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What's up with the dots in Hebrew letters?

What's up with the dots in Hebrew letters?



Why do some of the Hebrew letters have dots in them, and why do the same letters, in the same words, sometimes appear with dots and sometimes without?


A prime example of this phenomenon is the name of the Egyptian king, Pharaoh, פרעה. In Hebrew, his name is usually pronounced as "Par-oh," but sometimes it's read as "Far-oh."

To explain this, allow me to share with you some background information about Hebrew pronunciation:

There are six Hebrew letters that have both "hard" and "soft" sounds (or, to use the technical terms, they are both plosive and fricative consonants). We put a dot, called a dagesh, in middle of these letters to let the reader know that in this instance the letter is "hard" (or plosive).1

The hard בּ is pronounced "b". The soft ב is pronounced "v".

The hard כּ is pronounced "k". The soft כ is pronounced "ch" (as in challah).

The hard פּ is pronounced "p". The soft פ is pronounced "f".

The other three letters are more confusing. Among some groups, the distinction between the hard and soft form has gotten lost. Other groups have preserved the distinction.

Jews from Ashkenazic lands traditionally pronounce תּ as "t" and ת as "s". In Sephardic communities the difference in pronunciation is more subtle.2 In modern Hebrew they are both pronounced as "t".

Most Jews pronounce both גּ and ג as a hard "g". Some Yemenite Jews pronounce גּ as "j" and ג as a hard "g".

Most Jews pronounce both דּ and ד as "d". Some groups pronounce דּ as "d" and ד as "th," as in the word "then."

So by now you know that the Hebrew word "פרעה" can be pronounced either "Far-oh" or "Par-oh," depending on whether the פ has a dot.

If you just want to know how to read Hebrew, you can stop reading now. If you are a grammar geek and like knowing the principles behind the pronunciation, read on.

The doubly endowed letters ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, ת get dotted when they start a word. However, when a word beginning with ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, ת is preceded by a word ending with a vowel sound, these letters may not get a dot. This rule is subject to change, based on the cantillation of the verse.

Here are some examples:

Exodus 1:19: "וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הַמְיַלְּדֹת אֶל פַּרְעֹה" ("And the midwives said to Pharaoh"). Notice the dot in the פ, because the word follows a ל, a consonant. In this verse, the Egyptian king is called "Paroh."

Exodus 2:15: "וַיִּבְרַח מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי פַרְעֹה" ("And Moses ran from before Pharaoh"). The word מִפְּנֵי, "from before," ends with a vowel sound, thus the פ following is not dotted, and Moses' nemesis is called "Faroh."

Exodus 1:11 shows us an instance in which the first letter of Pharaoh's name is not the first letter of the word: "וַיִּבֶן עָרֵי מִסְכְּנוֹת לְפַרְעֹה" ("And [the Israelites] built store cities for Pharaoh"). That ל before פַרְעֹה means "for." Because the פ is not the first letter in the word, it is not dotted and the slave-driving monarch is called "Faroh."

However, ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, ת are dotted in the middle of a word if they are preceded by a consonant sound.

There are more rules governing the pronunciation of ב, ג, ד, כ, פ, ת, but the ones stated above are the most basic.

Hebrew grammar can be quite confusing. If there's anything you don't understand feel free to write back.

Rabbi Eliezer Posner


There are other instances where dots are placed inside Hebrew letters:
When the letter ו has a dot, it is pronounced "oo" as in "boot." Without a dot, it is pronounced "v", or among Yemenites as "w".
A dot, called a dagesh chazak, can be put in any letter to indicate a slight change in pronunciation. This change is rarely pronounced today.


Some groups pronounce "ת" as "th," as in the word "thoughtful."

Eliezer Posner is a former member of the Ask the Rabbi team.
All names of persons and locations or other identifying features referenced in these questions have been omitted or changed to preserve the anonymity of the questioners.
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Anonymous brazil September 14, 2017

Why does the name גָּלְיָת sounds "Goliath", if the niqqud symbol below the Gimel is meant to make the "a" sound instead of the "o" sound? Reply

Baruch New York August 7, 2017

What does it mean when there is a straight line above a hebrew letter? For example, the - above the tes in לטלה in the morning bracha for Hashem returning our souls. Reply

Mendel Adelman August 14, 2017
in response to Baruch:

Not all Siddurim have straight above certain letters. My Siddur (The Tehillas Hashem Siddur) has an asterisk above the tes instead.

What it signifies is that the vowel that is under the tes (which is a sheva) is pronounced slightly, not just ignored.

Normally, a sheva under a letter like that would mean that the letter sound is made and that is it. So, if there would be no line or asterisk, you would say "litlah mimeni".

