], as [Exodus 23:13] states: "And the name of other gods... shall not be heard from your mouth." [Our Sages taught that] this is a prohibition against acting as a missionary for the worship of false gods.

16. Not to act as a missionary [mesit] to persuade an individual Jew to worship false gods, as [Deuteronomy 13:12] states with regard to such missionaries: "And they shall not continue to do so."

17. Not to show affection for a mesit, as [Deuteron­omy 13:9] states: "Do not show appreciation for him."

18. Not to reduce one's hatred for a mesit, as [Deuteronomy 13:9] states: "Do not listen to him."

19. Not to [try to] save a mesit, but rather to see to it that he is executed, as [Deuteronomy 13:9] states: "Do not have mercy upon him."

20. For the person whom a mesit tried to convince not to advance any arguments on behalf of the mesit, as [Deuteronomy 13:9] states: "Do not have pity... [upon him]."

21. For the person whom a mesit tried to convince not to withhold any evidence he is aware of that would incriminate the mesit, as [Deuteronomy 13:9] states: "And do not try to cover up for him."

22. Not to benefit from ornaments that have adorned false gods, as [Deuteronomy 7:25] states: "Do not covet the gold or silver which is upon them...."

23. Not to rebuild an apostate city to its former stature, as [Deuteronomy 13:17] states: "It shall never be rebuilt."

24. Not to benefit from the property of an apostate city, as [Deuteronomy 13:18] states: "Let nothing that has been condemned cling to your hand."

25. Not to benefit from false gods, from any of their accessories, anything offered to them, or any wine brought as a libation for them, as [Deuteronomy 7:26] states: "Do not bring an abomination into your house."

26. Not to prophesy in the name of false gods, as [Deuteronomy 18:20] states: "[The prophet]... who speaks in the name of other gods [shall die]."

27. Not to relate false prophecies, as [Deuteron­omy 18:20] states: "When a prophet presumptu­ously makes a declaration in My name which I have not commanded him...."

28. Not to listen to someone who prophesies in the name of false gods, as [Deuteronomy 13:4] states: "Do not listen to the words of that prophet."a

29. Not to refrain from executing a false prophet, nor to fear him, as [Deuteronomy 18:22] states: "Do not fear him."

30. Not to follow the laws or customs of the worshipers of false gods, as [Leviticus 20:23] states: "Do not follow the practices of the nation [that I am driving out before you]...."

31. Not to practice black magic, as [Deuteronomy 18:10] states: "There shall not be found among you... a magician."

32. Not to practice divination, as [Leviticus 19:26] states: "Do not practice divination."

33. Not to act as a soothsayer, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "Do not act as a soothsayer."

34. Not to practice sorcery, as [Deuteronomy 18:10] states: "There shall not be found among you... a sorcerer."

35. Not to cast spells, as [Deuteronomy 18:11] states: "[There shall not be found among you...] one who casts spells."

36. Not to consult an ov, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "[There shall not be found among you...] one who consults an ov."

37. Not to consult a yid'oni, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "[There shall not be found among you...] one who consults an ov or a yid'oni."

38. Not to seek information from the dead in dreams, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "[There shall not be found among you...] one who attempts to communicate with the dead."

39. For a woman not to wear articles appropriate for men, as [Deuteronomy 22:5] states: "A woman should not wear a man's clothing."

40. For a man not to wear articles appropriate for women, as [Deuteronomy 22:5] states: "A man should not wear a woman's clothing." [This prohibition was instituted] because this is an idolatrous custom. Explicit statements to this effect are found in the texts describing their worship.

41. Not to tattoo our bodies like the worshipers of false gods, as [Leviticus 19:28] states: "Do not tattoo your flesh."

42. Not to wear sha'atnez, as do the priests of false gods, as [Deuteronomy 22:11] states: "Do not wear sha'atnez."

43. Not to shave the temples of our heads, as do the worshipers of false gods, as [Leviticus 19:27] states: "Do not shave your temples."b

44. Not to shave off our beards entirely, as do the priests of false gods, as [Leviticus 19:27] states: "Do not shave the corners of your beard."

45. Not to make cuts in our flesh, as the worshipers of false gods do, as [Deuteronomy 14:1] states: "Do not cut yourselves." Gedidah is another term for cutting.

46. Not to ever dwell in the land of Egypt, as [Deuteronomy 17:16] states: "Do not ever return on this path again."

47. Not to stray after the thoughts of one's heart or the sights one's eyes behold, as [Numbers 15:39] states: "Do not stray after your heart and eyes."

48. Not to establish a covenant with the seven [Canaanite] nations, as [Deuteronomy 7:2] states: "Do not establish a covenant with them."

49. Not to allow a single member of the seven [Canaanite] nations to live, as [Deuteronomy 20:16] states: "Do not allow a soul to live."

50. Not to show favor to the worshipers of false gods, as [Deuteronomy 7:2] states: "Do not show them favor."

51. Not to allow the worshipers of false gods to settle in our land, as [Exodus 23:33] states: "They shall not settle in your land."

52. Not to marry gentiles, as [Deuteronomy 7:3] states: "Do not marry among them."

53. For a Jewish woman never to marry an Am­monite or Moabite [even after conversion], as [Deuteronomy 23:4] states: "An Ammonite or a Moabite shall never enter the congregation of God."

54. Not to prevent the third generation of [converts from] the descendants of Esau from marrying among [the Jewish people], as [Deuteronomy 23:8] states: "Do not [utterly] despise an Edomite."

55. Not to prevent the third generation of Egyptian [converts] from marrying among [the Jewish peo­ple], as [Deuteronomy 23:8] states: "Do not [ut­terly] despise an Egyptian."

56. Not to make an offer of peace to Ammon and Moav at the outbreak of war, as is done for other nations, as [Deuteronomy 23:7] states: "Do not seek their peace and welfare...."

57. Not to destroy fruit trees nor to destroy any-thing else of value, as [Deuteronomy 20:19] states: "Do not destroy its trees."

58. For soldiers not to fear or become frightened of the enemy during war, as [Deuteronomy 7:21] states: "Do not panic before them," and [Deuteronomy 3:22] states: "Do not fear them."a,b

59. Not to forget the wicked deeds which Amalek perpetrated against us, as [Deuteronomy 25:19] states: "Do not forget."

60. The prohibition against blessing [i.e., cursing] God's name, as [Exodus 22:27] states: "Do not curse God." [Leviticus 27:16] mentions the pun­ishment: "One who curses the name of God shall surely die." This is a general principle: A negative commandment is involved whenever the Torah mentions the punishments of karet or execution - with the exception of circumcision and the Paschal sacrifice which are positive commandments pun­ishable by karet.

61. Not to violate an oath, as [Leviticus 19:12] states: "Do not swear falsely in My name."

62. Not to take an oath in vain, as [Exodus 20:7] states: "Do not take the name of God, your Lord, in vain."

63. Not to profane the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, as [Leviticus 22:32] states: "Do not profane My holy name."

64. Not to test the promises of God, as [Deuteron­omy 6:15] states: "Do not test God, your Lord."

65. Not to destroy the Temple, synagogues, or houses of study; and similarly, not to erase any of [God’s] sacred names, nor to destroy any sacred texts, as [Deuteronomy 12:3-4] states: "You shall surely destroy them. Do not do this to God, your Lord."1

66. Not to leave a corpse that was hung on the gallows, as [Deuteronomy 21:23] states: "Do not leave his body on the gallows."

67. Not to interrupt the watch held around the Temple, as [Leviticus 18:30] states: "And you shall keep My watch."2

68. For a priest not to enter the Temple building at all times, as [Leviticus 16:2] states: "And he shall not enter the sanctuary at all times."

69. For a priest with a disqualifying physical de­formity not to proceed beyond [the beginning of] the altar, as [Leviticus 21:23] states: "However, to the parochet3 he shall not approach."a

70. For a priest with a disqualifying physical de­formity not to serve [in the Temple], as [Leviticus 21:17] states: "[Anyone...] who has a blemish [may not approach to present]...."

71. For a priest with a disqualifying physical de­formity of a temporary nature not to serve [in the Temple], as [Leviticus 21:18] states: "Anyone who has a blemish may not approach [to offer a sacrifice]."a

72. For the Levites not to perform the services of the priests, and for the priests not to perform the services of the Levites, as [Numbers 18:3] states with regard to the Levites: "Neither to the sacred vessels nor to the altar shall they approach, so that they do not die, neither they nor you."

73. For a person who is intoxicated not to enter the Temple nor to render a halachic decision, as [Leviticus 10:9] states: "Do not drink wine or strong drink when you enter the Tent of Testi­mony," and [ibid., 10:11] states: "or when you render a decision for the children of Israel."a

74. For a non-priest not to serve in the Temple, as [Numbers 18:4] states: "An unauthorized person shall not approach them."

75. For a priest who is ritually impure not to serve [in the Temple], as [Leviticus 22:2] states: "And they shall separate themselves from the sacred offerings of the children of Israel."

76. For a priest who has immersed himself in a mikveh in order to purify himself from ritual impurity not to serve [in the Temple] until the conclusion, of that day, as [Leviticus 21:6] states: "And they shall not profane...."

77. For a priest who is ritually impure not to enter the Temple courtyard, as [Numbers 5:3] states: "And they shall not make your camp impure." This refers to the camp of the Divine Presence.

78. For a person who is impure not to enter the camp of the Levites, the parallel for all time being the Temple Mount, as [Deuteronomy 23:11] states: "Do not enter the camp." This refers to the camp of the Levites.

79. Not to build the altar with hewn stones, as [Exodus 20:22] states: "Do not make them hewn."

80. Not to ascend to the altar using steps, as [Exodus 20:23] states: "Do not ascend My altar with steps."

81. Not to offer any [undesired] incense offering or any sacrifices on the golden altar, as [Exodus 30:9] states: "Do not offer any unauthorized incense upon it."

82. Not to extinguish the fire of the altar, as [Leviticus 6:6] states: "Burn a continuous fire on the altar. Do not extinguish it."

83. Not to duplicate the composition of the anointing oil, as [Exodus 30:32] states: "And do not duplicate its formula."

84. Not to anoint an unauthorized person with the anointing oil, as [Exodus 30:32] states: "Do not anoint the flesh of a person with it."

85. Not to duplicate the composition of the incense offering, as [Exodus 30:37] states: "Do not dupli­cate its formula."

86. Not to remove the staves of the ark, as [Exodus 25:16] states: "They shall not be removed from it."

87. For the [High Priest's] breastplate not to come loose from the ephod, as [Exodus 28:28] states: "The breastplate shall not come loose from the ephod."

88. For the [High Priest's] cloak not to tear, as [Exodus 28:32] states: "It shall have a woven border around it. It shall not tear."

89. Not to offer sacred offerings outside [the Tem­ple], as [Deuteronomy 12:13] states: "Be careful, lest you offer your burnt offerings...."

90. Not to slaughter sacred offerings outside [the Temple], as [Leviticus 17:3-4] states: "A person who slaughters an ox or a sheep without bringing it to the Tent of Testimony. He shall be punished by karet."

91. Not to consecrate animals with disqualifying physical blemishes [as sacrifices to be offered on] the altar, as [Leviticus 22:20] states: "Any [animal] which has a blemish shall not be sacrificed." This prohibition involves [the animal's] consecration.

92. Not to slaughter animals with disqualifying physical blemishes as sacrifices, as [Leviticus 22:22] states: "Do not sacrifice these to God."

93. Not to sprinkle the blood of animals with disqualifying physical blemishes on the altar, as [Leviticus 22:24] states: "Do not sacrifice to God...." This prohibition involves sprinkling [the animal's] blood."

94. Not to burn the sacrificial portions of animals with disqualifying physical blemishes [as sacrifices on the altar], as [Leviticus 22:22] states: "Do not make a fire offering of them."

95. Not to offer a animals with disqualifying phys­ical blemishes of a temporary nature as sacrifices, as [Deuteronomy 17:1] states: "Do not sacrifice to God, your Lord, an ox or a sheep that has a blemish." This refers to a blemish of a temporary nature.a

96. Not to offer an animal with a disqualifying physical blemish as a sacrifice when it was brought by gentiles, as [Leviticus 22:25] states: "Do not offer sacrifices [from these animals] when they are given by gentiles."

97. Not to inflict a disqualifying physical blemish upon a consecrated animal, as [Leviticus 22:21] states: "It shall not have a blemish."This can be interpreted to mean: Do not inflict a blemish upon it.

98. Not to burn as an offering anything which is sweetened or leavened, as [Leviticus 2:11] states: "You may not burn anything leavened or sweet [as a fire offering]."a

99. Not to offer a sacrifice which is unsalted, as [Leviticus 2:13] states: "Do not omit the salt of God's covenant."

100. Not to offer as a sacrifice an animal received by a prostitute as her fee, or an animal received in exchange for a dog, as [Deuteronomy 23:19] states: "Do not bring a prostitute's fee or the price of a dog...."

101. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day, as [Leviticus 22:25] states: "Do not slaughter it and its offspring on the same day."

102. Not to place olive oil on the meal offering brought by a sinner, as [Leviticus 5:11] states: "Do not place oil upon it."

103. Not to place frankincense on such a sacrifice, as [Leviticus, ibid.] continues: "...and do not place frankincense upon it."

104. Not to place oil on the meal offering brought by a sotah, as [Numbers 5:15] states: "Do not pour oil upon it."

105. Not to place frankincense on such a sacrifice, as [Numbers, ibid.] continues: "...and do not place frankincense upon it."

106. Not to substitute [another animal] for [one selected as] a sacred offering, as [Leviticus 27:10] states: "Do not exchange it or substitute another for it."

107. Not to change the designation of a conse­crated animal from one sacrifice to another, as [Leviticus 27:26] states regarding a firstling ani­mal: "A person should not consecrate it" - i.e., he should not consecrate it as another sacrifice.

108. Not to redeem a firstling kosher animal, as [Numbers 18:17] states: "Nevertheless, a firstling ox... do not redeem."

109. Not to sell the tithe of cattle, as [Leviticus 27:33] states: "It shall not be redeemed."

110. Not to sell a field that has been dedicated, as [Leviticus 27:28] states: "It shall not be sold."

111. Not to redeem a field that has been dedicated, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "It shall not be redeemed."

112. Not to sever the head of a bird [brought as] a sin offering, as [Leviticus 5:8] states: "He shall pinch off its head...[without separating it]."