Now that there is an asterisk or a line, it makes it in to a sheva na, and it is pronounced "lit'lah mimeni". It is a very subtle difference, and one that not many people stress. Reply

Anonymous May 8, 2017

hebrew what does two dots : and a D mean? Reply

Dave Denver February 17, 2017

Why, in some Haftorot, is the word yerushalayim (ending in yud-final mem) spelled yerushslami (final mem dot underneath?) Reply

Anonymous malaysia August 31, 2015

what about the double dots and triple dots? Reply

Anonymous August 25, 2015

I was just wondering what the dots and lines under the letters mean? Are they necessary to the pronunciation of the words? Reply

Anonymous April 2, 2017
in response to Anonymous:

Lines and dots under Hebrew characters indicate the vowel sounds. They do dictate pronunciation, though the Torah and colloquial Hebrew are written vowel-free. To read and pronounce Hebrew correctly in these cases, one must already be familiar with the word before reading it. Reply

Ariel Weber Hackensack August 31, 2014

A reply to Sheldon The dot in the he' is called a mappiq. The mappiq indicates that the he' is to be pronounced as a normal he', and not to be disregarded, as it normally is at the end of a word.
The dot in the nun is called a daghesh ḥazaq. This diacritic symbol indicates that the nun is to be geminated, or, in other words, the articulation of the letter is to be lengthened. Reply

Sheldon San Francisco, CA August 29, 2014

A dot in other letters. I've just come across a dot in a הּ in the words עֲלֹתָה and רַחְמָהּ in 1 Samuel Chapter 1 שְׁמוּאֵל א. Also in נָּ in the words וּלְחַנָּה and פְּנִנָּה in the same chapter.

What's going on? Reply

EP October 30, 2009

Mixing up the alphabets My eighth-grade English teacher, Mrs. Weiner, told us that your name is your own personal property and you can spell it or pronounce it anyway you want. Reply

Anonymous Kanwal, Australia October 30, 2009

Can these be put in English words? Hey.
I was contemplating using one of these dots in a future child's name. I'm wondering if it would change the pronunciation of his name? His name would be Kishon, but I'd put the dot between the 'i' and the 's', kind of like this ' Ki'shon 'to emphasis the two syllables. Would this change how you'd say his name?
Thanks. Reply

Ariel Weber Jerusalem September 12, 2009

a few more updates I have also been made aware that the pronunciation of Hebrew in general of the Talmudic community of the Andalusian Diaspora was essentially the same as Yemen and Iraq, even though their native language of Spanish lacked the phonomes of ghimel rafa, dhalet rafa, waw, hhet, `tet, `ayin, `sadi, and qof.

The statement of Rav Sa`adi'a Ga'on I referred to earlier is that Hebrew and Arabic are the same, except Arabic doesn't have vet rafa, gimel degusha, pe degusha, and resh degusha, while Arabic has 3 letters Hebrew doesn't...
...The only one relevant for our purposes is the Arabic letter jim. This statement, along with other linguistic/logical proofs, refutes the mesoret of `San`a Yemen who turned gimel degusha into jimel.
In `San`a Yemen, qof was pronounced as gof, which is the only other difference between `Aden/Iraq/Andalusia with `San`a.

Ibn Ezra statement was that resh is a trill. Reply

Ariel Weber Jerusalem September 12, 2009

a few updates With regards to resh degusha, I have just learned an ancient masoret, from the Aluf Abir, that was preserved in Habban, `Aden Yemen, that this letter makes the same sound as the 'r' that we generally use in English, the approximant. This is as apposed to resh rafa, which is a trill, as is supported by most ancient masorets and statements by Rav Sa`adi'a Ga'on and Ibn Ezra.

I have also learned that the masoret of Andalusia, or more specifically, the Talmudic community of the Andalusian diaspora (and possibly the masoret of Yemen) was that vet and fe are not the same sound as the English letters v and f, which are the voiced and unvoiced labiodental fricatives, but the voiced and unvoiced bilabial fricatives. An example of the this vet is in the Spanish pronunciation of the word Havana.
This pronunciation seems to be more accurate to me, as apposed to the standard v and f pronunciation, as it is more consistent with the rest of Beged Kefet. Reply

Schmuelie April 23, 2009

Dots Really fascinating, and really confusing.
It's a lot to remember especially if like me you are endeavoring to study at a later age in life. I tend to remember pronounciation of any given word as I learned it. When I was a boy, it was all "old shul" Ashkenazi. By the time I was a teenager, this was dropped in favor of modern Hebrew, or Sephardi pronounciation. To this day I go back and forth depending on when I learned the word or phrase in question, making a concious effort depending on the venue. Some people get very particular about pronounciation. I'd like to believe that G-d hears us all in whatever is the correct pronounciation, and it's the intent that counts. Reply

Eliezer Posner, September 19, 2008

Thanks, Ariel Your comments provide the readers with a more complete and accurate understanding of this matter! Reply

Ariel Weber September 19, 2008

I was looking through the posts I had posted, and I noticed the IPA symbols were all change to a question mark.

That was not my intent. That symbol for the IPA represents the sound of the letter 'alef,' and the Ashkenazi and modern israeli pronunciation of the letter 'ayin.'

The 'gimel rafa' sound is transcribed by the IPA as the lowercase Greek letter 'gamma.' This looks like the letter 'v,' but with a small loop attached to it, below the letter. This is the 'voiced velar fricative.'

By the way, the 'chaf' sound is the IPA 'x,' or the unvoiced velar fricative. Reply

ariel Weber September 19, 2008

Also, any letter except 'alef,' 'hei,' 'het,' 'ayin,' and 'resh' (each with possible rare exceptions) can get a dot. This geminates the sound of the letter.

Lastly, at the end of a word, the 'hei' can recieve a dot. This indicates that you must pronounce that 'hei.'
For example, the hebrew word for 'queen' and 'thier king' can be spelled the same way, 'mem' 'lamed' 'kaf' and 'hei.' The difference is the word 'queen' is pronounced 'malka' while the word 'their king' is pronounced 'malkaH.' The 'hie' in the word for 'thier king' has a dot in it. Another common example is the word 'HalleluqaH.' The last 'hei' in this word has a dot and should be pronounced as such. Reply

ariel Weber September 19, 2008

Most Mizrahi countries pronounced the letter 'taw' (commonly known as 'tav' or 'taf') like the letter 't' always. The only to exceptions I know of were Yemen and Iraq, where it was pronounced as 'th' as in the word 'thing,' or the IPA '?.'

Again, regarding the letter 'dalet,' only Yemen (always) and Iraq (only when pronouncing Hashem's name and the 'dalet' of the last word of the 1st line of the Shema) pronounced it like the 'th' sound of the word 'then,' or the IPA '?'. The people of these 2 countries, baruch Hashem, kept the messora alive of how to 'properly' make the 'dalet' of the word "Ehadh' (commonly written as 'echad') long, as Rabbi Aqiva did as he was dying, as is told about in the last chapter of Masechet Berachot. Reply

Ariel Weber September 19, 2008

I would like to note the word "challah" is not with a 'chaf' but with a 'het,' (not to be confused with the letter 'hei') English does not have an equivalent sound to the letter 'het', and even though I personally know how to say this letter, I don't know how to describe it like the way I described the 'gimel' without a dot. The IPA transcribes this sound as '?.' The letter 'chaf' appears in the Hebrew word for king, 'melech.'

I would also like to note that the 'bet' without a dot was pronounced like the 'bet' with a dot in all Arabic speaking countries except Yemen, where this sound was preserved. (Arabic, also, does not have a 'v' sound.) Reply

Ariel Weber September 19, 2008

With regards to the gimel rafa, i.e. the gimel without a dot, the general Mizrahi pronunciation, including Iraq, Yemen, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, and Iran, is usually transcribed in English as a 'gh.' The International Phonetic Alphabet, or the IPA, transcribes this sound as '?'. To make this sound, say the letter 'chaf,' (the Hebrew 'ch' sound), but vocalize it, just like the relationship between the letters 'f' and 'v.' This sound is also found in Arabic, Persian, Kurdish, and many other middle eastern languages.

The 'j' sound for the gimel degusha, i.e. the gimel with a dot, is olny done by Yemenite Jews who where not from Aden. The Yemenites from Aden made a 'g' sound, like everyone else. Reply

Anonymous NY , NY September 19, 2008

Fascinating info re the dots/vowels These dots are also a proof of the existence of an "oral tradition" at sinai which was transmitted alongside the "written law" of the Torah:

While The Torah scroll has no "dots," there has never been a dispute on which vowels / dots are used for each word, which would have significant implications on Jewish law and customs.

For example, the laws of separating milk and meat stem from the biblical command "do not cook a kid in its mother's milk." The Hebrew word for milk is Chalav (חָלָב), while the same letters with different vowels spells Chelev (חֵלֶב) which means "fat." Never in Jewish history has there been a suggestion that the commandment was "not to cook a kid in it's mother's fat" which not only would fit the context, but would do away with a large chunk of Jewish dietary laws kept for thousands of years.

Such consistency could only be possible with a tradition from Sinai dictating which vowels to use. Reply

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