113. Not to work with consecrated animals, as [Deuteronomy 15:19] states: "Do not work with your firstling ox."

114. Not to shear consecrated animals, as [Deuteronomy 15:19] states: "Do not shear your firstling sheep."

115. Not to slaughter the Paschal sacrifice while one possesses chametz, as [Exodus 23:18] states: "Do not sacrifice the blood of My offering in the presence of chametz."

116. Not to allow the sacrificial portions of the Paschal sacrifice to become disqualified by re­maining overnight, as [Exodus 23:18] states: "Do not allow the fat of My festive offering to remain until the morning."

117. Not to allow the meat of the Paschal sacrifice to remain [overnight], as [Exodus 12:10] states: "Do not leave over any of it until the morning."

118. Not to allow the meat of the Chaggigah sac­rifice to remain until the third day, as [Deuteron­omy 16:14] states: "Do not leave over any of the meat...." According to the oral tradition, we have learned that the verse refers to the Chaggigah sac­rifice offered on the fourteenth of Nisan. The phrase "until the morning" [in that verse] refers to the morning of the second day of Pesach, the third day after [the sacrifice] was offered.

119. Not to allow the meat of the second Paschal sacrifice to remain until the morning, as [Numbers 9:12] states: "Do not leave over any of it until the morning."

120. Not to allow the meat of the thanksgiving offering to remain until the morning, as [Leviticus 22:30] states: "Do not leave over any of it until the morning." The same law applies to all other sacrifices. They should not be left over beyond the time allotted for their consumption.

Note: We have marked with the letter “a” those mitzvot concerning which the Ramban (Nachmanides) differs with the Rambam in his Hasagot to Sefer HaMitzvot, and with the letter “b,” those mitzvot concerning which the Ra'avad, in his gloss to the Mishneh Torah, differs with the Rambam.

121. Not to break any of the bones of the Paschal sacrifice, as [Exodus 12:46] states: "Neither shall you break a bone of it."

122. Not to break any of the bones of the Second Paschal sacrifice, as [Numbers 9:12] states: "Neither shall you break a bone of it."

123. Not to remove the meat of the Paschal sacrifice from the company [in which it is being eaten], as [Exodus 12:46] states: "Do not remove [any of the meat] from the house...."

124. Not to allow any of the remaining portions of the meal offerings to leaven, as [Leviticus 6:10] states: "It shall not be baked as leaven. Their portion...."

125. Not to eat the meat of the Paschal sacrifice raw or boiled in water, as [Exodus 12:9] states: "Do not eat from it raw or boiled in water."

126. Not to feed the meat of the Paschal sacrifice to a resident alien, as [Exodus 12:45] states: "No temporary resident or hired worker may eat from it."

127. Not to feed the meat of the Paschal sacrifice to an uncircumcised male, as [Exodus 12:48] states: "No uncircumcised person may eat of it."

128. Not to feed the meat of the Paschal sacrifice to an apostate Jew, as [Exodus 12:43] states: "No outsider may eat from it." This refers to a Jew who has become assimilated among the gentiles and serves false gods, as they do. He must not partake [of the Paschal sacrifice].

129. For a person who became ritually impure not to partake of consecrated foods, as [Leviticus 6:20] states: "And a soul who partakes of the meat of the peace sacrifice while he is impure...."

130. Not to partake of consecrated foods that have contracted ritual impurity, as [Leviticus 7:19] states: "Meat that has touched any impurity shall not be eaten."

131. Not to eat sacrificial meat that has remained past the limits allotted for its consumption, as [Leviticus 19:8] states: "One who eats it shall bear his guilt,... his soul will be punished by karet."

132. Not to eat piggul, as [Leviticus 7:18] states: "It will not be accepted for him. Instead, it will be considered as piggul. Any person who eats it will bear his guilt." This sin is punishable by karet.

133. For an unauthorized person not to partake of the terumot,4as [Leviticus 22:10] states: "No unauthorized person shall eat it."

134. For even a tenant or a hired worker employed by a priest not to partake of terumah, as [Leviticus 22:10] states: "A tenant of a priest or [his] hired worker shall not eat the holy [food]."

135. For an uncircumcised person not to partake of terumah or other consecrated foods. This con­cept was derived from a gezerah shavah and is not explicitly mentioned in the Torah. [Nevertheless,] based on the oral tradition, the prohibition against an uncircumcised person partaking of consecrated foods is considered as a [prohibition of] the Torah itself and not a decree of the Sages.5

136. For a priest who is impure not to partake of terumah, as [Leviticus 22:4] states: "Any of your descendants... shall not eat from the consecrated foods."6

137. For a chalalah not to partake of consecrated foods, neither terumah, nor the breast and the shankbone [given to the priest], as [Leviticus 22:12] states: "When a priest's daughter marries an unauthorized person, she shall not eat [from the sacred, elevated gifts]."

138. For a meal offering brought by a priest not to be eaten, as [Leviticus 6:15] states: "Any meal offering brought by a priest shall be consumed entirely [by fire]; it shall not be eaten."

139. Not to partake of the meat of the sin offerings [whose blood is sprinkled] within [the Temple sanctuary], as [Leviticus 6:23] states: "Any sin offering whose blood has been brought...."

140. Not to partake of consecrated animals that were disqualified [for use as sacrifices because] a blemish was intentionally inflicted upon them, as [Deuteronomy 14:3] states: "Do not eat of any abomination." According to the oral tradition, we have learned that the verse refers to consecrated animals that were disqualified for use because of a blemish inflicted upon them.

141. Not to eat grain [separated as] the second tithe outside of Jerusalem, as [Deuteronomy 12:17] states: "You may not eat within your gates the tithe from your grain."

142. Not to consume wine [separated as] the second tithe outside of Jerusalem, as [Deuteron­omy, ibid.] continues: "...your wine...."

143. Not to consume oil [separated as] the second tithe outside of Jerusalem, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] continues: "...and your oil...."

144. Not to eat an unblemished firstling animal outside of Jerusalem, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "You may not eat [within your gates]... and the firstlings [of your cattle and flocks]...."

145. For the priests not to eat a sin offering or a guilt offering outside the Temple courtyard, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] continues: "...your cattle and your flocks." According to the oral tradition, the purpose of this phrase is only to forbid the consumption of the sin offerings and the guilt offerings outside the Temple courtyard. Anything that is eaten outside the place intended for it is covered by the [prohibition]: "You may not eat within your gates...."

146. Not to eat the meat of a burnt offering, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "You may not [eat]...[the sacrifices] you have vowed [to bring]...," meaning to say: You may not eat [the sacrifices] you have vowed to give. This is a warning against a person's benefiting from the [unauthorized use] of consecrated articles which he is forbidden to use. If he derives such benefit, he transgresses.

147. Not to eat the meat of sacrifices of a lesser order of holiness before the sprinkling of their blood, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "You may not [eat]... the [animals] you have pledged [to bring as sacrifices]..." - i.e., you are not allowed to eat from the sacrifices you have pledged until their blood has been sprinkled.

148. For an unauthorized person not to eat the meat of the sacrifices of the highest order of sanc­tity, as [Exodus 29:33] states: "An unauthorized person shall not partake of them, for they are holy."

149. For a priest not to partake of the first fruits [Bikkurim] before they are placed down in the Temple courtyard, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "You may not [eat]... the elevated gifts [delivered by] hand." The [latter phrase] refers to the first fruits.

150. Not to eat the second tithe which has become impure, even within Jerusalem, until it has been redeemed, as [Deuteronomy 26:14] states: "I have not consumed it while it is impure."

151. Not to eat the second tithe while in mourning, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "I have not eaten from it while in mourning."

152. Not to use the proceeds [from the redemption of] the second tithe for anything aside from food and drink, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] states: "I have not used it for the dead." Anything that is not associated with the needs of a living body is referred to as "used for the dead."7

153. Not to eat tevel. Tevel refers to produce from which one is obligated to separate terumah and tithes from which God's terumah has not been separated, as [Leviticus 22:15] states: "And they shall not profane the sacred gifts which the children of Israel will separate for God." This implies that the produce which [the Jews] will ultimately separate for God should not be treated in a mundane manner and eaten while tevel.

154. Not to separate terumah before the first fruits, nor the first tithe before terumah, nor the second tithe before the first. Rather, [the agricultural gifts] must be given in order - first, the first fruits; afterwards, terumah; afterwards, the first tithe; and, afterwards, the second tithe - as [implied by Exodus 22:28]: "Do not delay your offerings of newly ripened produce and your agricultural offerings." [This means:] Do not delay bringing an offering that should be brought first.

155. Not to delay bringing sacrifices you have vowed to offer, or animals which you have pledged to bring as sacrifices, as [Deuteronomy 23:22] states: "[When you make a pledge to God,] do not delay paying it."

156. Not to make a festive pilgrimage without [bringing] a sacrifice, as [Exodus 23:15] states: "Do not appear before Me empty-handed."

157. Not to violate a vow which a person makes forbidding his use of anything, as [Numbers 30:3] states: "He shall not violate his word."

158. For a priest not to marry an immoral woman [zonah], as [Leviticus 21:7] states: "They shall not marry an immoral woman or a chalalah."

159. For a priest not to marry a chalalah,8 as [Leviticus 21:7] states: "They shall not marry... a chalalah."

160. For a priest not to marry a divorcee, as [Leviticus 21:7] states: "...nor may they marry a woman divorced from her husband."

161. For a High Priest not to marry a widow, as [Leviticus 21:14] states: "A widow, a divorcee, a chalalah, or an immoral woman - these he must not marry."

162. For a High Priest not to have sexual relations with a widow even outside the context of marriage, because by doing so he profanes her, as [Leviticus 21:15] states: "He shall not profane his progeny...." This [also] implies that he must not cause a woman eligible to marry a priest to become ineli­gible [as happens through the relations described above].

163. For a priest not to enter the Temple with hair that has grown unseemingly long, as [implied by Leviticus 10:6]: "Do not let your hair grow long."a

164. For a priest not to enter the Temple with torn garments, as [implied by Leviticus, ibid.]: "Do not rend your garments."

165. For a priest not to leave the Temple courtyard in the midst of service, as [implied by Leviticus 10:7]: "Do not depart from before the entrance to the Tent of Testimony."

166. For a common priest not to become impure through contact with a corpse [with the exception of the specific instances permitted by the Torah], as [Leviticus 21:1] states: "He shall not become impure [through contact with] the dead."

167. For a High Priest not to become impure [through contact with any corpse], even [those of] his relatives, as [Leviticus 21:11] states: "He shall not become impure, [even] for his father and mother."

168. For a High Priest not to enter the place where a corpse is found, as [Leviticus 21:11] states: "He should not come in contact with any dead body." According to the oral tradition, we have learned that he is obligated [for violating both the prohibitions:] not to become impure and not to enter [the place of a corpse].

169. For the tribe of Levi not to take a portion of Eretz Yisrael, as [Deuteronomy 18:2] states: "He shall not receive an inheritance."

170. For the tribe of Levi not to take a portion of the spoils in the conquest of Eretz Yisrael, as [Deuteronomy 18:1] states: "The priests and the Levites shall not receive a portion or an inheri­tance."

171. Not to tear out hair [in mourning] for the dead, as [Deuteronomy 14:1] states: "Do not make a bald spot upon your heads."

172. Not to eat non-kosher animals, as [Deuteron­omy 14:7] states: "Nevertheless, among those who chew the cud, these you may not eat...."

173. Not to eat non-kosher fish, as [Leviticus 11:11] states: "They shall be [regarded as] a detes­table thing for you. Do not eat of their flesh."

174. Not to eat non-kosher birds, as [Leviticus 11:13] states: "These birds you must regard as detestable. Do not eat them."

175. Not to eat flying insects, as [Deuteronomy 14:19] states: "Every flying insect [that is] not-kosher for you shall not be eaten."

176. Not to eat insects that breed on land, as [Leviticus 11:41] states: "Every insect that creeps upon the earth must be regarded as detestable. It may not be eaten."

177. Not to eat anything that creeps on the earth, as [Leviticus 11:44] states: "Do not make your souls impure with any insect that creeps upon the earth."

178. Not to eat worms that breed in produce after they become exposed to the air, as [Leviticus 11:42] states: "...for any swarming creature which breeds upon the land, you shall not eat them."

179. Not to eat swarming creatures that breed in the water, as [Leviticus 11:43] states: "Do not make yourselves detestable [by eating] any swarming creature."

180. Not to eat carrion, as [Deuteronomy 14:21] states: "Do not eat carrion."

181. Not to eat an animal with a mortal infliction (trefah), as [Exodus 22:30] states: "Do not eat flesh torn off [by a predator]."

182. Not to eat a limb from a living animal, as [Deuteronomy 12:23] states: "Do not eat the life [of an animal] with its flesh."

183. Not to eat the displaced [sciatic] nerve as [Genesis 32:33] states: "Therefore, the children of Israel do not eat the displaced nerve."

184. Not to consume blood, as [Leviticus 7:26] states: "Do not consume any blood."

185. Not to partake of [hard] fat, as [Leviticus 7:23] states: "Do not eat any of the fat in an ox, sheep, or goat."

186. Not to cook meat and milk [together], as [Exodus 23:19] states: "Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk."

187. Not to eat meat and milk [together], as [Exodus 34:26] states: "Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk." Based on the oral tradition, we have learned that one [of these verses] implies a prohibition against cooking [the two together], and the other, a prohibition against eating [from the combination].

188. Not to partake of the meat of an ox that was stoned to death, as [Exodus 21:28] states: "And do not eat its flesh."

189. Not to eat bread made from newly grown produce before Pesach, as [Leviticus 23:14] states: "[Until that day,...] you may not eat bread..."

190. Not to eat roasted grain from newly grown produce before Pesach, as [Leviticus, ibid.] con­tinues: "[Until that day,...] you may not eat... roasted grain..."

191. Not to eat fresh grain from newly grown produce before Pesach, as [Leviticus, ibid.] con­tinues: "[Until that day,...] you may not eat... fresh grain."

192. Not to eat orlah for three years, as [Leviticus 19:23] states: "For three years, you must regard its fruit as a forbidden growth. It may not be eaten."

193. Not to eat mixed species planted in a vineyard, as [Deuteronomy 22:9] states: "...lest the yield of the crops you planted and the fruit of the vineyard shall become forfeit." This refers to a prohibition against eating [such produce].

194. Not to drink wine used for idolatrous liba­tions, as [Deuteronomy 32:38] states: "...who ate the fat of their sacrifices and drank the wine of their libations."a

195. Not to eat or drink like a glutton and a drunkard, as [Deuteronomy 21:20] states: "This son of ours is a glutton and a drunkard."9

196. Not to eat on the day of the fast [of Yom Kippur], as [Leviticus 23:29] states: "For any person who does not afflict himself [on that day]...."

197. Not to partake of chametz on Pesach, as [Exodus 13:3] states: "Do not eat chametz."

198. Not to eat a mixture of chametz, as [Exodus 12:20] states: "Do not eat any leavened matter."a

199. Not to eat chametz after noontime on the fourteenth [of Nisan], as [Deuteronomy 16:3] states: "Do not eat chametz with it."a

200. Not to have chametz seen [in one's possession during Pesach], as [Exodus 13:7] states: "No chametz and no leaven may be seen in your ter­ritories."

201. Not to have chametz found [in one's possession during Pesach], as [Exodus 13:7] states: "No chametz may be found in your homes."

202. For a Nazarite not to drink wine or partake of anything in which wine was mixed and has the taste of wine, as [Numbers 6:3] states: "He shall not drink any grape beverage." [This prohibition applies] even if the wine or other beverage with which the wine was mixed has become sour, as the above verse states: "He may not drink vinegar from wine or wine-brandy."

203. [For a Nazarite] not to eat fresh grapes, as [Numbers, ibid.] states: "[He shall not eat] fresh... grapes."

204. [For a Nazarite] not to eat raisins, as [Num­bers, ibid.] states: "[He shall not eat]... dried grapes."

205. [For a Nazarite] not to eat grape seeds, as [Numbers 6:4] states: "He shall not eat [anything from wine grapes] from its seeds...."

206. [For a Nazarite] not to eat grape peels, as [Numbers, ibid.] continues: "He shall not eat [anything from wine grapes,...] to its peels."

207. For a Nazarite not to become impure through contact with a dead body, as [Numbers 6:7] states: "He may not become impure even for his father, his mother,...."

208. [For a Nazarite] not to enter below any roof beneath which a corpse is found, as [Leviticus 21:11] states: "He shall not come into contact with any dead body."10

209. [For a Nazarite] not to shave, as [Numbers 6:5] states: "A razor shall not pass upon his head."

210. Not to harvest one's entire field, as [Leviticus 23:22] states: "Do not completely harvest the ends of your fields."

211. Not to gather the [individual] stalks that fall in the harvest, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "Do not gather the leket of your harvest."

212. Not to harvest underdeveloped grape clusters, as [Leviticus 19:10] states: "Do not pick the incompletely formed grape clusters in your vine-yard."

213. Not to gather individual [fallen grapes], as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "Do not gather the in­dividual [fallen grapes] in your vineyard."

214. Not to take a sheaf which has been forgotten, as [Deuteronomy 24:19] states: "Do not go back to take it." [This prohibition also applies to] all trees, as [ibid. 24:20] states: "Do not carefully re-harvest it."

215. Not to sow mixed species of seeds together, as [Leviticus 19:19] states: "Do not sow different species of seed in your field."

216. Not to sow grain or vegetables in a vineyard, as [Deuteronomy 22:9] states: "Do not plant different species in your vineyard."

217. Not to crossbreed different species of animals, as [Leviticus 19:19] states: "Do not crossbreed your livestock with other species."

218. Not to work with two different species of animals together, as [Deuteronomy 22:10] states: "Do not plow with an ox and a donkey together."

219. Not to muzzle an ox while it is working with produce from which it would eat and derive benefit, as [Deuteronomy 25:4] states: "Do not muzzle an ox while it is treading grain."

220. Not to cultivate the land in the seventh year, as [Leviticus 25:4] states: "Do not sow your field."

221. Not to cultivate trees in the seventh year, as [Leviticus, ibid.] continues: "Do not prune your vineyard."

222. Not to reap crops that grow on their own in the seventh year in the same manner as in an ordinary year, as [Leviticus 25:5] states: "Do not reap the crops of your harvest that grow on their own."

223. Not to reap fruit that grows on trees in the seventh year in the same manner as in an ordinary year, as [Leviticus, ibid.] continues: "...and do not gather the grapes of your vines from which you must abstain."

224. Not to do [agricultural] work - whether with land or trees - in the Jubilee year, as [Leviticus 25:11] states: "Do not sow...."

225. Not to reap crops that grow on their own in the Jubilee year in the same manner as in an ordinary year, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "Do not harvest the crops which grow on their own."

226. Not to reap the fruit of the Jubilee year in the same manner as in an ordinary year, as [Leviticus, ibid.] continues: "...and do not gather the grapes of your vines from which you must abstain."

227. Not to sell a field in Eretz Yisrael in perpetuity, as [Leviticus 25:23] states: "Do not make a per­manent sale of the land."a

228. Not to change [the purpose of] the open areas and fields [granted to] the Levites, as [Leviticus 25:34] states: "The fields of the open areas [sur­rounding] their cities shall not be sold." According to the oral tradition, we have learned that this verse is a prohibition against changing [the pur­pose for which these lands are used].

229. Not to forsake the Levites, as [Deuteronomy 12:191 states: "Be very careful not to abandon the Levite." Rather, we must give them the portions they are due and rejoice with them on each of the festivals.

230. Not to demand the repayment of a loan after the seventh year has passed, as [Deuteronomy 15:2] states: "Do not demand payment from your fellow man."

231. Not to withhold lending money to a poor person because of the advent of the shemitah year, as [Deuteronomy 15:9] states "Be careful, lest an idea...[occur to you....]" This is an accepted general principle: Whenever [the Torah] uses the expressions "Be careful," "Lest," or "Do not," a negative commandment is involved.

232. Not to withhold lending money to a poor person or providing him with his needs, as [Deuteron­omy 15:7] states: "Do not harden your heart." Thus, a person who gives charity fulfills a positive commandment, while one who spurns the oppor­tunity to give not only fails to perform a positive commandment, but also transgresses a negative commandment.

233. Not to send away a Hebrew servant empty-handed when he goes free, as [Deuteronomy 15:13] states: "Do not send him away empty-handed."

234. Not to demand payment of a debt from a poor person when one knows that he is impov­erished, nor to cause him grief, as [Exodus 22:24] states: "Do not behave like a creditor towards him."

235. Not to lend at interest to a Jew, as [Leviticus 25:37] states: "Do not lend him your money at interest."

236. Not to borrow with interest, as [inferred from Deuteronomy 23:20, which] states: "Do not take interest from your brother." According to the oral tradition, this verse is interpreted as a prohibition, forbidding a borrower from paying interest to a lender.

237. Not to intermediate between the borrower and lender when interest is involved, not to act as a guarantor or a witness [to such a loan], nor to draw up a contract for it, as [Exodus 22:24] states: "Do not charge him interest."

238. Not to delay payment of a worker, as [Leviti­cus 19:13] states: "Do not hold back a worker's wages overnight."

239. Not to take security from a debtor by force, as [Deuteronomy 24:10] states: "Do not enter his home to take security."

240. Not to withhold the return of security to its owner when he needs it, as [Deuteronomy 24:12] states: "Do not lie down [to sleep] with his security" - i.e., do not lie down while holding his security. Instead, return it to him at night when he needs it at night.

241. Not to take security from a widow, as [Deuteronomy 24:17] states: "Do not take a wid­ow's garment as security."

242. Not to take utensils used in the preparation of food, as [Deuteronomy 24:6] states: "Do not take either the upper or lower millstone as a pledge."

243. Not to kidnap a Jewish person, as [Exodus 20:15] states: "Do not steal." This refers to kidnapping.

244. Not to steal, as [Leviticus 19:11] states: "Do not steal." This refers to stealing money.





245. Not to rob, as [Leviticus 19:13] states: "Do not rob."

246. Not to alter land boundaries, as [Deuteronomy­ 19:14] states: "Do not remove your neighbor's landmark."

247. Not to wrong [a colleague by withholding his due], as [Leviticus 19:13] states: "Do not wrong your neighbor."

248. Not to deny [a just claim], as [Leviticus 19:11] states: "Do not deny your neighbor's [claim]."

249. Not to swear falsely in denying a monetary [obligation to] a colleague, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "Do not swear [falsely]" - i.e., do not swear falsely about money owed to a colleague.

250. Not to cheat in business, as [Leviticus 25:14] states: "One man should not cheat his brother."

251. Not to hurt someone with words, as [Leviticus 25:17] states: "And one man shall not wrong another." This [prohibition refers to] hurting someone with words.

252. Not to hurt a convert with words, as [Exodus 22:20] states: "And do not wrong a convert...."

253. Not to cheat a convert in business, as [Exodus, ibid.] continues: "...nor oppress him."

254. Not to return a slave who fled to Eretz Yisrael to his master [who lives] in the Diaspora, as [Deuteronomy 23:16] states: "Do not deliver a servant to his master."

255. Not to wrong such a servant, as [Deuteron­omy 23:17] states: "He shall dwell in your midst, in the place which he selects... as he sees fit. Do not wrong him."

256. Not to oppress any widow or orphan, as [Exodus 22:21] states: "Do not oppress any widow or orphan."a

257. Not to have a Hebrew servant perform servile tasks, as [Leviticus 25:39] states: "Do not work him like a slave."

258. Not to sell [a Hebrew servant] as slaves are sold, as [Leviticus 25:42] states: "Do not sell him as slaves are sold."

259. Not to make a Hebrew servant perform rig­orous work, as [Leviticus 25:43] states: "Do not rule over him with rigor."

260. Not to allow a gentile [who purchased a Hebrew servant] to make him work rigorously, as [Leviticus 25:53] states: "He shall not rule over him with rigor."

261. Not to sell a Hebrew maidservant to another person, as [Exodus 21:8] states: "He shall have no power to sell her."

262. Not to withhold from a Hebrew maidservant who has been designated as a bride living expenses, clothing, or conjugal rights, as [Exodus 21:10] states: "He may not diminish her living expenses, clothing, or conjugal rights." The above applies also to other wives.

263. Not to sell a yefat to'ar, as a maidservant as [Deuteronomy 21:14] states: "Do not sell her."

264. Not to force a yefat to'ar to serve as a maidservant, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] continues: "Do not rule over her."

265. Not to covet, as [Exodus 20:14] states: "Do not be envious of your neighbor's wife."

266. Not to desire, as [Deuteronomy 5:18] states: "Do not desire your neighbor's house."

267. For a worker who is harvesting crops not to eat from the unpicked produce before he has finished work, as [Deuteronomy 23:26] states: "Do not lift a sickle...."

268. For a worker not to take more than what he eats [from the produce he harvests], as [Deuteron­omy 23:25] states: "Do not put any into your receptacles."

269. Not to ignore a lost object, as [Deuteronomy 22:3] states: "You may not ignore it."

270. Not to leave an animal fallen under its load on the road, as [Deuteronomy 22:4] states: "You may not watch your neighbor's donkey...."

271. Not to falsify measurements, as [Leviticus 19:35] states: "Do not act deceitfully in judg­ment...." According to the oral tradition, we have learned that this verse prohibits acting deceitfully regarding measurements.

272. Not to possess two sets of weights and mea­sures, as [Deuteronomy 25:13] states: "You may not have in your home...."

273. Not to act deceitfully in judgment, as [Leviti­cus 19:15] states: "Do not pervert justice."

274. Not to accept bribes, as [Exodus 23:8] states: "Do not take a bribe."

275. Not to honor a man of stature in judgment, as [Leviticus 19:15] states: "Do not show respect to a great man."

276. For a judge not to fear rendering [a just] judgment because of a wicked man, as [Deuteron­omy 1:17] states: "Do not fear anyone."

277. Not to have mercy on a poor person in judgment, as [Exodus 23:3] states: "And do not favor a poor man in his cause."

278. Not to pervert judgment against a sinner, as [implied by Exodus 23:6, which] states: "Do not pervert the judgment of a poor person." This refers to someone who is poor with regard to [the observance of] the mitzvot.

279. Not to have pity on a person who has caused damages in judgments concerning fines, as [Deuteronomy 25:12] states: "Let your eye not pity."

280. Not to pervert the justice due converts or orphans, as [Deuteronomy 24:17] states: "Do not pervert the judgment of a convert or an orphan."

281. Not to listen to one litigant in the absence of the other, as [Exodus 23:1] states: "Do not hear a false report."

282. Not to render a conviction in a capital case when there is only a majority of one, as [Exodus 23:2] states: "Do not follow the majority to do evil."

283. For a person who argued in favor of acquittal in a capital case not to argue for a conviction, as [Exodus, ibid.] states: "Do not speak up in a trial to influence...."b

284. Not to appoint as a judge a man who is unlearned in the Torah, even if he is learned in other disciplines, as [Deuteronomy 1:17] states: "Do not show favoritism regarding judgment."

285. Not to give false testimony, as [Exodus 20:13] states: "Do not give false testimony against your neighbor."

286. For a sinner not to act as a witness, as [Exodus 23:1] states: "Do not conspire with a wicked person to be a corrupt witness."

287. For a relative not to act as a witness, as [Deuteronomy 24:16] states: "Fathers shall not die because of children." According to the oral tradition, we have learned [that the verse teaches that] fathers should not die through the testimony of [their] sons. The same law applies regarding other relatives.

288. Not to render a decision based on the testi­mony of a single witness, as [Deuteronomy 19:15] states: "A single witness shall not rise up against a person."

289. Not to kill an innocent person, as [Exodus 20:13] states: "Do not murder."

290. Not to render a decision on the basis of a presumption, unless two witnesses observe the actual matter, as [Exodus 23:7] states: "Do not slay the innocent and the righteous."a

291. For a witness not to render a decision in a capital case in which he testified, as [Numbers 35:30] states: "One witness shall not testify in a capital case..."

292. Not to execute a person liable for execution before he stands trial, as [Numbers 35:12] states: "The murderer shall not die [until he stands before the congregation]."

293. Not to have pity on a pursuer. Rather, he should be killed before he kills or rapes the person he is pursuing, as [Deuteronomy 25:12] states: "And you shall cut off her hand. Show no pity."

294. Not to punish a person forced [to commit a sin], as [Deuteronomy 22:26] states: "Do not do anything to the maiden."a

295. Not to take a ransom from a murderer, as [Numbers 35:31] states: "Do not take a ransom for the life of a murderer."

296. Not to take a ransom in return for exile for a person who kills accidentally, as [Numbers 35:32] states: "And do not take a ransom [for having] to flee to his refuge city."

297. Not to neglect [a person] in mortal danger, as [Leviticus 19:16] states: "Do not stand still in the face of mortal danger."

298. Not to leave obstacles, as [Deuteronomy 22:8] states: "...lest you bring blood upon your house."

299. Not to mislead an unsuspecting person, as [Leviticus 19:14] states: "Do not place a stumbling block before the blind."

300. Not to add lashes when whipping a person li­able for such punishment, as [Deuteronomy 25:3] states: "Do not add [lashes], lest by [giving him] this additional [punishment]...."

301. Not to gossip, as [Leviticus 19:16] states: "Do not go around as a gossiper among your people."

302. Not to bear hatred in one's heart, as [Leviticus 19:17] states: "Do not hate your brother in your heart."

303. Not to embarrass any Jewish person, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "You shall surely rebuke your neighbor and not bear a sin because of him."

304. Not to take revenge, as [Leviticus 19:18] states: "Do not take revenge."

305. Not to bear a grudge, as [Leviticus, ibid.] states: "Do not bear a grudge."

306. Not to take a mother bird together with the young, as [Deuteronomy 22:6] states: "Do not take the mother bird together with the young."

307. Not to shave the hair around a bald spot brought about by tzara’at], as [Leviticus 13:33] states: "And he shall not shave the bald spot."a

308. Not to remove the signs of tzara’at, as [Deuteronomy 24:8] states: "Be very careful concerning signs of tzara’at."

309. Not to till or sow the land [around] a powerful river [at which atonement was made for an unsolved murder], as [Deuteronomy 21:4] states: "...which must never be tilled and never be sown."

310. Not to allow a sorcerer to live, as [Exodus 22:17] states: "Do not allow a witch to live."

311. For a groom not to be held liable for any type of public service - e.g., army, guarding the walls [of a city], and the like - as [Deuteronomy 24:5] states: "He shall not go out to the army, nor be charged with any duties."a

312. Not to reject the authority of the court, as [Deuteronomy 17:11] states: "Do not swerve from the word which they tell you."

313. Not to add to the mitzvot of the Torah. [This applies] both to the Written Law and to its explanation conveyed by the oral tradition, as [Deuteronomy 13:1] states: "Carefully observe everything which I command you to do. Do not add to it."

314. Not to diminish from any of the mitzvot of the Torah, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] continues: "...and do not diminish from it."

315. Not to curse a judge, as [Exodus 22:27] states: "Do not curse judges."

316. Not to curse a nasi - i.e., the king or the head of the academy in Eretz Yisrael - as [Exodus, ibid.] continues: "...and do not curse the nasi of your people."

317. Not to curse any other Jew, as [Leviticus 19:14] states: "Do not curse [even] a deaf-mute."

318. Not to curse one's father or mother, as [Ex­odus 21:17] states: "One who curses his father or mother shall surely die."a

319. Not to strike one's father or mother, as [Exodus 21:15] states: "One who strikes his father or mother shall surely die."

320. Not to work on the Sabbath, as [Exodus 20:10] states: "Do not do any work."

321. Not to travel beyond the boundaries of a city on the Sabbath as travelers do, as [Exodus 16:29] states: "A person should not leave his place [on the Sabbath day]."a

322. [For a court] not to inflict punishment on the Sabbath, as [Exodus 35:3] states: "Do not kindle a fire on the Sabbath day."

323. Not to work on the first day of Pesach, as [Leviticus 23:7] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile11 work on these [days]."

324. Not to work on the seventh day of Pesach, as [Leviticus 23:8] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile work on these [days]."

325. Not to work on the holiday of Shavuot, as [Leviticus 23:21] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile work."

326. Not to work on the first day of the seventh month [the day of Rosh HaShanah], as [Leviticus 23:25] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile work."

327. Not to work on Yom Kippur, as [Leviticus 23:28] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile12 work."

328. Not to work on the first day of the festival [of Sukkot], as [Leviticus 23:35] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile work."

329. Not to work on the eighth day of the festival [of Sukkot], as [Leviticus 23:36] states concerning it: "Do not do any servile work."

330. Not to have intimate relations with one's moth­er, as [Leviticus 18:7] states: "She is your mother, do not commit incest with her."

331. Not to have intimate relations with one's sister, as [Leviticus 18:9] states: "Do not commit incest with your sister, your father's daughter."

332. Not to have intimate relations with one's fa­ther's wife, as [Leviticus 18:8] states: "Do not commit incest with your father's wife."

333. Not to have intimate relations with a sister,13 [the daughter of] either your father or your mother, as [Leviticus 18:11] states: "She is the daughter of your father, your father's progeny, do not commit incest with her."

334. Not to have intimate relations with one's son's daughter, as [Leviticus 18:10] states: "[Do not commit] incest with your son's daughter."

335. Not to have intimate relations with one's daughter's daughter, as [Leviticus, ibid.] continues: "...and do not commit incest with your daughter's daughter."

336. Not to have intimate relations with one's daughter. Why was this prohibition not explicitly stated in the Torah? Since the Torah forbade [relations with] one's daughter's daughter, it did not mention [the prohibition against relations with] one's daughter. [Nevertheless, according to the oral tradition, the prohibition against [rela­tions with] one's daughter has the status of a Torah law like the other sexual offences [and is not considered as Rabbinic in origin].14

337. Not to have intimate relations with a woman and her daughter, as [Leviticus 18:17] states: "Do not commit incest [by marrying] a woman and her daughter."

338. Not to have intimate relations with a woman and her son's daughter, as [Leviticus, ibid.] con­tinues: "...her son's daughter...."

339. Not to have intimate relations with a woman and her daughter's daughter, as [Leviticus, ibid.] continues: "...her daughter's daughter,... you shall not take."

340. Not to have intimate relations with one's moth­er's sister, as [Leviticus 18:13] states: "Do not commit incest with your mother's sister."

341. Not to have intimate relations with one's father's sister, as [Leviticus 18:12] states: "Do not commit incest with your father's sister."

342. Not to have intimate relations with the wife of one's father's brother, as [Leviticus 18:14] states: "Do not commit incest with his wife. [She is your aunt.]"

343. Not to have intimate relations with one's son's wife, as [Leviticus 18:15] states: "Do not commit incest with your daughter-in-law."

344. Not to have intimate relations with one's brother's wife, as [Leviticus 18:16] states: "Do not commit incest with your brother's wife."

345. Not to have intimate relations with one's wife's sister, as [Leviticus 18:18] states: "Do not take a woman as a wife together with her sister."

346. Not to have intimate relations with a woman in the niddah state, as [Leviticus 18:19] states: "Do not come close to a woman in the niddah state of impurity."

347. Not to have intimate relations with a married woman, as [Leviticus 18:20] states: "Do not lie carnally with your neighbor's wife."

348. Not to perform a sexual act with an animal, as [Leviticus 18:23] states: "And do not lie carnally with any animal."

349. For a woman not to perform a sexual act with an animal, as [Leviticus 18:23] continues: "...and a woman should not present herself to an animal for sexual purposes."

350. Not to commit sodomy, as [Leviticus 18:22] states: "And do not lie with a male...."

351. Not to commit sodomy with one's father, as [Leviticus 18:7] states: "Do not commit a sexual offense with your father."

352. Not to commit sodomy with one's father's brother, as [Leviticus 18:14] states: "Do not commit a sexual offense with your father's brother."

353. Not to be intimate with a woman with whom sexual relations are forbidden in matters that might lead to intercourse - e.g., embracing, kissing, winks, or signs - as [Leviticus 18:6] states: "No person shall approach a close relative to commit a sexual offense.” Based on the oral tradi­tion, we have learned that this prohibits intimacy that might lead to sexual relations .a

354. For a mamzer not to marry a natural born Jewess, as [Deuteronomy 23:31 states: "A mamzer may not enter God's congregation."

355. For there not to be a kedeishah - i.e., a woman who engages in intimate relations without a marriage contract and a marriage ceremony - [among the Jewish people], as [Deuteronomy 23:18] states: "There shall not be akedeishah...."a

356. For a man who is divorced not to remarry his divorcee after she marries anyone else, as [Deuteronomy 24:4] states: "Her first husband who divorced her may not take her as a wife again."

357. For a yevamah not to marry anyone other than her yavam, as [Deuteronomy 25:5] states: "The wife of the deceased shall not...."

358. For a rapist not to divorce the woman he raped, as [Deuteronomy 22:29] states: "He may not send her away for his entire life."

359. For a person who defamed his wife's character not to divorce her, as [Deuteronomy 22:19] states: "He may not send her away for his entire life."

360. For a man incapable of procreation not to marry a natural born Jewess, as [Deuteronomy 23:2] states: "A man with crushed testicles... may not enter [God's congregation]."

361. Not to castrate a male from any species - neither a human, a domestic animal, a wild beast, nor a bird, as [Leviticus 22:24] states: "You shall not do this in your land."

362. Not to appoint a convert [to a position of au­thority] over the Jewish people, as [Deuteronomy 17:15] states: "You may not appoint a foreigner over you."

363. For a king not to accumulate many horses, as [Deuteronomy 17:16] states: "And he may not accumulate many horses."

364. For a king not to accumulate many wives, as [Deuteronomy 17:17] states: "And he may not accumulate many wives."

365. For a king not to accumulate much silver and gold, as [Deuteronomy, ibid.] continues: "And he may not accumulate very much silver and gold."

The Rabbinic Commandments

These 613 mitzvot were given to Moses on Mount Sinai together with their general principles, particular points, and details. These general principles, particular points, and details represent the Oral Law, which each court received from the previous court.

There are [also] other commandments that were instituted after the giving of the Torah. They were established by the Prophets and Sages and spread throughout Israel, for example, the reading of the Megillah, [lighting] a Chanukah candle, fasting on Tish'ah b'Av, [setting up] eruvim, and [washing one's] hands [in preparation for prayer and eating]. Each of these commandments also possesses explanatory aspects and details. All of this will be explained in this text.

We are obligated to accept and observe all these commandments which [the Rabbis] instituted, as [implied by Deuteronomy 17:11]: "Do not deviate from the instructions that they will give you, left or right."

They are not considered to be additions to the commandments of the Torah. [If so,] what was the intention of the Torah's warning (Deuteronomy 13:11): "Do not add to it and do not detract from it"? That a prophet is not permitted to introduce a new measure and say that the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded this mitzvah to us and that it should be added to the Torah's mitzvot, or [say that He commanded that we] eliminate one of the 613 mitzvot mentioned above.

However, if a court, together with the prophet of that age, adds a commandment as an ordinance, a lesson, or as a decree, this is not considered as an addition. He is not saying that the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded us to make an eruv or read the Megillah at its [appointed] time. Were he to say so, he would be adding to the Torah.

Instead, we are saying that the prophets and the courts ordained and commanded that the Megillah be read at its [appointed] time in order to recall the praise of the Holy One, blessed be He, the salvation He wrought for us, and His response to our cries, so that we will bless Him, extol Him, and inform the future generations of the truth of the Torah's promise (Deuteronomy 4:7): "What nation is so great that it has God [close to it....]"

Similar principles apply with regard to all the other Rabbinic commandments, be they positive commandments or negative commandments.

FOOTNOTES
1.

. Note the comments of the Kessef Mishneh, who differentiates between sacred texts whose destruction Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah 6:8 considers a rabbinic offense, and the destruction of the other objects which are forbidden by the Torah itself.

2.

. Though this prooftext is quoted in the printed editions of the Mishneh Torah, it appears to be an error, because the passage it introduces deals with sexual offenses. In Sefer HaMitzvot, the Rambam quotes as a prooftext Numbers 18:5, "And you shall keep the watch over the holy articles."

3.

The parochet was the curtain separating the Temple sanctuary from the Holy of Holies.

4.

The plural terumot includes bikkurim (the first fruits), challah (the dough offering), and terumat ma'aser (the tenth of the tithe separated by the Levites), as well as the terumah gedolah.

5.

. A gezerah shavah is one of the thirteen principles of Biblical exegesis in which an association is drawn between two verses based on a common word.

In Sefer HaMitzvot (General Principle 2), the Rambam states that all of the 613 mitzvot are explicitly mentioned in the Torah and are not dependent on the exegesis of a verse according to the oral tradition. Therefore, he finds it necessary to explain that there is a specific oral tradition that this mitzvah is an exception to that rule.

6.

. Though this prooftext is quoted in the printed editions of the Mishneh Torah, it represents a misquotation of the verse, borrowing a phrase from Leviticus 21:17 and inserting it into Leviticus 22:4.

7.

. Though the Rambam's statements are based on the Sifre, his interpretation of the verse appears to be original and not quoted from other sources.

8.

A chalalah is a woman who engaged in sexual relations with a priest when she was forbidden to do so, or a woman who was conceived from such relations (Hilchot Issurei Bi'ah 19:1).

9.

Note that in Hilchot Mamrim 7:1, where the Rambam discusses this prohibition, he quotes a different prooftext.

10.

Though this prooftext is quoted in the printed editions of the Mishneh Torah, it appears to be an error, because the passage it introduces deals with the prohibition against a High Priest's coming into contact with a corpse. Perhaps the intended prooftext is Numbers 6:6, "he may not have contact with the dead."

11.

. The term "servile work" refers to any of the labors forbidden on the Sabbath which are not associated with the preparation of food.

12.

. The verse is quoted in the above manner in the published texts of the Mishneh Torah. There is, however, a printing error, for on Yom Kippur the Torah forbids all work, even those labors involved in the preparation of food.

13.

. Sefer HaMitzvot notes that this prohibition is almost identical with Negative Mitzvah 331, and explains that the Torah forbids such relations with two separate commands so that a person who commits such a sin will be held liable on two counts.

14.

. As mentioned in note 15, in Sefer HaMitzvot (General Principle 2), the Rambam states that all of the 613 mitzvot are explicitly mentioned in the Torah and are not dependent on the exegesis of a verse according to the oral tradition. Therefore, in Sefer HaMitzvot, he elaborates in the explanation why this prohibition can be considered a negative commandment of the Torah even though the Torah does not explicitly mention it.

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